Jewish population by country

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For historical figures, see Historical Jewish population comparisons. For different regions, see Judaism by country and Jewish ethnic divisions.
Jewish population by country (2013)

The world's core Jewish population in early 2014 was estimated at 14.2 million people (around 0.2% of the world population).[1][2] While dozens of countries host at least a small Jewish population, the community is concentrated in a handful: Israel and the United States account for 83% of the Jewish population, while a total of 18 countries host 98%.[2]

With just over 6 million Jews, Israel is the only Jewish majority and explicitly Jewish state. Jewish population figures for the United States are contested, ranging between 5.7 and 6.8 million.[3] (The core global total of Jews jumps above 15 million if the highest American estimates are assumed). Other countries with a significant Jewish population are, like Israel and the US, typically well-developed OECD members with Jews concentrated in major urban centers.[2]

In 1939, the core Jewish population reached its historical peak of 17 million (0.8% of the global population). Because of the Holocaust, the number was reduced to 11 million in 1945.[4] The population grew again to around 13 million by the 1970s, but has since recorded near-zero growth until around 2005 due to low fertility rates and to assimilation. Since 2005, the world's Jewish population has been growing modestly at a rate of around 0.78% (in 2013). This increase primarily reflects the rapid growth of Haredi and some Orthodox sectors, who are becoming a growing proportion of Jews.[5]

Demographer Sergio DellaPergola proposes an "extended" Jewish population, including people identifying as partly Jewish and non-Jews with Jewish parents, that numbers 17.2 million globally. His "enlarged" Jewish population figure further includes non-Jewish members of Jewish households and totals 20.1 million. Finally, the total number of people who hold or are eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return — defined as anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent, and who does not actively profess any other religion — is estimated at around 22.9 million, of which 6.4 million are currently living in Israel. Figures for these expanded categories are naturally less precise than for the core Jewish population.[2]

No reliable figures exist for the number of crypto-Jews.

Recent trends[edit]

Recent Jewish population dynamics are characterized by continued steady increase in the Israeli Jewish population and flat or declining numbers in countries of the diaspora. The Jewish population of Israel has increased more than tenfold since the country's inception in 1948 to 6,135,000 today[6] while the population of the diaspora has dropped from 10.5 to 8.1 million over the same period.[2] Current Israeli Jewish demographics are characterized by a relatively high fertility rate of 3 children per woman and a stable age distribution.[7] The overall growth rate of this group is 1.7% annually.[8] The diaspora countries, by contrast, have low Jewish birth rates, an increasingly elderly age composition, and a negative balance of people leaving Judaism versus those joining.[2]

Immigration trends also favor Israel ahead of diaspora countries. The Jewish state has a positive immigration balance (referred to as aliyah in the country). Israel saw its Jewish numbers significantly buoyed by a million strong wave of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s[9] and immigration growth has been steady in the low tens of thousands since then.[10] Globally, only the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany have shown a positive recent Jewish migration balance outside of Israel. In general, the anglosphere has seen its share of the diaspora increase since the Holocaust and the foundation of Israel, while historic Jewish populations in Eastern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East have significantly declined or disappeared.[11] France continues to be home to the world's third largest Jewish community, between 500,000 and 600,000 people,[12][13] but has shown an increasingly negative trend, including the largest emigration loss to Israel in 2014.[14]

Debate over American numbers[edit]

The exact number of Jews in the United States has been the subject of much debate given questions over counting methodology. In 2012 Sheskin and Dashefsky put forward a figure of 6.72 million based on a mixture of local surveys, informed local estimates, and US census data. They qualified this, however, with a concern over double counting and suggested the real figure may lie between 6 and 6.4 million.[15] Drawing on the work, the Steinhardt Social Research Institute released their own estimate of 6.8 million Jews in the United States in 2013.[16] All of these figures stand in contrast to Israeli demographer Sergio DellaPergola's number of 5,425,000 also in 2012.[2] He has called high estimates “implausible” and “unreliable” although he did revise the American Jewish number upward to 5.7 million in 2014.[3][2] This latest furor follows a similar debate in 2001 when the National Jewish Population Survey released a Jewish American estimate as low as 5.2 million only to have serious methodological errors suggested in their survey.[3] In sum, a confidence interval of a million or more people is likely to persist in reporting on the number of Jewish Americans.

Countries and Territories[edit]

Below is a list of Jewish populations in the world by country or territory. Unless otherwise indicated, core and enlarged population numbers are taken from DellaPergola's chapter "World Jewish Population" of the American Jewish Year Book of 2014.[2] Where other credible sources present competing numbers these are presented with a range and citation. DellaPergola's population figures are primarily based on national censuses combined with trend analysis. Regarding definitions, he has described the "core Jewish population" in the diaspora as "all persons who, when asked in a socio-demographic survey, identify themselves as Jews; or who are identified as Jews by a respondent in the same household, and do not have another monotheistic religion."[2]

The American Jewish Year Book numbers are reproduced with explanatory notes by country in the online Jewish Virtual Library.[17] The library is a comprehensive non-governmental website covering topics about U.S.-Israel relations and the Jewish people. A number of tiny countries whose Jewish populations are not listed in DellaPergola are provided here from the Virtual Library. For European countries, further information is provided by the Institute for Jewish Policy Research, including an interactive map of core and enlarged Jewish population that generally corresponds to DellaPergola's figures.[18]

Country populations used to deduce the "One Jew per # of people" column in the table are taken from the CIA World Factbook, with most estimates current as of July 2014.[19]

Table[edit]

Country or Territory Core Jewish Population One Jew per # of people Enlarged Jewish Population
World 14,212,800 505 20,109,400
 Israel[a] 6,103,200 1.32 6,451,000
 United States 5,700,000 - 6,800,000[16] 56 10,000,000
 European Union 1,103,300 464 1,592,600
 France 475,000 139 600,000
 Canada 385,000 90 550,000
 United Kingdom 290,000 220 370,000
 Russia 186,000 766 380,000
 Argentina 181,300 238 330,000
 Germany 118,000 686 250,000
 Australia 112,500 199 135,000
 Brazil 95,000 - 107,329[20] 2,133 150,000
 South Africa 70,000 691 80,000 - 92,000[21]
 Ukraine 63,000 703 130,000
 Hungary 47,900 207 95,000
 Mexico 40,000 - 67,476[22] 3,007 50,000 - 67,476
 Belgium 30,000 348 40,000
 Netherlands 29,900 563 50,000
 Italy 28,000 2,203 40,000
  Switzerland 19,000 424 25,000
 Chile 18,500 939 26,000
 Turkey 17,200 4,801 21,000
 Sweden 15,000 648 25,000
 Uruguay 12,000[23] - 17,200 278 25,000
 Spain 12,000 3,978 18,000
 Belarus 11,500 835 25,000
 Panama 10,000 361 11,000
 Romania 9,400 2,312 17,000
 Austria 9,000 914 17,000
 Iran 8,756[24] - 10,000 9,186 12,000
 Azerbaijan 8,700 1,113 16,000
 Venezuela 8,000 3,608 12,000
 New Zealand 7,500 587 9,000
 Denmark 6,400 870 8,500
 Latvia 5,600 387 12,000
 Hong Kong 5,000[25] 1,422 5,000
 India 5,000 247,269 7,000
 Greece 4,500 2,394 6,000
 Colombia 4,500 10,277 3,200
 Czech Republic 3,900 2,725 6,500
 Uzbekistan 3,800 7,613 8,000
 Republic of Moldova 3,700 968 7,500
 Poland[b] 3,200 - 25,000[29] 11,983 7,500 - 100,000[28]
 Kazakhstan 3,100 5,790 6,500
 Lithuania 2,900 1,209 6,500
 Georgia 2,800 1,763 6,000
 Slovakia 2,600 2,093 4,500
 Costa Rica 2,500 1,902 3,000
 China 2,500 542,277 3,000
 Morocco 2,400 13,745 2,700
 Bulgaria 2,000 3,462 6,000
 Estonia 2,000 629 3,400
 Peru 1,900 15,867 3,000
 Croatia 1,700 2,629 3,000
 Ireland 1,600 3,020 2,400
 Puerto Rico 1,500 2,431 2,500
 Serbia 1,400 5,149 2,800
 Finland 1,300 4,052 1,800
 Norway 1,300 3,960 2,000
 Japan 1,000 127,103 1,400
 Paraguay 900 - 1,000[30] 7,448 1,500
 Guatemala 900 16,274 1,500
 Tunisia 900 12,153 1,100
 Ecuador 600 26,090 1,000
 Luxembourg 600 867 900
 Portugal 600 18,022 1,000
 Gibraltar 600 48 800
 Cuba 500 22,094 1,500
 United States Virgin Islands 500 208 700
 Bolivia 500 21,262 900
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 500 7,742 1,000
 Kyrgyzstan 500 11,208 1,000
 Zimbabwe 400 34,430 600
 Armenia 300 - 500[31] 10,200 300 - 500
 Bahamas 300 1,070 400
 Singapore 300 18,557 500
 Vietnam 300[32] 311,403 300
 Kenya 300 150,033 700
 Pakistan 200[33] - 809[34] 980,870 809
 Lebanon 200[35][36] 29,415 200
 Jamaica 200 14,650 400
 Netherlands Antilles 200 1,525 400
 Suriname 200 2,865 400
 Turkmenistan 200 25,860 400
 Thailand 200 338,705 300
 Tahiti 120[37] 1,533 120
 Republic of Macedonia 100 20,910 200
 Philippines 100 1,076,680 200
 Dominican Republic 100 103,497 200
 El Salvador 100 61,255 200
 Cyprus 100 11,724 200
 Malta 100 4,126 200
 Slovenia 100 19,882 200
 South Korea 100 490,400 200
 Taiwan 100 233,600 200
 Ethiopia 100 966,334 1,000
 Botswana 100 21,558 200
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 100 774,337 200
 Namibia 100 21,984 200
 Nigeria 100 1,771,558 200
 Yemen 90[38] - 200 289,467 300
 Martinique 90[39] 4,289 90
 Fiji 60[40] 15,050 60
 New Caledonia 50[41] 5,340 50
 Albania 40 - 50[42] 75,500 40 - 50
 Bahrain 36[43] 36,500 36

Remnant and vanished populations[edit]

The above table represents Jews that number at least a few dozen per country. Reports do exist of Jewish communities remaining in other territories in the low single digits that are on the verge of disappearing, particularly in the Muslim world; these are often of historical interest as they represent the remnant of once much larger Jewish populations. Egypt, for example, had a Jewish community of 80,000 in the early twentieth century that numbers less than 40 today.[44] Afghanistan may, literally, have only one Jew left despite a 2,000 year history of Jewish presence.[45] In Syria, another ancient Jewish community saw mass exodus at the end of the twentieth century and numbered less than 20 in the midst of the Syrian Civil War.[46]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Numbers in this list are the total for Israel proper as well as the disputed Palestinian territories. Broken down by area, the Jewish population numbers are:[2]
    • Israel: 5,763,100 (core); 6,103,100 (enlarged)
    • Palestinian territories: 340,100 (core); 348,000 (enlarged)
  2. ^ Poland shows the widest range of any entry in this table. Once the epicenter of the diaspora with millions of Jews, the population was decimated by the Holocaust and further subdued by communism; estimating current numbers has been difficult. DellaPagoria presents conservative estimates of just 3,200 (core) and 7,500 (enlarged) because census numbers have been low. There is reason to suspect the number is higher with multiple sources suggesting a population in the range of 20,000 to 25,000.[26][27] One report notes that estimates have ranged anywhere from 10,000 to 100,000.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wisse, Ruth (2007). Jews and Power. Schocken Books. p. 188. ISBN 978-0805242249. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k DellaPergola, Sergio (2014). Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira, eds. "World Jewish Population, 2014". Current Jewish Population Reports (The American Jewish Year Book (Dordrecht: Springer)) 113: pp 301-393. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c "US Jewish Population is Anywhere Between 5.425 Million and 6.722 Million". Jewish Political News and Updates. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  4. ^ "World Jewish Population - Latest Statistics". Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  5. ^ "Haredi Orthodox account for bulk of Jewish population growth in New York City - Nation". Jewish Journal. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  6. ^ Yaakov Levi. "Israel Population Now 8.2 Million - 75% Are Jewish". Israel National News. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  7. ^ "Fertility Rates, by Age and Religion". Statistical Abstract of Israel. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  8. ^ "Data: Arab Growth Slows, Still Higher than Jewish Rate". Israel National News. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  9. ^ Post-Soviet Aliyah and Jewish Demographic Transformation - Mark Tolts.
  10. ^ "Immigration to Israel by Year". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  11. ^ "Demography". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  12. ^ RFI (7 September 2014). "Les juifs de France émigrent en masse vers Israël". RFI. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  13. ^ "La communauté juive de France compte 550.000 personnes, dont 25.000 à Toulouse". France info. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  14. ^ "France tops list for Jewish emigration to Israel". RFI. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  15. ^ Sheshkin, Ira; Dashefsky, Arnold (2 November 2012). Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira, eds. "Jewish Population in the United States, 2012" (PDF). Current Jewish Population Reports. Storrs, Connecticut: North American Jewish Data Bank. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  16. ^ a b Tighe, Elizabeth et al. (September 2013). "American Jewish Population Estimates: 2012" (PDF). Brandeis University: Steinhardt Social Research Institute. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  17. ^ 2012. Retrieved on 30 January 2014
  18. ^ "Jewish populations in Europe". Institute for Jewish Policy Research. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  19. ^ "Country Comparison: Population". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  20. ^ 2010 Brazilian census Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Retrieved on 30 January 2014
  21. ^ NSW Board of Jewish Education. "South African Jews". Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  22. ^ "Panorama de las religiones en México 2010" (PDF) (in Spanish). INEGI. p. 3. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  23. ^ Congreso Judío Latinoamericano. "Comunidades judías latinoamericanas: Uruguay" (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 January 2015. 
  24. ^ "Jewish woman brutally murdered in Iran over property dispute". The Times of Israel. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 16 Aug 2014. A government census published earlier this year indicated there were a mere 8,756 Jews left in Iran 
  25. ^ Lyons, Erica (August 2011). "The Jewish Community of Hong Kong". Beit Hatfutsot Museum. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  26. ^ Pfeffer, Anshel (3 February 2015). "The killing fields of Auschwitz nearby, Polish Jewish life is being reborn in Krakow". Haaretz. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  27. ^ Easton, Adam (27 October 2014). "Polish museum celebrates 1,000 years of Jewish life". BBC. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  28. ^ a b Timothy Garton Ash. "A small miracle in the tortured history of Polish-Jewish relations". Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  29. ^ "Warsaw Jews to Open First JCC in Polish Capital". Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  30. ^ Congreso Judío Latinoamericano. "Comunidades judías latinoamericanas: Paraguay" (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 January 2015. 
  31. ^ Freund, Michael. "Vandals deface Holocaust memorial in Armenia". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  32. ^ "Economic Opportunities Lure Jews to Land of Ho Chi Minh". Jewish Telegraph Agency. 1 October 2007. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  33. ^ "Pakistan". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  34. ^ "Minorities’ votes may decide fate of 96 constituencies". Dawn. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  35. ^ Rainey, Venetia. "Uncovering Lebanon's Jewish past". Al Jezeera. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  36. ^ "Beirut's hidden Jewish community". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  37. ^ "Tahiti". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  38. ^ Finn, Tom; Root, Tik. "For Yemen’s Few Remaining Jews, Time Has Run Out". Time Magazine. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  39. ^ "Martinique". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  40. ^ "Fiji". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  41. ^ "New Caledonia". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  42. ^ "Albania". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  43. ^ Slackman, Michael (5 April 2009). "In a Landscape of Tension, Bahrain Embraces Its Jews. All 36 of Them.". NY Times. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  44. ^ "Egypt's Jewish community buries deputy leader". Al Jazeera. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  45. ^ Donati, Jessica; Harooni, Mirwais (12 November 2013). "Last Jew in Afghanistan faces ruin as kebabs fail to sell". Reuters. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  46. ^ "Syria". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 

External links[edit]