Jewish population by country

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Jewish population by country (2016)

The world's core Jewish population was estimated at 14,511,000 in April 2018,[1] up from 14.41 million in 2016.[2][3][4] Demographer Sergio DellaPergola proposes an "extended" Jewish population, including people identifying as partly Jewish and non-Jews with Jewish parents, numbering 17.3 million globally, and an "enlarged" Jewish population figure that also includes non-Jewish members of Jewish households totaling 20.2 million. Additionally, the total number of people who hold or are eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return — defined as anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent, and who does not profess any other religion — is estimated at around 23 million, of which 6.6 million were living in Israel as of 2015. Figures for these expanded categories are less precise than for the core Jewish population.[4]

While dozens of countries host at least a small Jewish population, the community is concentrated in a handful: Israel and the United States account for 83% of the Jewish population, while a total of 98 countries host the other 17%.[4]

With just over 6.5 million Jews, Israel is the only Jewish majority and explicitly Jewish state. Jewish population figures for the United States are contested, ranging between 5.7 and 6.8 million.[5] (The core global total of Jews jumps above 15 million if the highest American estimates are assumed). Other countries with a significant Jewish population are, like Israel and the United States, typically well-developed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development members with Jews concentrated in major urban centers.[4]

In 1939, the core Jewish population reached its historical peak of 17 million. Due to the Holocaust, the number was reduced to 11 million in 1945.[6][7][8] The population grew to around 13 million by the 1970s, and then recorded near-zero growth until around 2005 due to low fertility rates and to assimilation.[7] Since 2005, the world's Jewish population grew modestly at an annual rate of around 0.78% (to 2013). This increase primarily reflected the rapid growth of Haredi and some Orthodox sectors, who are becoming a growing proportion of Jews.[9]

Recent trends[edit]

Recent Jewish population dynamics are characterized by continued steady increase in the Israeli Jewish population and flat or declining numbers in other countries (the diaspora). The Jewish population of Israel increased from the country's inception in 1948 to 6,135,000 in 2014[10] while the population of the diaspora has dropped from 10.5 to 8.1 million over the same period.[4] Current Israeli Jewish demographics are characterized by a relatively high fertility rate of 3 children per woman and a stable age distribution.[11] The overall growth rate of Jews in Israel is 1.7% annually.[12] The diaspora countries, by contrast, have low Jewish birth rates, an increasingly elderly age composition, and a negative balance of people leaving Judaism versus those joining.[4]

Immigration trends also favor Israel ahead of diaspora countries. The Jewish state has a positive immigration balance (called aliyah in Hebrew). Israel saw its Jewish numbers significantly buoyed by a million-strong wave of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s[13] and immigration growth has been steady in the low tens of thousands since then.[14] In the rest of the world, only the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany have had a positive recent Jewish migration balance outside of Israel. In general, the English-speaking world has seen its share of the diaspora increase since the Holocaust and the foundation of Israel, while historic Jewish populations in Eastern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East have significantly declined or disappeared.[15]

France continues to be home to the world's third largest Jewish community, around 500,000,[16][17] but has shown an increasingly negative trend. Emigration loss to Israel amongst French Jews reached the tens of thousands between 2014 and 2017 following a wave of antisemitic attacks.[18][19]

Debate over United States numbers[edit]

The number of Jews in the United States has been the subject of much debate because of questions over counting methodology. In 2012, Sheskin and Dashefsky put forward a figure of 6.72 million based on a mixture of local surveys, informed local estimates, and US census data. They qualified their estimate with a concern over double counting and suggested the real figure may lie between 6 and 6.4 million.[20] Drawing on their work, the Steinhardt Social Research Institute released their own estimate of 6.8 million Jews in the United States in 2013.[21] These figures are in contrast to Israeli demographer Sergio DellaPergola's number of 5,425,000, also in 2012.[5] He has called high estimates “implausible” and “unreliable” although he revised the United States Jewish number upward to 5.7 million in subsequent years.[2][5] This controversy followed a similar debate in 2001 when the National Jewish Population Survey released a United States Jewish estimate as low as 5.2 million only to have serious methodological errors suggested in their survey.[5] In sum, a confidence interval of a million or more people is likely to persist in reporting on the number of Jewish Americans.

Countries and territories[edit]

Below is a list of Jewish populations in the world by country or territory. Unless otherwise indicated, core and enlarged population numbers are taken from DellaPergola's chapter "World Jewish Population" of the American Jewish Year Book of 2014.[3] Where other credible sources present competing numbers, they are presented with a range and citation. DellaPergola's population figures are primarily based on national censuses combined with trend analysis. He has described the "core Jewish population" in the diaspora as "all persons who, when asked in a socio-demographic survey, identify themselves as Jews; or who are identified as Jews by a respondent in the same household, and do not have another monotheistic religion."[3] DellaPergola defined the "enlarged Jewish population" by adding those "persons who state they are partly Jewish", "non-Jews who have Jewish parents", and "non-Jewish members of Jewish households" to the "core Jewish population."[3]

The American Jewish Year Book numbers are reproduced with explanatory notes by country in the online Jewish Virtual Library.[22] The library is a comprehensive non-governmental website covering topics about U.S.-Israel relations and the Jewish people. A number of tiny countries whose Jewish populations are not listed in DellaPergola are provided here from the Virtual Library. For European countries, further information is provided by the Institute for Jewish Policy Research, including an interactive map of core and enlarged Jewish population that generally corresponds to DellaPergola's figures.[23]

Country populations used to deduce the "Population per Jewish Person" column in the table are taken from the CIA World Factbook, with most estimates current as of July 2014.[24]

Table[edit]

Country or Territory Core Jewish
Population (2016)[25]
Jews per 1,000
total population (2016)[25]
Enlarged Jewish
Population (2016)[25]
World 14,410,700 1.96 20,368,800
Israel Israel[a] 6,336,400 748.62 6,706,400
United States United States 5,700,000 17.75 10,000,000
France France 460,000 7.15 600,000
Canada Canada 388,000 10.84 550,000
United Kingdom United Kingdom 290,000 4.44 370,000
Argentina Argentina 180,700 4.26 330,000
Russia Russia 179,500 1.24 380,000
Germany Germany 117,000 1.44 225,000
Australia Australia 113,000 4.73 140,000
Brazil Brazil 94,200 0.46 150,000
South Africa South Africa 69,500 1.26 80,000
Ukraine Ukraine 56,000 1.31 140,000
Hungary Hungary 47,600 4.86 100,000
Mexico Mexico 40,000 0.31 50,000
Netherlands Netherlands 29,900 1.77 52,000
Belgium Belgium 29,500 2.63 40,000
Italy Italy 27,400 0.44 40,000
Switzerland Switzerland 18,800 2.27 25,000
Chile Chile 18,300 1.02 26,000
Uruguay Uruguay 17,000 5.00 25,000
Turkey Turkey 15,500 0.20 21,000
Sweden Sweden 15,000 1.53 25,000
Spain Spain 11,800 0.25 18,000
Belarus Belarus 10,400 1.09 25,000
Panama Panama 10,000 2.5 12,000
Romania Romania 9,300 0.47 17,000
Austria Austria 9,000 1.05 17,000
Iran Iran 9,000 0.11 12,000
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 8,400 0.87 16,000
Venezuela Venezuela 7,700 0.25 12,000
New Zealand New Zealand 7,500 1.63 9,500
Denmark Denmark 6,400 1.12 8,500
India India 5,000 0.00 7,000
Latvia Latvia 5,000 2.50 12,000
Greece Greece 4,300 0.37 6,000
Czech Republic Czech Republic 3,900 0.37 6,500
Moldova Moldova 3,500 0.85 7,500
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 3,500 0.11 8,000
Poland Poland 3,200 0.08 7,500
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 2,900 0.17 6,500
Lithuania Lithuania 2,700 0.93 6,500
China China 2,600 0.00 3,300
Georgia (country) Georgia 2,600 0.68 6,000
Slovakia Slovakia 2,600 0.48 4,600
Costa Rica Costa Rica 2,500 0.52 3,100
Hong Kong Hong Kong 2,500 0.35 -
Colombia Colombia 2,300 0.05 3,200
Morocco Morocco 2,300 0.07 2,700
Bulgaria Bulgaria 2,000 0.28 6,000
Estonia Estonia 2,000 1.54 3,400
Peru Peru 1,900 0.06 3,000
Croatia Croatia 1,700 0.40 3,000
Republic of Ireland Ireland 1,600 0.35 2,400
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 1,500 0.43 2,500
Serbia Serbia 1,400 0.20 2,800
Finland Finland 1,300 0.24 1,900
Norway Norway 1,300 0.25 2,000
Tunisia Tunisia 1,100 0.10 1,300
Japan Japan 1,000 0.01 1,400
Paraguay Paraguay 1,000 0.14 1,600
Guatemala Guatemala 900 0.06 1,500
Singapore Singapore 900 0.16 1,200
Ecuador Ecuador 600 0.04 1,000
Gibraltar Gibraltar 600 20.00 800
Luxembourg Luxembourg 600 1.00 1,000
Portugal Portugal 600 0.06 1,000
Bolivia Bolivia 500 0.05 900
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 500 0.14 1,000
Cuba Cuba 500 0.05 1,500
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands 400 3.64 700
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 400 0.07 1,000
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 400 0.02 800
The Bahamas Bahamas 300 0.75 700
Kenya Kenya 300 0.01 700
Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles 300 0.83 700
Jamaica Jamaica 200 0.07 400
Suriname Suriname 200 0.33 600
Thailand Thailand 200 0.00 400
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 200 0.04 400
Botswana Botswana 100 0.05 300
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 100 0.00 300
Cyprus Cyprus 100 0.08 300
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 100 0.01 300
Egypt Egypt 18 0.00 300
El Salvador El Salvador 100 0.02 300
Ethiopia Ethiopia 100 0.00 1,000
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 100 0.05 300
Malta Malta 100 0.25 300
Namibia Namibia 100 0.04 300
Nigeria Nigeria 100 0.00 300
Philippines Philippines 100 0.00 300
Slovenia Slovenia 100 0.05 300
South Korea South Korea 100 0.00 300
Syria Syria 100 0.01 300
Taiwan Taiwan 100 0.00 300

Remnant and vanished populations[edit]

The above table represents Jews that number at least a few dozen per country. Reports exist of Jewish communities remaining in other territories in the low single digits that are on the verge of disappearing, particularly in the Muslim world, as their reaction to the birth of Israel in 1948 was the persecution of Jews in nearly all Muslim lands; these are often of historical interest as they represent the remnant of much larger Jewish populations. For example, Egypt had a Jewish community of 80,000 in the early 20th century that numbered fewer than 40 as of 2014, mainly because of the forced expulsion movements to Israel and other countries at that time.[26] Afghanistan may have only one Jew left, Zablon Simintov, despite a 2,000 year history of Jewish presence.[27] In Syria, another ancient Jewish community saw mass exodus at the end of the 20th century and numbered fewer than 20 in the midst of the Syrian Civil War.[28] The size of the Jewish community in Indonesia has been variously given as 65, 100, or 18 at most over the last 50 years.[29][30]

Core Jewish population[edit]

According to the Jewish Data Bank (Table 4),[31] the 22 countries as of 2016 with the largest core Jewish populations were:

Jewish population by city as a percentage of total population (list does not include cities in Israel)[edit]

Rank City Country Percent Number
1 Qırmızı Qəsəbə[32]  Azerbaijan 100 3,300
2 Kiryas Joel[33]  United States 99 22,000
3 Deal  United States 91 600[citation needed]
4 Beachwood[34]  United States 90.4 10,700
5 Hampstead[35]  Canada 74.2 5,170
6 Côte-Saint-Luc[36]  Canada 69.1 20,146
7 Lakewood[37]  United States 59 59,607
8 Teaneck[38]  United States 50 18,000
9 Livingston  United States 46 12,600[citation needed]
10 Caulfield North[39]  Australia 41.1 8619
11 Elstree, Hertfordshire[40]  United Kingdom 36.0 1,840
12 Caulfield South[41]  Australia 33.9 4,008
13 Rose Bay[42]  Australia 27.3 2,744
14 Radlett, Hertfordshire  United Kingdom 26.28 2,579[citation needed]
15 Sarcelles[43]  France 25 15,000
16 Mercer Island[44]  United States 25 5,000
17 St Kilda East[45]  Australia 24.8 3,246
18 Créteil[46]  France 24.4 22,000
19 Vaucluse[47]  Australia 23.2 2,163
20 Westmount[48]  Canada 23.2 4,495
21 Bellevue Hill[49]  Australia 21.4 2,300
22 Dollard-des-Ormeaux[50]  Canada 21.1 10,115
23 Shenley, Hertfordshire[51]  United Kingdom 15.7 864
24 Vaughan[52]  Canada 18.2 33,090
25 Elsternwick[53]  Australia 17.8 1,846
26 Bushey, Hertfordshire[54]  United Kingdom 17.65 4,546
27 New York City[55]  United States 18 1,540,000
28 Bondi[56]  Australia 12.7 1,272
29 Borehamwood, Hertfordshire[57]  United Kingdom 12.22 3,906
30 Mount Royal[58]  Canada 12.0 2,205
31 Chigwell Row, Essex[59]  United Kingdom 13.3 294
32 Chigwell, Essex[60]  United Kingdom 11.5 1,492
33 Miami[61][not in citation given]  United States 9.86 535,000
34 Marseille[62]  France 9 70,000
35 Buenos Aires[63]  Argentina 8.22 244,000
36 Moor Park, Hertfordshire[64]  United Kingdom 8.1 448
37 Bricket Wood, Hertfordshire[65]  United Kingdom 6.67 273
38 Bury[66]  United Kingdom 5.60 10,360
39 Philadelphia[61][not in citation given]  United States 4.89 276,000
40 Buckhurst Hill, Essex[67][68]  United Kingdom 4.83 549
41 Toronto[69]  Canada 4.21 103,500

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Numbers in this list are the total for Israel proper as well as Israeli settlers in the West Bank. Broken down by area, the Jewish population numbers are:[25]
    • Israel: 5,959,200 (core); 6,320,900 (enlarged)
    • West Bank: 377,200 (core); 385,500 (enlarged)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference toi18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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  3. ^ a b c d DellaPergola, Sergio (2014). Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira, eds. "World Jewish Population, 2014". Current Jewish Population Reports. The American Jewish Year Book (Dordrecht: Springer). 113: 301–393. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f DellaPergola, Sergio (2015). Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira, eds. "World Jewish Population, 2015". Current Jewish Population Reports. The American Jewish Year Book (Dordrecht: Springer). 115: 273–364. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
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  27. ^ Donati, Jessica; Harooni, Mirwais (12 November 2013). "Last Jew in Afghanistan faces ruin as kebabs fail to sell". Reuters. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
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  29. ^ CIA World Fact Book
  30. ^ Levenda 2007, pp. 188.
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  33. ^ "Kiryas Joel is 'a holistic cradle-to-grave Jewish society'". 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
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  38. ^ "Teaneck CDP, New Jersey)". United States Census. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
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  49. ^ "2016 Census QuickStats". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  50. ^ "Statistics Canada - Community profiles - Dollard-des-Ormeaux". 2.statcan.ca. 2002-03-12. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
  51. ^ [1]
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  54. ^ Template:Census 2011 UK
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  57. ^ Template:Census 2011 GBR
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  59. ^ [2]
  60. ^ [3]
  61. ^ a b "America's 30 Most Jewish Cities". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  62. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - France : Jews". Retrieved 2016-09-30.
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  65. ^ [5]
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  68. ^ {http://buckhurst-hill-west.localstats.co.uk/census-demographics/england/east-of-england/epping-forest/buckhurst-hill-west]
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External links[edit]