Jharkhand Mukti Morcha

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Jharkhand Mukti Morcha
झारखंड मुक्ति मोर्चा
Leader Shibu Soren
Founded 1972
Headquarters Bariatu Road, Ranchi-834008
Youth wing Jharkhand Chhatra Yuva Morcha
Ideology Regionalism
ECI Status State Party[1]

NDA (upto 2013)

UPA (Only 2014)
Seats in Lok Sabha
2 / 545
Seats in Rajya Sabha
0 / 245
Seats in Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
19 / 82
Election symbol
Indian Election Symbol Bow And Arrow.png
Politics of India
Political parties

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) ; translation: Jharkhand Liberation Front) is a state political party in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It has two seats in the 15th Lok Sabha. Shibu Soren is the president of the JMM. JMM is also an influential political party in the neighbouring indian states of Odisha and West Bengal.

The party was officially created on the birthday of Birsa Munda, the 19th century tribal warrior of Jharkhand, who fought against the British rule in present-day Jharkhand.[2] The State of Jharkhand also came into existence on Birsa Munda's birthday in 2000.[3]

100% of their MP's who contested in 2009 elections were candidates with pending criminal cases in their name.[4][5][better source needed]


For almost six decades the movement for formation of Jharkhand from Bihar had been changing colour and strategy to gain a foothold. The Jharkhand Party grew politically stronger but the commissions examining the demands for a separate Jharkhand State rejected these demands every time. Despite the reports of these commissions deciding against them, the Jharkhand Party never lost sight of its ultimate target: a separate state of Jharkhand. Till 1962 Jharkhand Party won between 23-32 seats in the Bihar Assembly. Post 1962 the Jharkhand Party aligned with Congress and Jaipal Singh became a minister in Vinodanand Jha's government in Bihar. With this, the demand for the Tribal Homeland was put on hold for nearly a decade.

At the 4th General Election held in 1967 the party had a very poor showing with only eight Assembly seats. The party soon split into several splinter groups each claiming to be the genuine Jharkhand party. These were the All India Jharkhand Party led by Bagun Sumroi, the Jharkhand Party led by N.E. Horo, the Hul Jharkhand Party led by Justin Richard which further fragmented and came to be called the Bihar Progressive Hul Jharkhand Party and it was led by Shibu Soren.

The movement was infused with a new radicalism when Santhal leader Shibu Soren formed the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) in league with the Marxist co-ordination Committee in 1972. The party was officially created on the birthday of Birsa Munda, the 19th century tribal warrior of Jharkhand, who fought against the British rule in present-day Jharkhand.[6]

Early years[edit]

In its early years, the JMM under Soren's leadership brought industrial and mining workers who were mainly non-tribals belonging to the Dalit and Backward communities such as Surdis, Doms, Dusadh and Kurmi-Mahtos into its fold. However Soren's association with the late congress M.P. Gyanranjan brought him close to the then prime minister of India, Indira Gandhi in New Delhi. He won the Dumka Lok Sabha seat in 1972. Irked by Soren's association with the Congress, a few of the younger members of the JMM banded together in Jamshedpur and set up the All Jharkhand Students' Union (AJSU). This did not affect the growth of the JMM in the 1991 Lok Sabha election where the JMM won six seats.

Ram Dayal Munda reignited the movement for Jharkahnd by unifying splinter groups among the tribals. Under his guidance the Jharkahnd Coordination Committee was constituted in June 1987, comprising 48 organisations and group including the JMM factions. Due to Munda, Soren, Mandal and AJSU leaders like Surya Singh Besra and Prabhakar Tirkey briefly shared a political platform, but the JMM pulled out of JCC as it felt that 'the collective leadership was a farce'. The JMM/AJSU and JPP successfully orchestrated so-called bandhs, economic blockades in 1988–89. In the interim,

Jharkhand State[edit]

Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 after almost half a century of people's movements to evolve a Jharkhandi identity, which disadvantaged societal groups articulated to augment political resources and influence the policy process in their favour. It is the 28th state of India.

At the 2005 Jharkhand state assembly elections, the JMM took second place and received 17 of the 81 seats. It supports the government of Independent Chief Minister Madhu Koda which was formed in 2006. It continues to be an active part of the United Progressive Alliance. It has had its fair share of controvoersies when its MPs were involved in the bribery scam during the Rao Government and a scandal in early 2005 about the Chief Minister of Jharkhand. Recently, one of its MPs was assassinated by Naxalites. After the loss to Bangladesh in the 2007 Cricket World Cup, the house that Dhoni was constructing in his home-town Ranchi was vandalized and damaged by political activists of the JMM[7]

Currently, the Bharatiya Janata Party has formed the government in Jharkhand. Raghubir Das is the Chief Minister of Jharkhand. Shri Shibu Soren is the party President of Jharkhand Mukti Morcha and is the MP from Dumka. C.P.Singh is the Speaker of Jharkhand Vidhan Sabha and a member of the BJP Party.

Jharkhand Chhatra Yuva Morcha[edit]

Jharkhand Chhatra Yuva Morcha (Jharkhand Student Youth Front), the youth and student wing of Jharkhand Mukti Morcha. JCYM was constituted at a conference in Ranchi October 16, 1991. JCYM was formed to counter the influence of the more radical All Jharkhand Students Union.

Election performance[edit]

JMM performed poorly and won just two out of 14 seats in Jharkhand in the Indian general election, 2014. BJP won the rest. JMM won the Dumka and Rajmahal constituencies.[8][9]


  1. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013. 
  2. ^ P. 522 Lok Sabha debates by India. Parliament. House of the People, India. Parliament. Lok Sabha
  3. ^ P. 200 Basic Facts of General Knowledge By Sura College of Competition, V.V.K.Subburaj
  4. ^ "Criminalization Of Politics". satyamevjayate. 
  5. ^ "Pending Criminal Cases of MPs (Lok Sabha 2009 Election)". Association for Democratic Reforms. 
  6. ^ P. 522 Lok Sabha debates by India. Parliament. House of the People, India. Parliament. Lok Sabha
  7. ^ "Ire over Team India's defeat". The Hindu. 2007-03-19. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  8. ^ "General Election to Loksabha Trend and Result 2014". Election Commission of India. May 16, 2014. Archived from the original on May 18, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014. 
  9. ^ Dayal, Harishwar (May 23, 2014). "Jharkhand: confirming the national trend". The Hindu. Retrieved May 30, 2014. 

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