Jharkhand Mukti Morcha

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Jharkhand Mukti Morcha
Founder Binod Bihari Mahato
Founded 1972
Headquarters Bariatu Road, Ranchi-834008
Youth wing Jharkhand Chuhatra Yuva Morcha
Ideology Regionalism
Political position Centre-right
ECI Status State Party[1]
Alliance

NDA (up to 2013)

UPA (Only 2014)
Seats in Lok Sabha
2 / 545
Seats in Rajya Sabha
1 / 245
Election symbol
Indian Election Symbol Bow And Arrow.png
Website
www.jharkhandmuktimorcha.org

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) (translation: Jharkhand Liberation Front) is a state political party in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It has two seats in the 15th Lok Sabha. Shibu Soren is the president of the JMM. JMM is also an influential political party in the neighbouring Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal.

The party was officially created on the birthday of Birsa Munda, the 19th century tribal warrior of Jharkhand, who fought against the British rule in present-day Jharkhand.[2] The State of Jharkhand also came into existence on Birsa Munda's birthday in 2000.[3]

Formation[edit]

For almost six decades the movement for formation of Jharkhand from Bihar had been changing colour and strategy to gain a foothold. The Jharkhand Party grew politically stronger but the commissions examining the demands for a separate Jharkhand State rejected these demands every time. Despite the reports of these commissions deciding against them, the Jharkhand Party never lost sight of its ultimate target: a separate state of Jharkhand. Till 1962 Jharkhand Party won between 23-32 seats in the Bihar Legislative Assembly. Post 1962 the Jharkhand Party aligned with Indin National Congress and Jaipal Singh became a minister in Vinodanand Jha's government in Bihar. With this, the demand for the Tribal Homeland was put on hold for nearly a decade.

At the 4th General Election held in 1967 the party had a very poor showing with only eight Assembly seats. The party soon split into several splinter groups each claiming to be the genuine Jharkhand Party. These were - the Jharkhand Party led by N.E. Horo, the Jharkhand Party led by Naren, All India Jharkhand Party led by Bagun Sumroi, the Hul Jharkhand Party led by Justin Richard which further fragmented and came to be called the Bihar Progressive Hul Jharkhand Party and it was led by Shibu Soren.

Santhal leader Shri Shibu Soren founded the ‘Sonat Santhali Samaj’ in 1969. The movement was infused with a new radicalism when Shibu Soren formed the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) in league with the Marxist co-ordination Committee in 1972 with the help of Shri Binod Bihari Mahto, the leader of ‘Shivajee Samaj’. The party was officially created on the birthday of Birsa Munda, the 19th century tribal warrior of Jharkhand, who fought against the British rule in present-day Jharkhand.[4]

On 4 February 1973 Shri Binod Bihari Mahto became president and Shri Shibu Soren as General Secretary of the party. The prominent party leaders at that time were: Comrade A. K. Roy (Party Secretary-Society of Industrial and Coal Laborers), late Martin Nirmal Mahto (prominent Trade Union Movement leader), late Tek Lal Mahto among others.

Early years[edit]

In its early years, the JMM under Soren's leadership brought industrial and mining workers who were mainly non-tribals belonging to the Dalit and Backward communities such as Surdis, Doms, Dusadh and Kurmi-Mahtos into its fold. However Soren's association with the late congress M.P. Gyanranjan brought him close to the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi in New Delhi. He won the Dumka Lok Sabha seat in 1972. Irked by Soren's association with the Indian National Congress, a few of the younger members of the JMM banded together in Jamshedpur and set up the All Jharkhand Students Union (AJSU). This did not affect the growth of the JMM in the Indian general election, 1991 where the JMM won six seats.

Ram Dayal Munda reignited the movement for Jharkhand by unifying splinter groups among the tribals. Under his guidance the Jharkhand Coordination Committee was constituted in June 1987, comprising 48 organisations and group including the JMM factions. Due to Ram Dayal Munda, Shibu Soren, Suraj Mandal, Simon Marandi, Shailendra Mahato, and AJSU leaders like Surya Singh Besra and Prabhakar Tirkey briefly shared a political platform, but the JMM pulled out of JCC as it felt that 'the collective leadership was a farce'. The JMM/AJSU and JPP successfully orchestrated so-called bandhs, economic blockades in 1988–89. In the interim,

Jharkhand Chhatra Yuva Morcha[edit]

Jharkhand Chhatra Yuva Morcha (Jharkhand Student Youth Front), the youth and student wing of Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, was constituted at a conference in Ranchi 16 October 1991.

List of Chief Ministers[edit]

  • Shibu Soren
    • First term (2 March 2005 – 12 March 2005).
    • Second term (27 August 2008 – 18 January 2009).
    • Third term (30 December 2009 – 31 May 2010)
  • Hemant Soren
    • First term (13 July 2013 – 28 December 2014).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013. 
  2. ^ P. 522 Lok Sabha debates by India. Parliament. House of the People, India. Parliament. Lok Sabha
  3. ^ P. 200 Basic Facts of General Knowledge By Sura College of Competition, V.V.K.Subburaj
  4. ^ P. 522 Lok Sabha debates by India. Parliament. House of the People, India. Parliament. Lok Sabha

External links[edit]