Neighbourhood in Dhanbad
|Elevation||77 m (253 ft)|
|• Official||Hindi, Urdu|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Railways in Jharia Coalfield|
Jharia is a neighbourhood in Dhanbad in Jharkhand state, India. Jharia was the fifteenth-largest town in the state of Jharkhand. (More than one town in India shares this name.) Jharia is famous for its rich coal resources, used to make coke. Jharia plays a very important role in the economy and development of Dhanbad City, and can be considered as a part of Dhanbad City.
Jharia is spread over parts of Ward Nos. 36,37 and 38 of Dhanbad Municipal Corporation.
CD Block HQ
Headquarters of Jharia CD Block is at Jharia.
As of 2001[update] India census, Jharia had a population of 81,979. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Jharia has an average literacy rate of 68%, lower than the national average of 74.5%: male literacy is 74%, and female literacy is 60%. In Jharia, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.
According to the state government, the town of Jharia is to be shifted due to the uncontrollable coal mine fires (see below), which have found to be undousable, leading to loss of property and lives. Coal worth Rs. 60,000 crore (US$12 billion) is lying unmined, and the state government feels the shifting will help in exploiting this resource.
The coal field lies in the Damodar River Valley, and covers about 110 square miles (280 square km), and produces bituminous coal suitable for coke. Most of India's coal comes from Jharia. Jharia coal mines are India's most important storehouse of prime coke coal used in blast furnaces, it consists of 23 large underground and nine large open cast mines.
The mining activities in these coalfields started in 1894 and had really intensified in 1925. The first Indians to arrive and break monopoly of British in Coal mining were Gujarati.
After the mines were nationalized in 1971, due to easy availability of coal, many steel plants are set up in close proximity to Jharia.
Coal field fire
Jharia is famous for a coal field fire that has burned underground for a century. The first fire was detected in 1916. According to records, it was the Khas Jharia mines of Seth Khora Ramji, who was a pioneer of Indian coalmines, whose mines were one of the firsts to collapse in underground fire in 1930. Two of his collieries, Khas Jharia and Golden Jharia, which worked on maximum 260-foot-deep shafts, collapsed due to now infamous underground fires, in which their house and bungalow also collapsed on 8 November 1930, causing 18 feet subsidence and widespread destruction. The fire never stopped despite sincere efforts by mines department and railway authorities and in 1933 flaming crevasses lead to exodus of many residents. The 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake led to further spread of fire and by 1938 the authorities had declared that there is raging fire beneath the town with 42 collieries out of 133 on fire.
In 1972, more than 70 mine fires were reported in this region. As of 2007, more than 400,000 people who reside in Jharia are living on land in danger of subsidence due to the fires, and according to Satya Pratap Singh, "Jharia township is on the brink of an ecological and human disaster". The government has been criticized for a perceived lackadaisical attitude towards the safety of the people of Jharia. Heavy fumes emitted by the fires lead to severe health problems such as breathing disorders and skin diseases among the local population.
In 2018, researchers at Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) in Belgium revealed a created map of global atmospheric ammonia, by combining nine years of satellite data, that show Jharia and surroundings are heavily ammonia polluted from burning coal mines. The emitted ammonia reacts rapidly with other air pollutants, and thereby helps to form fine particulate matter that shortens the human lifespan through respiratory and coronary diseases. Moreover, the gaseous ammonia and ammonium compounds formed from it in the atmosphere, are deposited into ecosystems, throughout the Himalayas, damaging sensitive habitats — especially those naturally adapted to need clean air.
- "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Jharia, India".
- "Jharkhand cities and town, world-gazetteer.com". Archived from the original on 2011-05-22.
- "Dhanbad Municipal Corporation". DMC. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "Dhanbad Dsitrict Map". Physical Map of Dhanbad. Jharkhand Government. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "Dhanbad Municipal Corporation". प्रादेशिक निर्वाचन क्षेत्रों की सूची (in Hindi). Jharkhand Government. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- "Dhanbad – Welcome to the Coal Capital of India". Administrative Structure of Dhanbad District – List of Thana and Outpost of Dhanbad Outpost. Jharkhand Government. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "District Census Handbook 2011 Series 21 Part XIIB" (PDF). Map on Page 3. Directorate of Census Operations, Jharkhand. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- Jharia to be shifted, The Times of India, 31 Aug 2006
- The Jharia coal field fire
- Amin, Samir; Amin, Shahid; Linden, Marcel van der (1997). Peripheral Labour: Studies in the History of Partial Proletarianization edited by Shahid Amin, Marcel van der Linden. p. 83. ISBN 9780521589000.
- Gazetteers of Bengal, Assam, Bihar & Orissa 1917 Khora Ramji Colliries
- Khora Ramji Mines capsized in 1938
- Diary of Golden Days at Jharia – A Memoir & History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia – written by Natwarlal Devram Jethwa:1998 Page:12
- Nanji Bapa ni Nondh-pothi published in Gujarati in year 1999 from Vadodara. It is a diary of Railway Contracts done by KGK community noted by Nanji Govindji Tank of Jamshedpur, compiled by Dharsibhai Jethalal Tank, Tatanagar. (Aank Sidhhi awarded to book by Kutch Shakti at Mumbai in 2000): Life Sketch of Seth Khora Ramji Chawra Page :76
-  The Jharia underground fire still raging first came to notice in November, 1930 with subsidance at Seth Khora Ramji's Khas Jharia Colliery(Page 159). He was told that Seth Khora Ramji, whose mines lay underneath Jharia, had chosen to live in his house, which also collapsed in subsidance(Page 160). "The politics of labour under late colonialism: workers, unions, and the state in Chota Nagpur, 1928–1939 by Dilip Simeon."
- Searchlight, 24 January 1936.
- Hindustan Times, December 15, 2007
- The Jharia mine fire control technical assistance project: an analysis, April 2004
- "Inside Coal Mine Fires", a documentary, 2005
- ESTIMATION OF GAS EMISSIONS FROM SHALLOW SUBSURFACE COAL FIRES IN JHARIA COALFIELD
- In the line of fire, indiatogether.org
- Br; Specktor, on; December 5, Senior Writer |; ET, 2018 03:24pm. "Scary Map Shows Where Animal Poop Is Turning into Deadly Ammonia Pollution". Live Science. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
- Howard, Clare M.; Sutton, Mark A. (2018). "Satellite pinpoints ammonia sources globally". Nature. 564 (7734): 49. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-07584-7.
- Official data on Jharia Block
- Official map of Dhanbad district
- JHARIA BURNING – Track the heat. Locate the people, the coal and the fire
- Pictures of the coal town of Jharia
- Reinventing Jharia Coalfield. Edited by N.C. Saxena, Gurdeep Singh, K.N. Singh and B.N. Pan. Jodhpur, Scientific, 2005, vi, 246 p.. ISBN 81-7233-398-6.
- "Satellites track the fires raging beneath India". New Scientist (2560). 18 July 2006.
- Roychowdhury, Indronil (15 October 2006). "German major eyes Jharia coal fires". Kolkata Newsline. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- Sethi, Aman (Nov 18 – Dec 01, 2006). "Burning issue". Frontline. The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-05-02. Check date values in:
- "India: Children of the Inferno". Unreported World. Season 17. Episode 7. 24 April 2009.
- "Coal mine fires an election issue in Jharkhand". The Hindu. 12 April 2009. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- "Web documentary about the people who live in proximity to the underground coal fires". Bombay Flying Club - www.bombayfc.com. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- eBook about the Jharia Coalfields, Zipfel, Isabell https://www.amazon.com/The-Jharia-Coalfields-ebook/dp/B0095I2AH4