Jharia

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Jharia

झरिया
Neighbourhood in Dhanbad
Jharia is located in Jharkhand
Jharia
Jharia
Location in Jharkhand, India
Jharia is located in India
Jharia
Jharia
Jharia (India)
Coordinates: 23°45′06″N 86°25′13″E / 23.751568°N 86.420345°E / 23.751568; 86.420345Coordinates: 23°45′06″N 86°25′13″E / 23.751568°N 86.420345°E / 23.751568; 86.420345
CountryIndia
StateJharkhand
DistrictDhanbad
Elevation
77 m (253 ft)
Population
(2001)
 • Total81,979
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, Urdu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationJH
Websitedhanbad.nic.in
[1]
Railways in Jharia Coalfield
35
Chandrapura 
 Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Gomoh
 Telo
Dugda 
 Baghmara
26
Jamuniatanr 
 Matari
 Nichitpur Halt
Mahuda Junction 
 Phularitand
18 Sonardih
Malkera 
14
Katrasgarh 
 Tetulmari
11
Sijua 
8
Bansjora   
4
Kusunda   
 Bhuli
Bhaga 
00 Dhanbad
Bhowrah 
07 Jharia
Jamadoba 
09 Lodna
Sudamdih 
16 Pathardih
27
Sindri 
10 Pradhankhanta
15
Rakhitpur 

Jharia is a neighbourhood in Dhanbad in Jharkhand state, India. Jharia was the fifteenth-largest town in the state of Jharkhand.[2] (More than one town in India shares this name.) Jharia is famous for its rich coal resources, used to make coke. Jharia plays a very important role in the economy and development of Dhanbad City, and can be considered as a part of Dhanbad City.

Geography[edit]

Jharia, earlier a census town, was combined with other urban units to form Dhanbad Municipal Corporation in 2006.[3][4]

Jharia is spread over parts of Ward Nos. 36,37 and 38 of Dhanbad Municipal Corporation.[5]

Police station[edit]

Jharia police station serves Jharia CD Block.[6]

CD Block HQ[edit]

Headquarters of Jharia CD Block is at Jharia.[7]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[8] Jharia had a population of 81,979. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Jharia has an average literacy rate of 68%, lower than the national average of 74.5%: male literacy is 74%, and female literacy is 60%. In Jharia, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Relocation[edit]

According to the state government, the town of Jharia is to be shifted due to the uncontrollable coal mine fires (see below), which have found to be undousable, leading to loss of property and lives. Coal worth Rs. 60,000 crore (US$12 billion) is lying unmined, and the state government feels the shifting will help in exploiting this resource.[9]

Coal field[edit]

Jharia Coal mine

The coal field lies in the Damodar River Valley, and covers about 110 square miles (280 square km), and produces bituminous coal suitable for coke. Most of India's coal comes from Jharia. Jharia coal mines are India's most important storehouse[10] of prime coke coal used in blast furnaces, it consists of 23 large underground and nine large open cast mines.[9]

The mining activities in these coalfields started in 1894 and had really intensified in 1925. The first Indians to arrive and break monopoly of British in Coal mining were Gujarati.

After the mines were nationalized in 1971, due to easy availability of coal, many steel plants are set up in close proximity to Jharia.

Coal field fire[edit]

Jharia is famous for a coal field fire that has burned underground for a century. The first fire was detected in 1916.[9] According to records, it was the Khas Jharia mines of Seth Khora Ramji, who was a pioneer of Indian coalmines, whose mines were one of the firsts to collapse in underground fire in 1930. Two of his collieries, Khas Jharia and Golden Jharia, which worked on maximum 260-foot-deep shafts,[11] collapsed due to now infamous underground fires, in which their house and bungalow also collapsed on 8 November 1930, causing 18 feet subsidence and widespread destruction.[12][13][11][14][15][16] The fire never stopped despite sincere efforts by mines department and railway authorities and in 1933 flaming crevasses lead to exodus of many residents.[11] The 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake led to further spread of fire and by 1938 the authorities had declared that there is raging fire beneath the town with 42 collieries out of 133 on fire.[17]

In 1972, more than 70 mine fires were reported in this region. As of 2007, more than 400,000 people who reside in Jharia are living on land in danger of subsidence due to the fires, and according to Satya Pratap Singh, "Jharia township is on the brink of an ecological and human disaster".[18] The government has been criticized for a perceived lackadaisical attitude[19] towards the safety of the people of Jharia.[20] Heavy fumes emitted by the fires[21] lead to severe health problems such as breathing disorders and skin diseases among the local population.[22]

Ammonia pollution[edit]

In 2018, researchers at Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) in Belgium revealed a created map of global atmospheric ammonia, by combining nine years of satellite data, that show Jharia and surroundings are heavily ammonia polluted from burning coal mines.[23] The emitted ammonia reacts rapidly with other air pollutants, and thereby helps to form fine particulate matter that shortens the human lifespan through respiratory and coronary diseases. Moreover, the gaseous ammonia and ammonium compounds formed from it in the atmosphere, are deposited into ecosystems, throughout the Himalayas, damaging sensitive habitats — especially those naturally adapted to need clean air.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Jharia, India".
  2. ^ "Jharkhand cities and town, world-gazetteer.com". Archived from the original on 2011-05-22.
  3. ^ "Dhanbad Municipal Corporation". DMC. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  4. ^ "Dhanbad Dsitrict Map". Physical Map of Dhanbad. Jharkhand Government. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  5. ^ "Dhanbad Municipal Corporation". प्रादेशिक निर्वाचन क्षेत्रों की सूची (in Hindi). Jharkhand Government. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  6. ^ "Dhanbad – Welcome to the Coal Capital of India". Administrative Structure of Dhanbad District – List of Thana and Outpost of Dhanbad Outpost. Jharkhand Government. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  7. ^ "District Census Handbook 2011 Series 21 Part XIIB" (PDF). Map on Page 3. Directorate of Census Operations, Jharkhand. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  9. ^ a b c Jharia to be shifted, The Times of India, 31 Aug 2006
  10. ^ The Jharia coal field fire
  11. ^ a b c Amin, Samir; Amin, Shahid; Linden, Marcel van der (1997). Peripheral Labour: Studies in the History of Partial Proletarianization edited by Shahid Amin, Marcel van der Linden. p. 83. ISBN 9780521589000.
  12. ^ Gazetteers of Bengal, Assam, Bihar & Orissa 1917 Khora Ramji Colliries
  13. ^ Khora Ramji Mines capsized in 1938
  14. ^ Diary of Golden Days at Jharia – A Memoir & History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia – written by Natwarlal Devram Jethwa:1998 Page:12
  15. ^ Nanji Bapa ni Nondh-pothi published in Gujarati in year 1999 from Vadodara. It is a diary of Railway Contracts done by KGK community noted by Nanji Govindji Tank of Jamshedpur, compiled by Dharsibhai Jethalal Tank, Tatanagar. (Aank Sidhhi awarded to book by Kutch Shakti at Mumbai in 2000): Life Sketch of Seth Khora Ramji Chawra Page :76
  16. ^ [1] The Jharia underground fire still raging first came to notice in November, 1930 with subsidance at Seth Khora Ramji's Khas Jharia Colliery(Page 159). He was told that Seth Khora Ramji, whose mines lay underneath Jharia, had chosen to live in his house, which also collapsed in subsidance(Page 160). "The politics of labour under late colonialism: workers, unions, and the state in Chota Nagpur, 1928–1939 by Dilip Simeon."
  17. ^ Searchlight, 24 January 1936.
  18. ^ Hindustan Times, December 15, 2007
  19. ^ The Jharia mine fire control technical assistance project: an analysis, April 2004
  20. ^ "Inside Coal Mine Fires", a documentary, 2005
  21. ^ ESTIMATION OF GAS EMISSIONS FROM SHALLOW SUBSURFACE COAL FIRES IN JHARIA COALFIELD
  22. ^ In the line of fire, indiatogether.org
  23. ^ Br; Specktor, on; December 5, Senior Writer |; ET, 2018 03:24pm. "Scary Map Shows Where Animal Poop Is Turning into Deadly Ammonia Pollution". Live Science. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  24. ^ Howard, Clare M.; Sutton, Mark A. (2018). "Satellite pinpoints ammonia sources globally". Nature. 564 (7734): 49. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-07584-7.

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]