List of Jewish ethnonyms

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An ethnonym is the name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (where the name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms or endonyms (self-designation; where the name is created and used by the ethnic group itself). This article does not cover ethnic slurs.

List[edit]

Albanian çifut (i/ja) (ethnic)
hebre (u/ja) (ethnic)
izraelit (i/ja)
Arabic يهودي Yahūdī (sl.); يهود Yahūd (pl.) بنو إسرائيل Banū Isra’il عبري ʕibrī
Armenian հրեա hrea (sing.); հրեաներ (pl.); ջհուդ jhud (sing., pejorative)
Basque Judu or judutar
Bengali Yeuhudi
Bulgarian Евреин, evrein (masc.); еврейка, evreika (fem.); евреи, evrei (pl.); юдеи, yudei (pl., archaic)
Bosnian Jevrej,Jevrejin, Židov, Ćifut, Ćifo/Ćifko (probably from Turkish (Çıfıt) or Kurdish (Cihû), derogatory)
Catalan Jueu (masc. sig.); jueus (masc. pl.), jueva (fem. sing.); jueves (fem. pl.)
Chinese 猶太人, Chinese, Traditional
犹太人, Chinese, Simplified, pinyin: Yóutài Rén
Cornish Yedhoweth
Croatian Židov
Czech Žid (as a member of nation) or žid (as a confessor of Judaism)
Danish Jøde (sing.); Jøder (pl.)
Dutch Jood
English Jews, see Jew (word)1, old formal term israélite (as in the Crémieux Decree)
Hebrews2
Israelites or Children of Israel3
Esperanto Judoj. L.L. Zamenhof described himself as hebreo.
Estonian Juut
Finnish Juutalainen
French Juif (masc.); Juive (fem.)
Galego Xudeu (masc. sing.); Xudía (fem. sing.); Xudeus (masc. pl.); Xudías (fem. pl.)
Georgian ებრაელი, Ebraeli
German Jude (masc.); Jüdin (fem.); Juden (pl.)
Greek Ἰουδαῖος, Ioudaios1
Ἑβραῖος, Hebraios (from Evrei)2
Ἰσραηλίτης, Israelites (from Israel)3
Hebrew יהודי, Yehudi (sl.m); יהודיה, Yehudia (sl.f);יהודים, Yehudim/Yehudioth (pl.) 1
עברי, Ivri (sl.m); עבריה, Ivria (sl.f); עברים, Ivrim/Ivrioth2
בני ישׂראל, Bnei Yisrael (pl.)3
Hindi Yahudi
Hungarian Zsidó
Icelandic gyðingur (sl.)
Indonesian/Malay Yahudi, Banī Israel
Irish Giúdach
Italian Giudeo (masc. sing.); giudei (masc. pl.); [1]
Ebreo (masc. sing.); ebrei (masc. pl.); ebrea (fem. sing.); ebree (fem. pl.)
Japanese ユダヤ人, Yudayajin
Korean 유태인, Yutae-in
Kurdish Cihû, Mûsayî/مووسایی, Cûleke/جوله که
Ladino djudio, Judio (singular)
los ebreos (the Jews)
Latin Iudaeus1
Latvian Ebrejs (sg.), Ebreji (pl.)
Lithuanian Žydas (sg.), Žydai (pl.)
Norwegian Jøde
Ojibwe Zhoodawi (from the French: judéité) or Joowiwi (from the English: Jew)
Persian جهود or يهود -- Johud (Persian) or Yahūdī (from Arabic); former sometimes considered pejorative.
کلیمی, Kalimi (religious) a follower of Kalim Allah, also a euphemism for Johud.
Polish Żyd (sg.), Żydzi (pl. neutral), , Żydowie (pl. respectful), Żydy (pl. contemptuous)[2]
Portuguese Judeu ; judeus (masc. pl.); judia ; judias (fem. pl.). Also hebreus and israelitas (both masc. pl.)
Romanian Evreu, israelit, jidov(archaic), ovrei (archaic and demeaning), jidan (highly pejorative)
Russian Еврей, Yevrey (sg.); Евреи, Yevrei2 (pl.): Typically denotes the ethnicity; жид, zhid (masc. sing, pejorative), жидовка, zhidovka (fem. sing., pejorative); Russian language being rich in inflection, there is a large number of pejorative forms derived from the two basic ones.
Иудей, Iudey (sg.); Иудеи, Iudei1 (pl.): Typically denotes the followers of Judaism.
Serbian Јевреј Jevrej
Slovak Žid
Spanish Judío (m. sing) Judía (f. sing) Judíos (plu) Judías (f. plu)
Hebreo (m. sing) Hebrea (f. sing) Hebreos (plu) Hebreas (f. plu)
Israelita (sing) Israelitas (plu) as in "Alianza Israelita Argentina".
Swahili Yahudi
Swedish Jude
Tagalog Hudyo, Israelita (both derived from Spanish)
Thai คนยิว, khon yiu (from the English: Jew)
Tibetan Yahutapa
Ukrainian Жид (sl.); Жиди (pl.)
Urdu Yahudi (sl.); Yahud (pl.)
Vietnamese người Do Thái
Turkish Yahudi, Çıfıt (religious) something related to, or a follower of Judaism, latter usually considered pejorative.
Musevi, (religious) a follower of Moses, also a euphemism for Yahudi.
İbrani, (ethnic) a Hebrew.
Welsh Iddewon
Yiddish איד,ייִד Yid1 (pronounced [ˈjɪd]) (sing.); ייִדן, Yidn (pronounced [ˈjɪdn̩]) (pl.)

Obsolete[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  • 1 Ioudaios, Yehudi, Jewish, a "Judaean", "from the land of Yehuda (Judah, Judea)".
  • 2 Ivri, Hebrew, "one who passes over", a reference to the Biblical patriarch Abraham (or possibly Eber).
  • 3 Israel, "one who has struggled with God", the name given to the Biblical patriarch Jacob.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.wordreference.com/iten/giudeo
  2. ^ Anna Wierzbicka, The Semantics of Grammar, ISBN 9027230196, 1988, p. 456