Jianbing

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Jianbing
Jianbing.jpg
A vendor applies hoisin sauce to jianbing being heated on cooking surface
TypeBread
Place of originChina
Region or stateShandong and Tianjin
Associated national cuisineChinese
Main ingredientsWheat
Ingredients generally usedEggs
Jianbing
Traditional Chinese煎餅
Simplified Chinese煎饼
Literal meaningfried pancake

Jianbing (simplified Chinese: 煎饼; traditional Chinese: 煎餅; pinyin: jiānbǐng; literally: 'fried pancake') is a traditional Chinese street food similar to crepes. It is a type of bing generally eaten for breakfast and hailed as "one of China's most popular street breakfasts."[1][2][3] The main ingredients of jianbing are a batter of wheat and grain flour, eggs and sauces.[3] It can be topped with different fillings and sauces such as baocui (薄脆, thin and crispy fried cracker), ham, chopped or diced mustard pickles, scallions and coriander, chili sauce or hoisin sauce depending on personal preference. It is often folded several times before serving.

Jianbing is now spreading to the West in cities such as New York City, Seattle, Austin, Chicago and San Francisco, sometimes with modifications for Western tastes.[4][5]

History[edit]

Jianbing originated in the Northeast of China. Its history can be traced back 2,000 years to Shandong province during the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). According to legends, chancellor Zhuge Liang encountered the problem of feeding his soldiers after they lost their woks. He ordered the cooks to mix water with wheat flour to make batter, then spread it on shields, or flat copper griddles over a flame.[6] The dish raised the soldiers’ morale and helped them win the battle. After that, jianbing was passed down through generations in Shandong province and gradually spread to different parts of China.[7] The raw materials used in ancient pancakes should be millet, and millet cereal pancakes are one of the common foods of the ancient northerners. In ancient times, pancakes were made from 鏊 (“ao” - pinyin)[8]. Archaeological finds have been discovered in ancient times, except for the prehistoric pottery figurines dating back more than 5,000 years, as well as the iron shovel and bronze gongs belonging to Liao, Song, Jin, Xixia and Yuan Dynasty. Yangshao people have created pottery figurines and the like. The cooking utensils, which were later unearthed in various eras, also found a number of murals of pancakes from different eras, revealing the true existence of pancakes in history.

Reasons for popularity[edit]

Jianbing being cooked
Jianbing being prepared by a street vendor
An unwrapped jianbing showing all of the ingredients inside.

One of the most popular street breakfasts in China,[1][9] Jianbing can be easily found in many cities. The characteristics of jianbing account for its popularity in China and the West.

First, jianbing is never ‘pre-cooked’. In order to preserve its crispness, customers have to wait for their turn, which often results in a queue,[2] although the preparation time is short. Part of the attraction is that customers can watch the raw ingredients come together to form the dish.[5]

Jianbing can satisfy different people’s tastes as it can be made with many different ingredients and mixed with different sauces, jams and flavors in different proportions.[10] According to the vendors outside East China Normal University,[11] though some customers like spicy flavors and some do not like cilantro, they can create their own jianbing.

The low cost of jianbing is also one of the reasons for its popularity, as the basic ingredients are themselves inexpensive.[10]

Besides, jianbing is a type of Bing that has rich nutrient values.[3] It contains abundant nutrients as it can be made of soybeans, mung beans, black beans, lettuce, peanuts and eggs.

Jianbing can be made from various grains such as wheat, beans, sorghum, corn, etc. They contain various nutrients of the grain itself. They are convenient to eat. They are the basic food for the body to replenish energy. They are then engulfed with various vegetables, eggs, meat and other ingredients. It has the effect of enhancing the chewing ability of the teeth. [12]Because Jianbing have higher hardness and toughness than taro and other staple foods, long-term consumption of Jianbing can exercise teeth. Jianbing are rich in protein, starch, crude fiber, carbohydrates, carotene, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and potassium. All kinds of amino acids, vitamins, and raw materials for Jianbing are covered with husks. They contain more crude fiber and can remove body waste.[13] They have the effect of detoxifying and nourishing the skin. They can also promote blood circulation to lower blood fat, strengthen the spleen and nourish the stomach and promote digestion.

Regional variations[edit]

The traditional jianbing originated in Shandong and flourished in Tianjin.[10] jianbing is basically made of flour and eggs with different fillings and sauces. As there are many variations depending on tastes and preferences in different regions, many cities have their own versions of jianbing. Shandong-style jianbing and Tianjin-style jianbing are the two most common versions of jianbing in China.[3]

Shandong-style jianbing[edit]

Jianbing from Shandong province tastes crispy and harder as its batter is formed from the flour mixture that mainly contains coarse grains such as corn, sorghum and millet.[14] In the old days, people had Shandong-style jianbing mainly by rolling it with scallions or serving it with meat soup.[15] Nowadays, the variety of fillings are richer and differ according to one’s preference, for example, sweet potatoes, lettuce and pork are also used as fillings.

Jianbing guozi[edit]

Jianbing from Tianjin is a transformation of the jianbing originated in Shandong. It is also called jianbing guozi[3] and Guozi refers to its youtiao stuffing.Tianjin-style jianbing tastes softer as its crepe is made of Mung bean flour, which contains less gluten. Also, Tianjin-style jianbing is topped with youtiao (fried dough stick), while the Shandong-style one sold by street vendors is usually topped with baocui (薄脆 crispy fried cracker).

Internationalized jianbing[edit]

Jianbing is also served in the U.K., U.S. and Australia by Western vendors and young Chinese entrepreneurs.[16][17] In the U.S., it has become one of the newest food trends and gains high popularity among Americans and Asian customers, particularly Chinese overseas students.[6] Western vendors were inspired to start jianbing business back home after first trying it in China.[18]

Apart from the traditional Chinese jianbing, some vendors in the U.S. offer various versions of it to cater to American customers’ taste, such as vegetarian jianbing and gluten-free jianbing.[18] Culture-crossing fillings like barbecue pulled pork, bacon, cheese, hot dogs and Spam are additionally provided to let customers create their own customized jianbing.[18][19]

Besides, fillings of jianbing are diverse with new innovations. Tai Chi Jianbing from San Francisco carries fish floss jianbing, which is made with dried tuna. A food truck in New York called “The Flying Pig jianbing”[16] provides different filling options such as dried pork floss, pork belly and bamboo shoots. In another shop called Mr. Bing,[19] the crepe batter is made of millet flour, buckwheat flour and purple rice. Many characterized jianbing are also shown. For example, the cha chaan bing with peanut butter and condensed milk, and the Peking duck bing[20] with the duck sauce, cucumber chunks and duck slices are introduced.

In the UK, street food stall Mei Mei's Street Cart brought jianbing into the London and UK street food scene back in 2012 - taking their jianbing to London, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield and Brighton and winning two awards. They sell the traditional jianbing alongside their 'London' jianbing with fillings such as fried chicken and char siu pork, to build on the traditional jianbing and make it a more substantial dish.[21][22]

Dosa is an Indian crepe made with a batter similar to that for jianbing.

Senbei is a Japanese sweet whose name is cognate to jianbing, and is spelled with the same Chinese characters in Japanese, but is actually a different food.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Patent, G.; Gorham, K.; McLean, D. (2007). A Baker's Odyssey: Celebrating Time-honored Recipes from America's Rich Immigrant Heritage. John Wiley & Sons. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-7645-7281-4.
  2. ^ a b Eats, Serious. "Why Jianbing is China's Most Popular Street Breakfast". www.seriouseats.com. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Jianbing: A Guide To China's Favorite Street Food | The World Of Chinese". www.theworldofchinese.com. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  4. ^ Crowley, Chris (23 March 2016). "China's Answer to the Breakfast Sandwich Finally Arrives in New York". Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  5. ^ a b "Jianbing: Beijing's Crunchy, Eggy, Perfect Street Food". SAVEUR. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  6. ^ a b Murez, Cara Roberts (17 February 2016). "Food Cart Brings Newest U.S. Food Trend, Jian bing, to Eugene, UO Campus". Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  7. ^ "Jiānbing – Chinese-style crepes – 煎饼 | MOVABLE FEASTS". www.sh-streetfood.org. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  8. ^ Wang, Renxiang. "Jianbing origin: the historical taste of scorpion fried". IfengGuoXue. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  9. ^ Vartanian, A.; Potter, C.; Heino, K.; McClelland, R.; Ball, R.; Menegaz, V.; Kovacs, N.; Healy, H.; Castaneda, J.; Winters, K. (2015). The Ultimate Paleo Cookbook: 900 Grain- and Gluten-Free Recipes to Meet Your Every Need. Page Street Publishing. p. 410. ISBN 978-1-62414-140-9.
  10. ^ a b c Gao, Weixi (2005). Food and Chinese: Essays on Popular Cuisine. Long River Press. pp. 158–159.
  11. ^ DeLois, Jake (23 March 2010). "DIY jianbing: How to make the perfect breakfast crêpe". Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  12. ^ Anonym, anonym. "What are the benefits of eating pancakes?". Jingdong. Website. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  13. ^ Mi, Duoduo. "The nutritional value of Jianbing _ the benefits of eating Jianbing". Yangshengzhidaowang. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Shandong's signature food leaves global marks". china daily. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  15. ^ 李民, 黃河文化百科全书编纂委员会 (5 August 2009). 黃河文化百科全书. 四川辞书出版社 (published 2000). p. 348.
  16. ^ a b Niu, Yue (25 December 2015). "Young entrepreneur brings Chinese pancakes to NYC". China Daily USA. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  17. ^ Rigby, Myffy (28 April 2015). "Mr Bing Gourmet Wrapz". goodfood. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  18. ^ a b c Wong, Katy. "Unique food cart brings jianbing to Seattle". the seattle globalist. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  19. ^ a b Kis, Eva (11 December 2015). "Mr. Bing brings Chinese street food to Times Square". Retrieved 26 March 2016 – via metro.
  20. ^ Yung, Vanessa (10 October 2013). "A crêpe escape in our own backyard". Retrieved 26 March 2016 – via scmp.
  21. ^ http://www.meimeisstreetcart.co.uk
  22. ^ http://foodanddrinkfestival.com/news/2014/sep/30/-gala-dinner-2014-/

External links[edit]