Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A child lies on the street in the Warsaw Ghetto, May 1941. Photo by Nazi officer P.K. Zermin, now in German Federal Archive

Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland were established during World War II in hundreds of locations across occupied Poland.[1][2][3] Most Jewish ghettos had been created by Nazi Germany between October 1939 and July 1942 in order to confine and segregate Poland's Jewish population of about 3.5 million for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation. In smaller towns, ghettos often served as staging points for Jewish slave-labor and mass deportation actions, while in the urban centers they resembled walled-off prison-islands described by some historians as little more than instruments of "slow, passive murder," with dead bodies littering the streets.[4]

In most cases, the larger ghettos did not correspond to traditional Jewish neighborhoods, and non-Jewish Poles and members of other ethnic groups were ordered to take up residence elsewhere. Smaller Jewish communities with populations under 500 were terminated through expulsion soon after the invasion.[5][6]

The Holocaust[edit]

The liquidation of the Jewish ghettos across occupied Poland was closely connected with the construction of highly secretive death camps built by various German companies in early 1942 for the sole purpose of annihilating a people.[7][8] The Nazi extermination program depended on killing centers as much as on the effectiveness of their railways. Rail transport enabled the SS to run industrial-scale mass-extermination facilities and, at the same time, openly lie to their victims about the "resettlement" program. Jews were transported to their deaths in Holocaust trains from liquidated ghettos of all occupied cities, including Litzmannstadt, the last ghetto in Poland to be emptied in August 1944.[7][9][10][11] In some larger ghettos there were armed resistance attempts, such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Białystok Ghetto Uprising, the Będzin and the Łachwa Ghetto uprisings, but in every case they failed against the overwhelming German military force, and the resisting Jews were either executed locally or deported with the rest of prisoners to the extermination camps.[4][12][13][14][15] By the time Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe was liberated by the Red Army, not a single Jewish ghetto in Poland was left standing.[16] Only about 50,000–120,000 Polish Jews survived the war on native soil with the assistance of their Polish neighbors, a fraction of their prewar population of 3,500,000.[17][18]

For more details on this topic, see The Holocaust in Poland.
Partial liquidation of the Białystok Ghetto, 15–20 August 1943. Jewish men with their hands up, surrounded by military unit

In total, according to USHMM archives, "The Germans established at least 1000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone."[19] The list of locations of the Jewish ghettos within the borders of pre-war and post-war Poland is compiled with the understanding that their inhabitants were either of Polish nationality from before the invasion, or had strong historical ties with Poland. Also, not all ghettos are listed here due to their transient nature. Permanent ghettos were created only in settlements with rail connections, because the food aid (paid by the Jews themselves) was completely dependent on the Germans, making even the potato-peels a hot commodity.[20] Throughout 1940 and 1941, most ghettos were sealed off from the outside, walled off or enclosed with barbed wire, and many Jews found leaving them were shot. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest ghetto in all of Nazi occupied Europe, with over 400,000 Jews crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2), or 7.2 persons per room.[21] The Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000 inmates.[22] In documents and signage, the Nazis usually referred to the ghettos they created as Jüdischer Wohnbezirk or Wohngebiet der Juden, meaning "Jewish Quarter". By the end of 1941, most Polish Jews were already ghettoized, even though the Germans knew that the system was unsustainable; most inmates had no chance of earning their own keep, and no savings left to pay the SS for further deliveries.[20] The quagmire was resolved at the Wannsee conference of 20 January 1942 near Berlin, where the "Final Solution" (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was set in place.[23]

List of Jewish ghettos in occupied Poland[edit]

The settlements listed in the Polish language,[3] including major cities, had all been renamed after the 1939 joint invasion of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union. Renaming everything in their own image had been one way in which the invaders sought to redraw Europe's political map. All Polish territories were confiscated as either Nazi zones of occupation (i.e. Bezirk Bialystok, Provinz Ostpreußen, Reichskommissariat Ostland, etc.), or Soviet brand-new extensions to the two fledging western republics (i.e. West Belarus), soon overrun again in Operation Barbarossa.[3] The Soviet Ukraine and Byelorussia witnessed the genocide of Poles just prior to invasion, resulting in the virtual absence of ethnic Poles in the USSR along the pre-war border with Poland since the Great Terror.[24][25]

# Ghetto location in prewar
and postwar Poland [26]
Population Date of
creation
Date of
liquidation
Final
destination
    (in alphabetical order)        (year, month)      (year, month)  
1939–1940         
Only 38 days after the 1939 Nazi German Invasion of Poland, the first large ghetto of World War II was set up at Piotrków Trybunalski on October 8, 1939.[27] Within months, the most populous Jewish ghettos in World War II included the Łódź Ghetto (set up in April 1940), and the Warsaw Ghetto (October 1940).
1   Aleksandrów Lódzki 3,500    1939   Dec 1939     to Głowno ghetto
2   Bełżyce 4,500    Jun 1940   May 1943     to Budzyń ghetto → Sobibor and Majdanek
3   Będzin Ghetto 7,000[3]–28,000[28]  Jul 1940   Aug 1943     to Auschwitz (7,000).[29]
4   Błonie 2,100    Dec 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,100)
5   Bodzentyn 700    1940   Sep 1942     to Suchedniów ghetto → Treblinka.[30]
6   Brześć Kujawski 630    1940   Apr 1942     to Łódź GhettoChełmno death camp
7   Brzeziny 6,000–6,800    Feb 1940   May 1942     to Łódź GhettoChełmno
8   Brzozów 1,000    1940   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
9   Bychawa 2,700    1940   Apr 1941     to Belzyce
10   Chęciny 4,000    1940 – Jun 1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
11   Ciechanów 5,000[31]  1940   Nov 1942     to labour camps (1,500), Mława Ghetto → Auschwitz,[32] many killed locally.[31]
12   Dąbrowa Górnicza 4,000–10,000    1940   Jun 1943     to Auschwitz
13   Dęblin 3,300–5,800    Apr 1940   Oct 1942     to Sobibor and Treblinka
14   Działoszyce 15,000?    Apr 1940   Oct 1942     to Płaszów and Bełżec extermination camp
15   Gąbin 2,000–2,300    1940   Apr 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
16   Głowno 5,600    May 1940   Mar 1941     to Łowicz ghetto and Warsaw Ghetto (5,600)
17   Gorlice (labor camp 1st) ?    1940   1942     to Buchenwald, Muszyna, Mielec, see Gorlice Ghetto (1941)
18   Góra Kalwaria 3,300    Jan 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (3,000), 300 killed locally
19   Grodzisk Mazowiecki 6,000    1940 – Jan 1941   Oct 1942     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 6,000)
20   Grójec 5,200–6,000    Jul 1940   Sep 1942     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 6,000) → Treblinka
21   Izbica Kujawska 1,000    1940   Jan 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
22   Jeżów 1,600    1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 1,600)
23   Jędrzejów 6,000    Mar 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
24   Kazimierz Dolny 2,000–3,500    1940 – Apr 1941   Mar 1942     to Sobibor, and Treblinka
25   Kobyłka 1,500    Sep 1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
26   Koło 2,000–5,000    Dec 1940   Dec 1941     to Treblinka (2,000) and Chełmno
27   Koniecpol 1,100–1,600    1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
28   Konin 1,500?    Dec 1939   1940 – Mar 1941     to Zagórów & other ghettos → killed locally
29   Kozienice 13,000    Jan 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
30   Koźminek 2,500    1940   Jul 1942      to Chełmno
31   Krasnystaw 2,000    Aug 1940   Oct 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
32   Krośniewice 1,500    May 1940   Mar 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
33   Kutno 7,000    Jun 1940   Mar 1942     to Chełmno
34   Legionowo 3,000    1940   1942     to Treblinka
35   Łańcut 2,700    Dec 1939   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
36   Łask 4,000    Dec 1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
37   Łowicz 8,000–8,200    1940   Mar 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all; with labor camp)[33]
38   Łódź Ghetto 200,000    8 Feb 1940   Aug 1944     to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camp, labour camps (1,000)
39   Marki ?    1940 – Mar 1941   1942     to Warsaw Ghetto
40   Mielec 4,000–4,500    1940   Mar 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
41   Mińsk Mazowiecki Ghetto 5,000–7,000    Oct 1940   Aug 1942     to Treblinka, 1,300 killed locally
42   Mława 6,000–6,500    Dec 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka and Auschwitz
43   Mogielnica 1,500    1940   28 Feb 1942     to Warsaw Ghetto (all) → Treblinka.[34]
44   Mordy 4,500    Nov 1940   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
45   Myślenice 1,200    1940   Aug 1942     to Skawina Ghetto (all) → Bełżec
46   Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki 2,000–4,000    1940 – Jan 1941   Dec 1942     to Pomiechówek ghetto → Auschwitz
47   Nowy Korczyn 4,000    1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
48   Opoczno 3,000–4,000    Nov 1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
49   Otwock 12,000–15,000    Dec 1939   Aug 1942     to Treblinka, and Auschwitz
50   Pabianice 8,500–9,000    Feb 1940   May 1942     to Łódź GhettoChełmno death camp
51   Piaseczno 2,500    1940   Jan 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,500)
52   Piaski (transit) 10,000    1940   Nov 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp, Sobibor, Trawniki concentration camp
53   Piotrków Trybunalski Ghetto 25,000[35]  8 Oct 1939[27] 14 / 21 Oct 1944    to Majdanek and Treblinka (22,000),[35] killed locally also
54   Płock 7,000–10,000    1939–1940   Feb 1941     to Działdowo ghetto
55   Płońsk 12,000    Sep 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka, Auschwitz
56   Poddębice 1,500    Nov 1940   Apr 1942     to Treblinka(?)
57   Pruszków 1,400    1940   1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 1,400)
58   Przedbórz 4,000–5,000    Mar 1940   Oct 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp and Treblinka
59   Puławy 5,000    Nov – Dec 1939   1940     to Opole LubelskieSobibor
60   Radomsko 18,000–20,000    1939 – Jan 1940   21 Jul 1943     to Treblinka extermination camp (18,000)
61   Radzymin 2,500    Sep 1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
62   Serock 2,000    Feb 1940   Dec 1940     to other ghettos
63   Sieradz 2,500–5,000    Mar 1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
64   Sierpc 500–3,000    1940   Feb 1942     to Warsaw GhettoTreblinka
65   Skaryszew 1,800    1940   Apr 1942     to Szydlowiec
66   Skierniewice 4,300–7,000    Dec 1940   Apr 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 7,000)
67   Sochaczew 3,000–4,000    Jan 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 3,000)
68   Stalowa Wola 2,500    1940   Jul 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
69   Stryj    12,000    1940–1941   Jun 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp
70   Szadek 500    1940   1940     to other ghettos
71   Szczebrzeszyn 4,000    1940 – Apr 1941   Oct 1942     to Bełżec death camp, killed locally also
72   Tomaszów Mazowiecki 16,000–20,000    Dec 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka (16,000), with 4,000 killed locally
73   Tuliszków 230    Dec 1939   Jan 1940     to Kowale PańskieChełmno
74   Turek 5,000    1940   Oct 1941     to Kowale Pańskie ghetto (all 5,000)
75   Tyszowce 1,500–2,000    1940   Sep 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
76   Uchanie 2,000    1940   Nov 1942     to Sobibor
77   Ulanów 500    1940   Oct 1942     to other ghettos
78   Uniejów 500    1940   Oct 1941     to Kowale Pańskie ghetto (all 500)
79   Warka 2,800    1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,800)
80   Warta 1,000–2,400    Feb 1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
81   Warsaw Ghetto, see Muranów neighbourhood of Warsaw (whole) [36] 445,000    Oct – 15 Nov 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp (300,000), and Majdanek, Trawniki, Poniatowa
82   Włocławek 4,000–13,500    Oct 1940   Apr 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
83   Włodawa 6,000    1940–1942   Apr 1943     to Sobibor
84   Włoszczowa 4,000–6,000    Jul 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
85   Wodzisław 4,000    Jun 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
86   Wołomin 3,000–5,500    1940–1942   Apr 1943     to Treblinka
87   Wyszogród 2,700–3,000    Dec 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
88   Zagórów 2,000–2,500    Jul 1940   Oct 1941     all killed locally
89   Zamość 12,000–14,000    1940   May 1943     to Izbica GhettoBełżec, Majdanek
90   Zduńska Wola 8,300–10,000    1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
91   Żychlin 2,800–4,000    Jul 1940   Mar 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
92   Żyrardów 3,000–5,000    Dec 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 5,000)
1941         
Under the codename Operation Barbarossa Germany entered the Soviet occupation zone of Poland on 22 June 1941. The creation of new Jewish ghettos behind Nazi-Soviet demarcation line and mass executions on-site by mobile killing squads intensified.
93   Augustów 4,000    Oct 1941   Jun 1942     to Treblinka and Auschwitz, shot locally
94   Bełchatów 5,500–6,000    Mar 1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
95   Biała Podlaska 7,000–8,400    Jul 1941   Sep 1942     to Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka
96   Biała Rawska 4,000    Sep 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
97   Białystok Ghetto 40,000–50,000    26 Jul 1941   Nov 1943     to Majdanek, Treblinka
98   Biłgoraj 2,500–3,000    1941–1942   Nov 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
99   Bobowa 658?[37]  Oct 1941   Aug 1942     to Gorlice and Biecz ghettos
100   Bochnia 14,000–15,000    Mar 1941   Sep 1943     to SzebnieBełżec and Auschwitz
101   Brześć Litewski Ghetto 18,000    16 Dec 1941   Oct 1942    5,000 shot locally before the ghetto was set up → Bronna Góra ravine [38]
102   Busko Zdrój 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
103   Chełm 8,000–12,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Sobibor
104   Chmielnik 10,000–14,000    Apr 1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
105   Chodel 1,400    Jun 1941   1942     to other ghettos
106   Chrzanów 8,000    Nov 1941   Feb 1943     to Auschwitz
107   Ciechanowiec 4,000    1941   Nov 1941     to Treblinka
108   Ciepielów 600    Dec 1941   15 / 29 Oct 1942[39]    to TreblinkaPolish rescuers killed locally 6 Dec 1942.[40]
109   Czeladź 800    Nov 1941   Feb 1943     to Auschwitz
110   Częstochowa Ghetto 48,000    9 Apr 1941   22 Sep – 9 Oct 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp
111   Ćmielów 1,500–2,000?[41]  1941   Oct (end) 1942     to Treblinka (900),[39] rest murdered locally
112   Dąbie 900    1941   Dec 1941     to Chełmno extermination camp
113   Dobre 500–1,000    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
114   Drohiczyn 700    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bransk and Bielsk ghettos
115   Drzewica 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
116   Dubienka 2,500–3,000    Jun 1941   Oct 1942     to other ghettos
117   Głogów Małopolski (120)?    1941   1942     to Rzeszów ghetto → 5,000 shot locally
118   Gniewoszów (open type) 6,580[42]  Dec 1941   Nov 1942     to Zwoleń (5,000); 1,000 → Treblinka
119   Goniądz 1,000–1,300    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bogusze ghetto
120   Gorlice 4,500    Oct 1941   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
121   Gostynin 3,500    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
122   Grajewo 3,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bogusze ghetto
123   Hrubieszów (open type) 6,800–10,000    Jun 1941 – May 1942   May – Nov 1943    to Sobibor and Budzyn labour camp, many shot locally, 2,000 fled.[43]
124   Iłża 1,900–2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
125   Inowłódz 500–600    1941   Aug 1942     to Tomaszow Mazowiecki ghetto
126   Iwacewicze 600    1941[44]  14 Mar 1942     to Słonim Ghetto, all killed locally
127   Izbica Ghetto (transit) 12,000–22,700[45]  1941[46]  2 Nov 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp and Sobibor, 4,500 killed locally
128   Jasło 2,000–3,000    1941   Aug 1942     to other ghettos
129   Jedwabne 100–130    Jul 1941   Nov 1941     to Łomża GhettoTreblinka, 340 killed locally.[47]
130   Kalisz 400    1941   1942     to other ghettos
131   Kałusz 6,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp, several hundreds executed locally
132   Karczew 700    Mar 1941   Oct 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto
133   Kielce Ghetto 27,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka, with 6,000 killed locally
134   Kłobuck 2,000    1941   Jun 1942     to Auschwitz
135   Knyszyn 2,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bialystok Ghetto
136   Kobryn 8,000    Jun 1941   Oct 1942     all killed locally
137   Kock 2,500–3,000    Jun 1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
138   Kodeń ?    Jun 1941   Sep 1942     to Miedzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto
139   Kolbuszowa 2,500    1941   Sep 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
140   Koluszki 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
141   Końskie 10,000    1941   Jan 1943     to Treblinka
142   Korczyn 2,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
143   Kraków Ghetto 20,000 (pop. 68,500)    Mar 1941   Mar 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp and Płaszów; 48,000 expelled in 1940.[48]
144   Kraśnik 5,000–6,000    1940–1941   Nov 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
145   Krynki 5,000–6,000    Jun – Nov 1941   Nov 1942     to Kiełbasin transit campTreblinka [49]
146   Książ Wielki 200?[50]  1941   Nov 1942     to Miechow ghetto
147   Kunów 500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
148   Limanowa 2,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
149   Lipsk 3,000    Dec 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
150   Lubartów Ghetto 3,269–4,500    Jun 1941   Oct 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
151   Lublin Ghetto 30,000–40,000    24 Mar 1941   Nov 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp (30,000)[51] and Majdanek (4,000)
152   Lwów Ghetto 115,000–160,000    Jun – Nov 1941   Jun 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp and Janowska concentration camp
153   Łapy 600    Jun – Jul 1941   Nov 1942     to Białystok Ghetto
154   Łaskarzew 1,300    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
155   Łęczyca 3,000–4,300    1941   Jun 1942     to Chełmno, many killed locally
156   Łomża Ghetto 9,000–11,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Auschwitz, many killed locally
157   Łosice 5,500–6,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
158   Łuków 10,000[3]  1941   Oct – Nov 1942     to Treblinka (Oct: 7,000; Nov: 3,000) [52]
159   Łuck Ghetto 25,000[3]  Dec 1941   19 / 24 Aug 1942     all killed locally (most at Polanka) [53]
160   Maków Mazowiecki 3,500–5,000    1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
161   Michałowo 1,500    1941   Nov 1942     to Bialystok Ghetto
162   Miechów 4,000    1941   1942     to Bełżec (1,000 killed locally)
163   Nowe Miasto 3,700    1941   22 Oct 1942     to Treblinka (3,000),[52] rest killed locally
164   Nowogródek 6,000?[50]  Jun 1941   Oct 1942     all killed locally
165   Nowy Sącz Ghetto 20,000    Aug 1941   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
166   Nowy Targ 2,500    1941   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
167   Nowy Żmigród 1,300    1941   Jul 1942     all killed locally
168   Olkusz 3,000–4,000    1941   Jun 1942     to Auschwitz
169   Opatów Ghetto 10,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
170   Opole Lubelskie 8,000–10,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Sobibor and Poniatowa ghetto
171   Osiek 500    1941   Jun 1942     to Ożarów ghetto → Treblinka [54]
172   Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski 16,000    Apr 1941   10 Jan 1943     to Treblinka [55]
173   Ozorków 3,000–5,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Łódź GhettoChełmno
174   Pajęczno 3,000    1941   1942     to Łódź Ghetto
175   Parczew 7,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
176   Piątek ?    1941   Jul 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
177   Pilzno 788?[37]  1941   Jun 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
178   Pińczów 3,000–3,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
179   Pionki (labor camp) 682[56]  1941   Aug 1942     to Zwoleń ghetto → Treblinka
180   Połaniec 2,000    1941   1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
181   Praszka ?    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
182   Rabka 300    1941   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
183   Radom Ghetto 30,000–32,000    Mar 1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp
184   Radomyśl Wielki 1,300?[37]  1941   1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
185   Radoszyce 3,200?[57]  1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
186   Radzyn Podlaski 2,000–3,000    1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
187   Rajgród 1,200    1941   Nov 1942     to Bogusze
188   Rawa Mazowiecka 4,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
189   Rejowiec 3,000    1941   1943     to Auschwitz, Sobibor and Majdanek
190   Ropczyce 800    1941   Jul 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
191   Ryki 1,800–3,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka and Sobibor
192   Rymanów 1,600?[37]  1941   Aug 1942     to Kraków Ghetto, Bełżec extermination camp, killed locally
193   Sędziszów Małopolski 2,000    1941   Jan 1942     to Bełżec
194   Siedlce Ghetto 12,000–18,000    Jun – Aug 1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
195   Siemiatycze 7,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Sobibor
196   Sieniawa 3,000    1941   1942     all killed locally
197   Siennica 700?    1941   15 Sep 1942     to Treblinka (700)[52]
198   Skarżysko-Kamienna 3,000    1941   1942     to Treblinka (2,500), the rest killed locally
199   Skrzynno ?    1941   Oct 1942     to Opoczno ghetto
200   Słonim Ghetto 22,000    Jul 1941   15 Jul 1942[58]    all killed locally (Jul-41: 1,200; Nov: 9,000; Jul-42: 10,000)
201   Słuck 3,000–8,500    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     all killed locally
202   Sokołów Małopolski 3,000    1941   Jul 1942     to Bełżec
203   Sokołów Podlaski 4,000–7,000    Jun 1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
204   Sokółka 8,000–9,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to KiełbasinTreblinka
205   Solec 800    1941   Dec 1942     to Tarlow ghetto
206   Stanisławów Ghetto 20,000    Dec 1941   Feb 1943     killed locally → to Bełżec
207   Starachowice 6,000    Apr 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
208   Stary Sącz 1,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Bełżec
209   Staszów 7,000    1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
210   Stopnica 5,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka, many killed locally
211   Strzemieszyce Wielkie 1,800[59]  1940–1941   May – 15 Jun 1942     to Będzin Ghetto (500), Auschwitz (1,400)
212   Strzyżów 1,300[59]  1941   26 / 28 Jun 1942     to Rzeszów ghetto, killed locally → Bełżec
213   Suchedniów 5,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
214   Sulejów 1,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
215   Szczuczyn 2,000    1941   Jul – Nov 1942     to Bogusze transit camp, killed locally
216   Śniadowo 650    1941   Nov 1942     to Zambrow ghetto
217   Tarczyn 1,600    1941   Feb 1942     to Treblinka
218   Tarnobrzeg (ghetto & camp) 500[60]  Jun 1941   Jul 1942     to Dębica ghetto → Bełżec
219   Tarnogród 2,600–5,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Bełżec from ghetto & camp, many killed locally
220   Tarnopol Ghetto 20,000    Jul – Aug 1941   Jun 1943     to Bełżec, many killed locally
221   Tarnów 40,000    Mar 1941   Sep 1943     10,000 killed locally, Bełżec (10,000), Auschwitz
222   Tomaszów Lubelski 1,400–1,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Bełżec
223   Tyczyn ?    1941   Jul 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
224   Wadowice 1,400[61]  1941   Aug 1943     to Auschwitz
225   Wąwolnica 2,500    1941   May 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
226   Węgrów 6,000–8,300    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
227   Wieliczka 7,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
228   Wielun 4,200–7,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp, killed locally
229   Wieruszów 1,400    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
230   Wilno Ghetto 30,000–80,000[3]  Sep 1941   Sep 1943    killed locally (21,000 before ghetto was set up)[62]
231   Wiślica 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Jędrzejów ghetto
232   Wolbrom 3,000–5,000    1941   Sep 1942     to Bełżec, many killed locally
233   Wysokie Mazowieckie 5,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Zambrow ghetto
234   Zabłudów 1,800[63]  Jul 1941   2 Nov 1942     10th Calvary camp near BiałystokTreblinka (1,400)
235   Zambrów 3,200–4,000    1941   Jan 1943     to Auschwitz, mass killings locally
236   Zawiercie 5,000–7,000    1941   Oct 1943     to Auschwitz (5,000)
237   Zelów ?    1941   Sep 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
238   Zwoleń (open type) 6,500–10,000[64]  1941   29 Sep 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp (8,000)[65]
239   Żarki 3,200    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
240   Żelechów 5,500–13,000    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
1942         
On January 20 at the Wannsee conference near Berlin, Reinhard Heydrich informed senior Nazi officials that "the final solution of the Jewish question" was deportation from the ghettos and subsequent mass extermination of the Jews. Implementation plan developed. Six death factories were built by German firms in occupied Poland within two-to-six months.
241   Andrychów 700    Sep 1942   Nov 1943     to Auschwitz concentration camp
242   Annopol ?    Jun 1942   Oct 1942     to Kraśnik ghetto
243   Baranów Sandomierski 2,000    Jun 1942   Jul 1942     to Dębica ghetto, (all)
244   Biecz 700–800    Apr 1942   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
245   Czortków 4,000    Apr 1942   Sep 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp
246   Dąbrowa Tarnowska 2,400–3,000    Oct 1942   Sep 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp and Auschwitz
247   Dębica 1,500–4,000    1942   Mar 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp
248   Drohobycz Ghetto 10,000    Mar 1942   Jun 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp
249   Dubno 9,000?    Apr 1942   Oct 1942     all killed locally
250   Frysztak 1,600[37]  1942   18 Aug 1942     to Jasło ghetto → killed in Warzyce forest
251   Hrubieszów (labor camp) 200[43]  May 1942   May 1943     to Budzyn, killed locally, see Hrubieszów # 122 above (6,800)
252   Jasienica Rosielna 1,500    1942   Aug 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
253   Kołomyja (ghetto & camp) 18,000    1942   Feb 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp, many killed locally
254   Koprzywnica 1,800    1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
255   Kowale Pańskie 3,000–5,000    1939–1942   1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
256   Kowel 17,000    May 1942   Oct 1942     all killed locally
257   Kraśnik (ghetto & camp) 5,000    1940–1942   Nov 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
258   Krosno 600–2,500    Aug 1942   Dec 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
259   Lesko 2,000    1942   Sep 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
260   Lubaczów 4,200–7,000    Oct 1942   Jan 1943     to Sobibor, many killed locally
261   Łachwa Ghetto 2,350    4 Apr 1942   Sep 1942     killed locally, 1,500 in an uprising.[66]
262   Łęczna 3,000    Jun 1942   Nov 1942     to Sobibor, many killed locally
263   Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto 20,000    28 Aug 1942   18 Jul 1943[67]    to Treblinka (17,000), hundreds killed locally.[68]
264   Ożarów 4,500    Jan 1942   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
265   Pińsk Ghetto 26,200    Apr 1942   Oct 1942     to Bronna Góra (3,500), the rest killed locally
266   Przemyśl 22,000–24,000    Jul 1942   Sep 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp, Auschwitz, Janowska
267   Przeworsk 1,400?[37]  Jul 1942   Oct 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
268   Przysucha 2,500–5,000    Jul – 15 Aug 1942   27 / 31 Oct 1942[69]    to Treblinka (5,000)[70]
269   Sambor Ghetto 8,000–9,000    Mar 1942   Jul 1943     to Bełżec extermination camp, many killed locally
270   Sosnowiec Ghetto 12,000    Oct 1942   Aug 1943     to Auschwitz
271   Starachowice (labor camp) 13,000    1942   1942     to Treblinka, see also Starachowice ghetto
272   Stryj 4,000–12,000    1942   Jun 1943     all killed locally
273   Sucha Beskidzka 400[71]  1942   1943     to Auschwitz
274   Szydłów 1,000    Jan 1942   Oct 1942     to Chmielnik ghetto
275   Tarnogród (labor camp) 1,000    1942   1942     see Tarnogród ghetto → Bełżec extermination camp
276   Tomaszów M. (labor camp) 1,000    1942   May 1943     to Starachowice,[72] see also Tomaszów Mazowiecki Ghetto (1940)
277   Tuchów 3,000    Jun 1942   Sep 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
278   Zdzięcioł Ghetto 4,500    22 Feb 1942   30 Apr – 6 Aug 1942     killed locally during Zdzięcioł massacres

Aftermath[edit]

Originally captioned "Forcibly pulled out of dug-outs," this Stroop Report photo shows SS man Josef Blösche pointing his gun at people during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The ghetto inhabitants – most of whom were killed during Operation Reinhard – possessed Polish citizenship before the Nazi–Soviet invasion of Poland, which in turn enabled over 150,000 Holocaust survivors registered at CKŻP to take advantage of the later repatriation agreements between the governments of Poland and the Soviet Union, and legally emigrate to the West to help form the nascent State of Israel.[73] Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah without visas or exit permits upon the conclusion of World War II.[74] By contrast, Stalin forcibly brought Soviet Jews back to USSR along with all Soviet citizens, as agreed to in the Yalta Conference.[75]

Further information: Percentages agreement

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987.
  2. ^ Biuletyn Głównej Komisji Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce, Wydawnictwo Prawnicze, 1960.  (Polish)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews  (English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon, Archived November 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.  (Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at ARC 2005  (English). Some figures might require further confirmation due to their comparative range.
  4. ^ a b Michael Berenbaum, The World Must Know, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2006, p. 114.
  5. ^ "The War Against The Jews." The Holocaust Chronicle, 2009. Chicago, Il. Accessed June 21, 2011.
  6. ^ Wojciech Roszkowski, Historia Polski 1914–1997, Warsaw 1998. PDF file, 46,0 MB (available with purchase). Chomikuj.pl, 2013.
  7. ^ a b Dwork, Deborah and Robert Jan Van Pelt,The Construction of Crematoria at Auschwitz, W.W. Norton & Co., 1996.
  8. ^ Cecil Adams, "Did Krups, Braun, and Mercedes-Benz make Nazi concentration camp ovens?"
  9. ^ Jewish Virtual Library, Łódź. Overview of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto's history. Accessed June 27, 2011.
  10. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Online Exhibition: Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto
  11. ^ University of Minnesota, Majdanek Death Camp
  12. ^ Kraków Ghetto including photographs, at www.krakow-poland.com.
  13. ^ About Kraków Ghetto with valuable historical photographs. (Polish)
  14. ^ "Schindler's Krakow," with modern-day photographs of the WWII relics. Internet Archive, saved from Silentwall.com (discontinued).
  15. ^ The Kraków Ghetto Archived September 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. complete with contemporary picture gallery, at JewishKrakow.net
  16. ^ Edward Victor, "Ghettos and Other Jewish Communities." Judaica Philatelic. Accessed June 20, 2011.
  17. ^ Richard C. Lukas, Out of the Inferno: Poles Remember the Holocaust, University Press of Kentucky 1989 - 201 pages. Page 13; also in Richard C. Lukas, The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-1944, University Press of Kentucky, 1986, Google Print, p.13.
  18. ^ Gunnar S. Paulsson, "The Rescue of Jews by Non-Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland," Journal of Holocaust Education, Vol.7, Nos.1&2, 1998, pp.19-44. Published by Frank Cass, London.
  19. ^ Types of Ghettos. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C.
  20. ^ a b Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen, "The Ghettos of Poland." The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 2002.
  21. ^ Warsaw Ghetto, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), Washington, D.C.
  22. ^ Ghettos, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  23. ^ François Furet, Unanswered Questions: Nazi Germany and the Genocide of the Jews. Schocken Books (1989), p. 182; ISBN 0-8052-4051-9
  24. ^ "A letter from Timothy Snyder of Bloodlands: Two genocidaires, taking turns in Poland". The Book Haven. Stanford University. December 15, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  25. ^ Tomasz Sommer (2010). "Execute the Poles: The Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union, 1937-1938. Documents from Headquarters". Warsaw: 3S Media. p. 277. ISBN 83-7673-020-7. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  26. ^ Location names in other languages are available through the active links.
  27. ^ a b Yad Vashem. "Piotrkow Trybunalski" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center. The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. 
  28. ^ Maciej i Ewa Szaniawscy, "Zagłada Żydów w Będzinie w świetle relacji" (Extermination of Jews in the light of testimony).  (Polish) According to 1946 research by Wojewódzka Żydowska Komisja Historyczna in Katowice, wrote Maciej i Ewa Szaniawscy, there were around 30,000 Jews in Będzin following the invasion, including those who came in from neighbouring settlements. Between October 1940 and May 1942, the first 4,000 Jews were deported. In May 1942 additional 2,000 and in August, 5,000 more. Deportations between August 1942 and mid June 1943 amounted to additional 5,000. On 22 June 1943 the next transport of 5,000 Jews departed to Auschwitz, and finally, between 1–3 August 1943, the remaining 8,000 were sent away. The dispersed Jews who stayed, amounting to 1,000 persons, were deported between early October 1943 and July 1944. In total, about 28,000 Jews are believed to have been deported from the Będzin Ghetto. This information however, is not confirmed by the two main sources of the remaining data nor the Jewish Historical Institute, listing only 7,000 victims.
  29. ^ Będzin in the Jewish Historical Institute community database. Archived February 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Warsaw.
  30. ^ Iwona Pogorzelska, Bodzentyn od 1869 roku do niepodległości. Polska.pl. Accessed June 16, 2011.
  31. ^ a b Martyna Sypniewska. "Historia Żydów w Ciechanowie" [History of the Jews in Ciechanów]. Jewish Historical Institute (ŻIH), Dział Dokumentacji Zabytków; J. Szczepański, D. Piotrowicz (in Polish). Virtual Shtetl (Wirtualny Sztetl). Czerwony Bór massacres. 
  32. ^ Patrycja Bukalska (20 January 2010). "Róża Robota postanowiła walczyć do końca" [Róża Robota chose to fight till the end]. Pamięć Auschwitz (4/2010). Tygodnik Powszechny. 
  33. ^ "Getto w Łowiczu," at Miejsca martyrologii, Wirtualny Sztetl. Instytut Adama Mickiewicza.  (Polish)
  34. ^ "Cmentarz żydowski w Mogielnicy (Jewish cemetery in Mogielnica)," at Kirkuty.xip.pl.
  35. ^ a b Piotrków Trybunalski – Getto w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of the Polish Jews. Accessed July 1, 2011.
  36. ^ Angelika Lasiewicz-Sych, "Traces of the past", Kultura Współczesna nr 4 (38), 2003.
  37. ^ "Brześć – History". Virtual Shtetl, Museum of the History of Polish Jews. p. 12. Retrieved July 15, 2011. 
  38. ^ a b Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. "Appendix A." Page 395.
  39. ^ "Życie za Życie" (Righteous of Ciepielów who paid the ultimate price)." Urząd Gminy w Ciepielowie.  (Polish). Accessed July 6, 2011.
  40. ^ "Ćmielów – Historia," Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich Wirtualny Sztetl (Museum of the History of the Polish Jews). Accessed July 6, 2011.
  41. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee; Christopher Browning; Martin Dean (2012). "Gniewoszów". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 9, 2012. 
  42. ^ a b The Hrubieszow Genealogy Group. ShtetLinks Project. Accessed June 30, 2011.
  43. ^ "Getto w Iwacewiczach". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved April 11, 2012. 
  44. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2015.  . Pamięć Miejsca. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
  45. ^ "Izbica. History". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. pp. 3 of 6. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  46. ^ The 90th session of the Senate of the Republic of Poland. Stenograph, part 2.2. A Report by Leon Kieres, president of the Institute of National Remembrance, for the period from July 1, 2,000 to June 30, 2001. Donald Tusk presiding. See statement by Senator Jadwiga Stokarska.  (Polish)
  47. ^ Kraków – History. Page 3. Virtual Shtetl, Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Accessed July 12, 2011.
  48. ^ Niemiecki obóz tranzytowy Kiełbasin w Grodnie (wul. Sołamawaj) (Kiełbasin transit camp), Virtual Shtetl, POLIN Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich 2015. Accessed November 15, 2015.
  49. ^ a b Jack Kugelmass, Jonathan Boyarin, Zachary M. Baker, From a ruined garden: the memorial books of Polish Jewry, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Accessed June 27, 2011.
  50. ^ Jack Fischel, The Holocaust, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998, pg. 58; in Google Books.
  51. ^ a b c "Treblinka Death Camp Day-by-Day," Archived May 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. at Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team (www.HolocaustResearchProject.org). Accessed June 30, 2011.
  52. ^ YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, Lutsk. "Following the Soviet liberation of Łuck in February 1944, only about 150 Jews returned. By 1959, just 600 Jews were living in Lutsk. The fortified synagogue was turned into a movie theater and later into a sports hall. A residential area was constructed on the site of the Rabbinite and Karaite cemeteries."
  53. ^ "Osiek. History of Jewish community". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  54. ^ Paul, Mark (September 2015). "Patterns of Cooperation, Collaboration and Betrayal: Jews, Germans and Poles in Occupied Poland during World War II" (PDF). Glaukopis. Foreign language studies. 159/344 in PDF. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  55. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee; Christopher Browning; Martin Dean. "Pionki by Jolanta Kraemer". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 278–279. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 10, 2012. 
  56. ^ Piotr Berghof, "Radoszyce, wspomnienie o żydowskich mieszkańcach miasteczka."  (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
  57. ^ Słonim – History. Jewish community. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews.  (Polish) Accessed July 7, 2011. The prewar Polish city of Słonim was overrun by the Red Army in September 1939 and confiscated as part of Western Belarus. The influx of refugees from Nazi-occupied Poland increased its Jewish population to 27,000. Over 1,000 were deported to Siberia by the NKVD. Following German invasion of USSR, the ghetto was set up in August 1941, but mass executions began already on 17 July (1,200 men shot just outside the city). A second shooting action took place on 14 November 1941 with 9,000 killed. The ghetto was burned to the ground with all its inhabitants between 29 June and 15 July 1942 following a revolt. Only about 500 managed to escape.
  58. ^ a b Shmuel Spector; Geoffrey Wigoder (2001). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. NYU Press. p. 1255. ISBN 0-8147-9356-8. Retrieved June 29, 2011. 
  59. ^ "Tarnobrzeg. Warto zobaczyć" (Tarnobrzeg worth seeing), Wydawnictwo Bezdroża. Accessed June 27, 2011.
  60. ^ Wadowice – Historia. Wirtualny Sztetl.  (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
  61. ^ "Chronology of Vilna Ghetto," at Vilnaghetto.com without additional confirmation of quantitative data. Accessed June 24, 2011.
  62. ^ "The Deportation of the Zabludow Jews to Treblinka Death Camp." 2003 Tilford Bartman, Jerusalem, Israel.
  63. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee; Christopher Browning; Martin Dean. "Radom Region by Jolanta Kraemer". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 9, 2012. 
  64. ^ Daniel Blatman. Translated from the Hebrew by Judy Montel (Summer 2003). "Zwolen". Pinkas HaKehillot, Polen, Volume VII (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1999), pages 187-189. Kielce-Radom SIG Journal Volume 7, Number 3. pp. 8–9. 
  65. ^ "Lachwa, Polesie province, Poland." The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933-1945
  66. ^ "The History of Miedzyrzec Podlaski." Association of Immigrants of Mezritch Depodalsia Area in Israel. Accessed July 5, 2011.
  67. ^ "Mezritch (Międzyrzec) Podlaski in the Jewish sources." Association of Immigrants of Mezritch Depodalsia. Accessed June 16, 2011.
  68. ^ Przysucha, województwo Mazowieckie, Polska. Haapalah Index and Source Database. Accessed July 5, 2011.
  69. ^ Przysucha – History. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Accessed July 5, 2011.
  70. ^ Gmina Sucha Beskidzka, powiat suski. Targeo.  (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
  71. ^ Stefan Krakowski, Tomaszow Mazowiecki, Jewish Virtual Library. Accessed June 24, 2001.
  72. ^ Philipp Ther; Ana Siljak (2001). Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 138. ISBN 0-7425-1094-8. Retrieved May 11, 2011. 
  73. ^ Devorah Hakohen, Immigrants in turmoil: mass immigration to Israel and its repercussions... Syracuse University Press, 2003 - 325 pages. Page 70. ISBN 0-8156-2969-9
  74. ^ Arieh J. Kochavi, Post-Holocaust politics: Britain, the United States & Jewish refugees, 1945-1948. Page 15. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2620-0 Accessed June 20, 2011.