Jhargram (community development block)

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Jhargram
ঝাড়গ্রাম
Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
Jhargram is located in West Bengal
Jhargram
Jhargram
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°27′N 86°59′E / 22.45°N 86.98°E / 22.45; 86.98Coordinates: 22°27′N 86°59′E / 22.45°N 86.98°E / 22.45; 86.98
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Paschim Medinipur
Area
 • Total 539.64 km2 (208.36 sq mi)
Elevation 82 m (269 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 170,097
 • Density 320/km2 (820/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 721507 (Jhargram)
721513 (Manikpara)
Area code(s) 03221
Vehicle registration WB-34
Literacy 72.23%
Lok Sabha constituency Jhargram
Vidhan Sabha constituency Jhargram, Gopiballavpur
Website paschimmedinipur.gov.in

Jhargram is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Jhargram subdivision of Paschim Medinipur district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Red corridor[edit]

106 districts spanning 10 states across India, described as being a part of the Left Wing Extremism activities, constitutes the Red corridor. In West Bengal the districts of Pashim Medinipur, Bankura, Purulia and Birbhum are part of the Red corridor. However, as of July 2016, there has been no reported incidents of Maoist related activities from these districts for the previous 4 years.[1]In the period 2009-2011 LWE violence resulted in more than 500 deaths and a similar number missing in Paschim Medinipur district.[2]The Lalgarh movement, which started attracting attention after the failed assassination attempt on Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, then chief minister of West Bengal, in the Salboni area of Paschim Medinipur district, on 2 November 2008 and the police action that followed, had also spread over to these areas.[3]The movement was not just a political struggle but an armed struggle that concurrently took the look of a social struggle. A large number of CPI (M) activists were killed. Although the epi-centre of the movement was Lalgarh, it was spread across 19 police stations in three adjoining districts – Paschim Medinipur, Bankura and Purulia, all thickly forested and near the border with Jharkhand. The deployment of CRPF and other forces started on 11 June 2009. The movement came to an end after the 2011 state assembly elections and change of government in West Bengal. The death of Kishenji, the Maoist commander, on 24 November 2011 was the last major landmark.[3][4]

Geography[edit]

Overview[edit]

Paschim Medinipur, located in the south-western part of West Bengal, was created with the partition of the erstwhile Midnapore district, then the largest district of India, on 1st January 2002. It ranks second in terms of geographical area (9,295.28  km2) amongst the districts of the state, next to South 24-Parganas (9,960  km2). It ranks third in terms of rural population (4.58 million) following South 24-Parganas (5.82 million) and Murshidabad (5.13 million). It ranked fourth in terms of percentage of tribal population (14.87) following Jalpaiguri (18.87), Purulia (18.27) and Dakshin Dinajpur (16.12) in 2011.[5]

Broadly speaking, there are two natural divisions of the district. NH 14 and NH 16 (old numbering NH 60) from Bankura to Balasore, cuts across the district and roughly is the dividing line between the two natural divisions. To the east of this road, the soil is fertile alluvial and the area is flat. To the west, the Chota Nagpur Plateau gradually slopes down creating an undulating area with infertile laterite rocks/ soil. The landscape changes from dense dry deciduous forests in the west to marshy wetlands in the east.[5]

In Jhargram CD Block 90% of the cultivated area has lateritic soil and 10% has alluvial soil.[5]

Rivers[edit]

The river system of Paschim Medinipur district consists of the Rupnarayan, the Silabati or Silai, the Kangsabati or Kansai, the Subarnarekha and the Dulongs. The Silai enters the district from Bankura district, flows through the northern parts of Medinipur Sadar subdivision and then enters Ghatal subdivision and joins the Rupnarayan at Bhandar, 4 miles below Ghatal. The Kasai enters the district from Bankura district. It flows past Medinipur town, bifurcates into two channels, one of which joins the Rupnarayan. Purandar, Gopa, Chandaur and Kubai are important tributaries in the system. The Subarnarekha enters the district from East Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, flows through the southern part of Medinipur Sadar subdivision, intersects Gopiballavpur police station area, flows past Dantan town and enters Balasore district of Odisha.[5]

Floods and drought[edit]

Paschim Medinipur district is subject to both floods and drought. Ghatal and parts of Kharagpur subdivision covering an area of 142,647 hectares (1,426.47 km2) are flood prone. Water logging during the rainy season affects Ghatal and the southern parts of Kharagpur subdivion and results in loss of crops in such areas as Sabang, Pingla and Narayangarh CD Blocks.335,248 hectares (3,352.48 km2) in Jhargram and Medinipur Sadar subdivisions are drought prone. The drought situation is particularly severe in Jhargram subdivision. Although the district is away from the sea, cyclones hit it frequently in October-November.[5]

Location[edit]

Jhargram is located at 22°27′N 86°59′E / 22.45°N 86.98°E / 22.45; 86.98.

Jhargram CD Block is bounded by Binpur I and Midnapore Sadar CD Blocks in the north, Kharagpur I and Sankrail CD Blocks in the east, Gopiballavpur II CD Block in the south and Jamboni CD Block in the west.[6][7]

It is located 39 km from Midnapore, the district headquarters.[6]

Area and administration[edit]

Jhargram CD Block has an area of 539.64  km2.[8]Jhargram police station serves this CD Block. Jhargram panchayat samity has 13 gram panchayats. The block has 438 inhabited villages.[9]Headquarters of this block is at Jhargram.

Forest[edit]

Pashim Medinipur has a forest cover of 171,935 hectares. The main products of the forest are: Sal, Teak, Babble, Mahua, Amla, broom sticks etc.[10] The main forested areas are Jhargram, Binpur, Nayagram, Garhbeta, Midnapore, Jamboni, Gopiballavpur and Salboni. Jhargram CD Block has a forest cover of 15,172 hecatres, which is 27.95% of the reporting area of the CD Block.[9]

Gram panchayats[edit]

Gram panchayats of Jamboni block/ panchayat samiti are: Aguiboni, Bundhgora, Chandri, Chubka, Dudhkundi, Lodhasuli, Manikpara, Nendahbahara, Patasimul, Radhanagar, Salboni, Sapdhara and Sardiha.[11]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India Jhargram CD Block had a total population of 170,097, all of which were rural. There were 85,970 (51%) males and 84,127 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 20,331. Scheduled Castes numbered 25,220 (14.83%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 38,625 (22.71%).[12]

As per 2001 census, Jhargram block had a total population of 153,381, out of which 78,362 were males and 75,019 were females. Jhargram block registered a population growth of 14.64 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the combined Midnapore district was 14.87 per cent.[8] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.45 per cent.[13]

Villages[edit]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Jhargarm CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Manikpara (4,239).[12]

Other villages in Jhargram CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Chandri (1,699), Radhanagar (3,476), Sardiha (660), Chubka (577), Lodhasuli (1,102) and Patashimul (486).[12]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Jhargram CD Block was 108,179 (72.23% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 60,974 (80.55% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 47,205 (63.73% of the female population over 6 years). The gender gap in literacy rates was 16.82%.[12]

As per the 2011 census, literacy in Paschim Medinipur district was 78.00%.[14]Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011.[15]Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.[15]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate

Languages[edit]

Bengali is the local language in these areas.[6]

There is a Tribal presence in many of the CD Blocks of the district. Santali is spoken by 55.93% of the tribal population of the district. The Bhumij, forming 11.16% of the tribal population, and the Mundas, forming 6.10% of the tribal population, speak Mundari. Other small groups include Koras and Mahalis. The Lodhas, forming 3.85% of the tribal population, the only primitive tribe in the district, speak Lodhi.[16]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Jhargram CD Block
Hindu
  
91.03%
Muslim
  
3.70%
Others
  
5.27%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 154,823 and formed 91.03% of the population in Jhargram CD Block. Muslims numbered 6,296 and formed 3.70% of the population. Others numbered 8,960 and formed 5.27% of the population.[17]Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,[18]Christian and other religious communities.[17]

In 2011, Hindus numbered 5,056,953 and formed 85.52% of the population in Paschim Medinipur district. Muslims numbered 620,554 and formed 10.49% of the population. Others (including Christians) numbered 235,950 and formed 3.99% of the population. Christians numbered 23,287 and formed 0.39% of the population. In West Bengal, Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.[17]

Human Development Report[edit]

According to the District Human Development Report of Paschim Medinipur: The district represents regional diversity in terms of physiographic, agro-climatic characteristics, economic development, social composition etc. Over 7,500 inhabited villages of the district reflect highly differential features and indicators of human development. There are pockets of prosperity in the eastern part and areas of distress in the western part. From 2009 Maoist violence rapidly spread across eleven western CD Blocks of the district: Binpur I, Binpur II, Salboni, Grahbeta II, Jamboni, Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Gopiballavpur I, Gopiballavpur II, Sankrail and Nayagram. [19]

The level of urbanisation in the district is low. In 2001 the percentage share of the urban population in the district was 11.90 against 27.96 in the state as a whole. Population density at 531 persons per  km2 was lower than the West Bengal average of 903 persons per  km2. The literacy rate has increased significantly from 39.80% in 1981 to 70.41% in 2001, but the gender gap in literacy rate (difference between female and male literacy rates) is substantial.[19]

There is high agricultural productivity differential across 29 blocks of the district. The differential being high across drought prone blocks of the western part of the district and substantially irrigated blocks of its eastern part. Low productivity of agriculture has considerable relevance for high level of poverty among households in the drought prone regions specially among the SCs and STs. The district is relatively backward in the development of infrastructure.[19]

Electrification was extended to 76.79% mouzas of the district by 2007. In Jhargram CD Block electricity was extended to 49.83% of the mouzas by 2007.[19]

The United Nations Development Programme considers the combined primary and secondary enrolment ratio as the simple indicator of educational achievement of the children in the school going age. The infrastructure available is important. In Jhargram CD Block out of the total 199 primary schools in 2008-2009, 149 had pucca buildings, 8 partially pucca, 5 kucha and 37 multiple type. In the district as a whole 43.6% of primary schools and 88.38% of upper primary schools had libraries, 30.99% primary schools (classes I – V) and 78.37% upper primary schools (classes VI to VIII) had play grounds, and 20.83% upper primary schools had computers. 62,697 sudents of primary schools and 242,728 students of upper primary schools were covered under the Midday Meal Scheme. Nayagram and Gopiballavpur I CD Blocks have been identified as educationally backward blocks and special efforts are being made through National Programme of Education for Girls at Elementary Level and Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya hostels. These are the hostels for accommodating girl students from weaker sections of the society and all costs relating to their livelihood are borne by the government so that they are not to be deprived of availing elementary education for want of money or other social issues.[19]

As per the Rural Household Survey conducted in 2005 by the Department of Panchayats and Rural Development, Government of West Bengal, 43.79% of rural houselds in the district were Below Poverty Line against 34.12% in West Bengal.[19]

The 29 CD Blocks of the district were classified into four categories based on the poverty ratio. Nayagram, Binpur II and Jamboni CD Blocks have very high poverty levels (above 60%). Kharagpur I, Kharagpur II, Sankrail, Garhbeta II, Pingla and Mohanpur CD Blocks have high levels of poverty (50-60%), Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Dantan I, Gopiballavpur II, Binpur I, Dantan II, Keshiari, Chandrakona I, Gopiballavpur I, Chandrakona II, Narayangarh, Keshpur, Ghatal, Sabang, Garhbeta I, Salboni, Debra and Garhbeta III CD Blocks have moderate levels of poverty (25-50%) and Daspur II and Daspur I have low levels of poverty (below 25%).[19]

The loco shops of South Eastern Railway employed 3,983 persons, the carriage shops of South Eastern Railway employed 2,189 persons, the wagon repair shops of South Eastern Railway employed 1,700 persons. There were 14 units employing between 250 and 1,000 persons. All other industrial establishments in Paschim Medinipur employed less than 250 persons. More than 80% of Paschim Medinipur’s population depend on agricultural activities for a living.[19]

The dominant SC gropus in the district are Bagdi Dule, Dom, Jalia Kaibarta, Mal, Rajbanshi, Rajoyar, Keora, Bhimali, Bauri, and Tiyar. Ghatal sub-division has highest concentration of 24.95% SC population. The western part of the district shows more dense ST population. The Jhargram sub division has the highest concentration, i.e. 30.02% of total ST population. The major tribal communities of the district are Santhal, Bhumij, Munda, Lodha, Kora and Mahali. Among them, Lodha only belong to the primitive tribal group. Most of the STs live on agricultural labour. Many ST families move to the neighbouring districts in search of work, particularly during the cultivation season.[19]

(Note: Certain topics, such as Geography, Literacy, Education, Healthcare etc., are not/not fully covered here and are covered elsewhere in this page.)


Economy[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

in 2003-04, in Jhargram CD Block had 5,500 hectares of canals, 1,900 hectares were irrigated with tank water, 200 hectares by deep tube wells and 4,000 hectares by shallow tube wells.[9]In 2006-07 in Jhargram CD Block 44.39% of the gross cropped area had facilities for irrigation.[20]

In 2003-04 Jhargram CD Block had 47 km of surfaced roads and 14 km unsurfaced roads under PWD, 85 km surfaced roads under Zilla Parishad and 389 surfaced roads and 232 km unsurfaced roads under Gram Panchayat and Panchayat Samiti.[9]

Agriculture[edit]

In 2003-04 the farmers of Jhargram CD Block could be classified as follows: Bargadars 8.76%, patta (document) holders 32.87%, small farmers 4.98%, marginal farmers 11.30% and agricultural labourers 42.09%.[9]

As of 2003-04, Jhargram CD Block had 8,735 hectares vested land, out of which 6,065 hectares were distributed amongst 26,878 persons.[9]

In 2003-04 net area sown in Jhargram CD Block was 23,207 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 10,500 hectares.[9]

In 2003-04 Jhargram CD Block produced 4,190 tonnes of Aus paddy from 2,450 hectares, 32,160 tonnes of Aman paddy from 19,330 hectares, 2,430 tonnes Boro paddy from 910 hectares, 1,760 tonnes wheat from 910 hectares and 8,710 tonnes of potatoes from 320 hectares.[9]

Pisciculture[edit]

In Jhargram CD Block 141 hectares was the nett area under effective pisiculture and 785 persons were engaged in the profession. Approximate annual production in 2003-04 was 1,492 qtl.[9]

Transport[edit]

Jhargram CD Block has 5 ferry services and 4 originating/ terminating bus routes.[9]

The Kharagpur-Tatanagar line of South Eastern Railway passes through this CD Block and there is a station at Jhargram.[21]

Education[edit]

In 2003-04, Jhargram CD Block had 197 primary schools with 14,289 students, 10 middle schools with 2,703 students, 6 high schools with 3,837 students and 6 higher secondary schools with 5,645 students. Jhargram CD Block had 1 general college with 687 students, 3 technical and professional institutions with 609 students and 325 institutions with 10,997 students for special and non-formal education. Jhargram CD Block had 130 mass literacy centres. There was 1 general college in Jhargram municipal area (outside Jhargram CD Block.)[9]

Healthcare[edit]

Jhargram CD Block had 5 health centres, 28 clinics and 3 dispensaries with 38 beds and 7 doctors in 2003.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Vijayita. "Red Corridor to be redrawn". The Hindu, 25 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  2. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page 271. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "Lalgarh Battle". Frontline. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  4. ^ "Kishenji's death a serious blow to Maoist movement". The Hindu. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Chapter I Introduction and Human Development Indices for Paschim Mednipur. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c "Jhargram Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  7. ^ "District Map Paschim Medinipur". Maps. Paschim Medinipur district administration. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, (erstwhile) Medinipur District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "District Statistical Handbook – 2004 – Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 4.4, 4.6, 8.2, 17.2, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 20.1, 21.1, 21.2. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  10. ^ "Brief Industrial Profile of Paschim Midanpur district" (PDF). Forests. MSME Development Institute. Retrieved 26 June 2016. 
  11. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Paschim Medinipur - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  13. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2016. 
  14. ^ "Paschim Medinipur (West Midnapore) District: Census 2011 data". 2016 Digital Trends. Census Population 2015 Data. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  15. ^ a b "Provisional population tables and annexures" (PDF). Census 2011:Table 2(3) Literates and Literacy rates by sex. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  16. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Page 217 Scheduled Tribe Community. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  17. ^ a b c "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  18. ^ "ST-14 A Details Of Religions Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Pages: 4-16, 38, 60-75, 176-178, 251, 263,271. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  20. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Page 146, Table 5.19, Percentage Share of Irrigated Area. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  21. ^ "58021 Kharagpur-Tatanagar Passenger". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 

External links[edit]