Jiaolong (simplified Chinese: 蛟龙; traditional Chinese: 蛟龍; pinyin: jiāolóng; Wade–Giles: chiao-lung) or jiao (chiao, kiao) is a dragon in Chinese mythology, often defined as a "scaled dragon"; it is hornless according to certain scholars and said to be aquatic or river-dwelling. It may have referred to a species of crocodile.
In English translations, jiao has been variously rendered as "jiao-dragon", "crocodile", "flood dragon", "scaly dragon", or even "kraken".
The jiao 蛟 character combines the "insect radical" 虫, to provide general sense of insects, reptiles or dragons,[a] etc., and the right radical jiao 交 "cross; mix", etc. which supplies the phonetic element "jiao". The original 交 pictograph represented a person with crossed legs.
The jiao is also claimed to be equivalent to Sanskrit 宮毗羅 (modern Chinese pronunciation gongpiluo) in the 7th Century Buddhist dictionary Yiqiejing yinyi.[c] The same Sanskrit equivalent is repeated in the widely used Bencao Gangmu or Compendium of Materia Medica. In Buddhist texts this word occurs as names of divine beings,[d][e] and the Sanskrit term in question is actually kumbhīra (कुम्भीर). As a common noun kumbhīra means "crocodile".
The form kău is used as the Tang period pronunciation by American sinologist Edward H. Schafer (1967:32, 217–8, 345). The transliteration kiao lung was given by Dutch orientalist Marinus Willem de Visser's book on dragons (1913: 76–81).
Most etymologies for jiao < *kǒg 蛟 are unsupported speculations upon meanings of its phonetic *kǒg 交 'cross; mix with; contact', e.g., the *kǒg 蛟 dragon can *kǒg 交 'join' its head and tail in order to capture prey, or moves in a *kǒg 交 'twisting' manner, or has *kǒg 交 'continuous' eyebrows. The only corroborated hypothesis takes *kǒg 交 'breed with' to mean *kǒg 蛟 indicates a dragon 'crossbreed; mixture'. (1990:126-7)
The word has "mermaid" as one possible gloss, and Schuessler 2007:308 suggests possible etymological connections with Burmese khruB or khyuB "mermaid; serpent" and Tibetan klu "nāga; water spirits", albeit the Tibeto-Burman are phonologically distant from OC.
- Crossed eyebrows
- Early sense as mating dragons
Thus in the legend around the jiaolong 蛟龍 hovering above the mother giving birth to a future emperor i.e., Liu Bang, the founding emperor of Han, r. 202-195 BCE [h] (Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian), the alternative conjectural interpretation is that it was a pair of mating dragons.
The same legend occurs in nearly verbatim copy in the Book of Han, except that the dragons are given as 交龍 "crossed dragons". Wen noted that in early use jiaolong 交龍 "crossed dragons" was emblematic of the mythological creators Fuxi and Nüwa, who are represented as having a human's upper body and a dragon's tail (Wen 1956:18-19 apud Carr 1990:127).
Zhang cites as one example of jiaolong used in the poem Li Sao (in Chu Ci), in which the poet is instructed by supernatural beings to beckon the jialong and bid them build a bridge. Visser translated this as one type of dragon, the jiaolong or kiao-lung (1913: 77–78). However, it was the verdict of Wang Yi, an early commentator of this poem that these were two kinds, the smaller jiao and the larger long.
Since the Chinese word for the generic dragon is long (龍), translating jiao as "dragon" is problematic as it would make it impossible to distinguish which of the two is being referred to. The term jiao has thus been translated as "flood dragon" or "scaly dragon", with some qualifier to indicate it as a subtype. But on this matter, Schafer has suggested using a name for various dragon-like beings such as "kraken" to stand for jiao:
The word "dragon" has already been appropriated to render the broader term lung. "Kraken" is good since it suggests a powerful oceanic monster. ... We might name the kău a "basilisk" or a "wyvern" or a "cockatrice." Or perhaps we should call it by the name of its close kin, the double-headed crocodile-jawed Indian makara, which, in ninth-century Java at least, took on some of the attributes of the rain-bringing lung of China. (1967:218)
Classification and life cycle
The Shuowen Jiezi dictionary (121 CE) glosses the jiao as "a type of dragon (long), as does the Piya dictionary (11th c.), which adds that the jiao are oviparous (hatch from eggs). The Bencao Gangmu states this also, but also notes this is generally true of most scaled creatures.
Jiao eggs are about the size of a jar of 1 or 2 hu capacity in Chinese volume measurement, according to Guo Pu's commentary; a variant text states that the hatchlings are of this size. It was considered that while the adult jiao lies in pools of water, their eggs hatched on dry land, more specifically on mounds of earth (Huainanzi).
The jiao did eventually metamorphose into a form built to fly, according to Ren Fang's Shuyi ji ("Records of Strange Things"), which said that "a water snake (hui 虺) after 500 years transforms into a jiao (蛟); a jiao after a millennium into a dragon (long), a long after 500 years a horned dragon (角龍), a horned dragon after a millennium into a yinglong (a winged dragon)".[j]
The hujiao 虎蛟 or "tiger jiao"[k] are described as creatures with a body like a fish and a tail like a snake, which made noise like mandarin ducks. Although this might be considered a subtype of the jiao dragon, a later commentator thought this referred to a type of fish (see #Sharks and rays section).
The bestiary's fifth book, "Classic of the Central Mountains"[n] records the presence of jiao in the Kuang River (貺水, "River Grant") and Lun River (淪水, "River Ripple") (Birrell 2000, pp. 93, 97).[o] Guo Pu (d. 324)'s commentary to Part XI glosses jiao as "a type of [long 龍] dragon that resembles a four-legged snake" (Eberhard 1968: 378). Guo adds that the jiao possesses a "small head and a narrow neck with a white goiter" and that it is oviparous, and "large ones were more than ten arm spans in width[p] and could swallow a person whole".
A description similar to this is found in the Piya dictionary, but instead of a white "goiter (ying)" being found on its neck, a homophone noun of a different meaning is described, rendered "white necklace" around its neck by Visser. Other sources concurs with the latter word meaning white "necklace" (or variously translated as white "tassels"), namely, the Bencao Gangmu quoting at length from Guangzhou Ji (廣州記) by Pei Yuan (裴淵, 317–420):[q]
蛟長丈餘，似蛇而四足，形廣如楯, 小頭細頸，頸有白嬰。胸前赭色, 背上靑斑, 脇邊若錦, 尾有肉環,
The jiao measures 10 chi or more in length. Snake-like in appearance, but it has four feet. The shape broad and shield-like, it is small-headed and thin-necked. On the neck there are white tassels. Its chest is sienna brown and its back flecked with blue-green spots. Its flanks resemble brocade-work. On its tail there are fleshy rings. The largest attain several arms' spans around.
|—Li Shizhen 1596 "(Animals with) Scales I, jiaolong, "Collected Explanations【集解】" subsection||—adapted from Luo tr. 2003:3508. "Vol. 43: The Category of Animals with Scales", Bencao Gangmu.|
A later text described jiao "looks like a snake with a tiger head, is several fathoms long, lives in brooks and rivers, and bellows like a bull; when it sees a human being it traps him with its stinking saliva, then pulls him into the water and sucks his blood from his armpits". This description, in the Moke huixi 墨客揮犀 (11th century CE), was considered the "best definition" of a jiao by Wolfram Eberhard (1968:378).
The description as "scaly" or "scaled dragon" is found in some medieval texts, and quoted in several near-modern references and dictionaries.
The Guangya (3rd century CE) defines jiaolong as "scaly dragon; scaled dragon", using the word lin 鱗 "scales". The paragraph, which goes on to list other types of dragons, was quoted in the Kangxi Dictionary compiled during the Manchurian Qing dynasty. A similar paragraph occurs in the Shuyi ji (6th century) and quoted in the Bencao Gangmu aka Compendium of Materia Medica:
蛟龍.. 【釋名】時珍曰︰按任昉《述異記》云, 蛟乃龍屬, 其眉交生, 故謂之蛟, 有鱗曰蛟龍, 有翼曰應龍, 有角曰虯龍, 無角曰螭龍也。
Jiaolong.. [Explanation of Names] [Li] Shizhen says: The book Shuyi Ji by Ren Fang:: The jiao is a kind of dragon. As its eyebrows cross each other, it is called jiaolong. (jiao ≅ come across). The jiaolong has scales. The variety with wings is called yinglong. The variety with horns is called qiulong. The variety without horns is called chilong ...[r]
|—Li Shizhen 1596 "(Animals with) Scales I, jiaolong||—Luo tr. 2003:3508. "Vol. 43: The Category of Animals with Scales", Bencao Gangmu.|
Several texts allude to the jiao being the lord of aquatic beings. The jiaolong is called the "god of the water animals" (Commentary to Guanzi; tr. Visser 1913:77)[s]. The Shuowen jieji dictionary (beginning of 2nd c.) states that if the number of fish in a pond reaches 3600, a jiao will come as their leader, and enable them to follow him and fly away". However, "if you place a fish trap in the water, the jiao will leave". A similar statement occurs in the farming almanac Qimin Yaoshu (6th c.) that quotes the Yangyu-jing "Classic on Raising Fish", a manual on pisciculture ascribed to Lord Tao Zhu (Fan Li). According to this Yangyu-jing version, when the fish count reaches 360, the jiao will lead them away, but this could be prevented by keeping bie 鱉 (variant character 鼈, "soft-shelled turtle").[t]
Jiao and jiaolong were names for a legendary river dragon. Jiao 蛟 is sometimes translated as "flood dragon". The (c. 1105 CE) Yuhu qinghua 玉壺清話 (Carr 1990:128) says people in the southern state of Wu called it fahong 發洪 "swell into a flood" because they believed flooding resulted when jiao hatched. The poem Qijian ("Seven Remonstrances") in the Chu Ci (tr. Hawkes 1985:255) uses the term shuijiao 水蛟 " or water jiao.
The Shuowen Jiezi does not commit to whether the jiao 蛟 has or lacks a horn.[u] However the definition was emended to "hornless dragon" by Duan Yucai in his 19th century edited version (Ōgata 1983: 76–77). A somewhat later commentary by Zhu Junsheng stated the contrary; in his Shuowen tongxun dingsheng (説文通訓定聲) Zhu Junsheng explained that only male dragons (long) were horned, and "among dragon offspring, the one-horned are called jiao 蛟, the bicorned bicorned are called qiu 虯, and the hornless are called chi 螭. (Li Muru et al. 1998:368 )
Jiao as female dragon occurs in the glossing of jiao 蛟 as "dragon mother" (perhaps "dragoness" or "she-dragon") in the (c. 649 CE) Buddhist dictionary Yiqiejing yinyi,[x] and the gloss is purported to be a direct quote from Ge Hong (d. 343)'s Baopuzi 抱朴子. However, extant editions of the Baopuzi does not include this statement. The (11th century CE) Piya dictionary repeats this "female dragon" definition.[dubious ]
Records of hunt
It is also written that a green jiao which was a man-eater dwelt in the stream beneath the bridge in Yixing County (present-day city of Yixing, Jiangsu) (Zu Taizhi 祖臺之; fl. c. 376–410, Zhiguai). The war-general Zhou Chu (周處; 236–297) in his youth, who was native to this area, anecdotally slew this dragon: when Zhou spotted the man-eating beast he leaped down from the bridge and stabbed it several times; the stream was filled with blood and the beast finally washed up somewhere in Lake Tai where it finally died. This anecdote is also recounted in the Shishuo Xinyu (c. 430; "A New Account of Tales of the World") and selected in the Tang period primer Mengqiu.
Other early texts also mention the hunt or capture of the jiao. Emperor Wu of Han in Yuanfeng 5 or 106 BCE reportedly shot a jiao in the river (Hanshu; 6, Carr 1990:128; Dubs tr. 1954:94). The Shiyiji 拾遺記 (4th century CE) has a jiao story about Emperor Zhao of Han (r. 87-74 BCE). While fishing in the Wei River, he
..caught a white kiao, three chang [ten meters] long, which resembled a big snake, but had no scaly armour The Emperor said: 'This is not a lucky omen', and ordered the Ta kwan[y] to make a condiment of it. Its flesh was purple, its bones were blue, and its taste was very savoury and pleasant. (tr. Visser 1913:79)
Three classical texts (Liji 6, tr. Legge 1885:1:277, Huainanzi 5, and Lüshi Chunqiu 6) repeat a sentence about capturing water creatures at the end of summer; 伐蛟取鼉登龜取黿 "attack the jiao 蛟, take the to 鼉 "alligator", present the gui 龜 "tortoise", and take the yuan 黿 "soft-shell turtle"."
Dragon boat festival
There is a legend surrounding the Dragon Boat Festival which purports to be the origin behind the offering of zongzi (leaf-wrapped rice cakes) to the drowned nobleman Qu Yuan during its observation. It is said that at the beginning of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25 A. D.), a man from Changsha named Ou Hui had a vision in a dream of Qu Yuan instructing him that the naked rice cakes being offered for him in the river are all being eaten by the dragons (jiaolong), and the cakes need to be wrapped in chinaberry (Melia; Chinese: 楝; pinyin: liàn) leaves and tied with color strings, which are two things the dragons abhor.[z]
It has been suggested that the jiao is not a creature of Sinitic origin, but something introduced from the Far South or Yue culture (Clark 2016:106–107 and Chittick 2016: endnote 34), which encompasses the people of the ancient Yue 越 state), as well as the Hundred Yue people.
Eberhard concludes (1968:378-9) that the jiao, which "occur in the whole of Central and South China", "is a special form of the snake as river god. The snake as river god or god of the ocean is typical for the coastal culture, particularly the sub-group of the Tan peoples (the Tanka people)". Schafer 1973:26 also suggests, "The Chinese lore about these southern krakens seems to have been borrowed from the indigenes of the monsoon coast".
The onomastics surrounding the Long Biên District (now in Hanoi, Vietnam) is that it was so-named from a jialong "flood dragon" seen coiled in the river (Shui jing zhu or the Commentary on the Water Classic 37).
It is recorded that in southern China, there had been the custom of wearing tattoos to ward against the jiaolong. The people in Kuaiji (old capital of Yue; present-day Shaoxing City) adopted such a custom during the Xia dynasty according to the Book of Wei (3rd c.).[aa][ab] The Yue created this "atropatic device" by incising their flesh and tattooing it with red and green pigments (Treatise on Geography in the Book of Han, 111CE, quoted by Kong Yingda).
Identification as real fauna
The jiao seems to refer to "crocodiles", at least in later literature of the Tang and Song dynasties, and may have referred to "crocodiles" in early literature as well (Clark 2016:106–107 and Chittick 2016: endnote 34).
Crocodile or alligator
The term jiao e or "jiao crocodile" (蛟鱷; Tang period pronunciation: kău ngak)[ac] occurs in the description of Han Yu's encounter with crocodiles according to Zhang Du's Xuanshi zhi or "Records of the House of Proclamation" written in the late Tang period.[ad]
As noted the Compendium of Materia Medica identifies jiao with Sanskrit 宮毗羅, i.e., kumbhīra which denotes a long-snouted crocodylid. The 19th century herpetologist Albert-Auguste Fauvel concurred, stating that jiaolong referred to a crocodile or gavial clade of animals (Fauvel 1879:8).
Sharks and rays
In the foregoing example of the huijiao in the "Classic of the Southern Mountains" III, the 19th century sinologist treated this a type of dragon, the "tiger kiao" (Visser 1913:76), while a modern translator as "tiger-crocodile" (Birrell 2000:8). However, there is also an 18-19th century opinion that this might have been a shark. A Qing dynasty period commentator, Hao Yixing suggested that huijiao should be identified as jiaocuo 蛟錯 鮫䱜) described in the Bowuzhi 博物志 (Knechtges 1987:16; Shanhaijing jianshu), and this jiaocuo in turn is considered to be a type of shark.
As in the above example jiao 蛟 may be substituted for jiao 鮫 "shark" in some contexts.
The jiao 鮫 denotes larger sharks and rays (Williams 1889:368), the character for sharks (and rays) in general being sha 鯊, so-named ostensibly due to their skin being gritty and sand-like[ag] Compare the supposed quote from the Baopuzi, where it is stated that the jialong is said to have "pearls in the skin" 皮有珠. 
Schafer quotes a Song Dynasty description, "The kău (jiao) fish has the aspect of a round fan. Its mouth is square and is in its belly. There is a sting in its tail which is very poisonous and hurtful to men. Its skin can be made into sword grips", which may refer to a sting ray.(1967:221)
- Mizuchi, Japanese dragon whose name is sometimes represented using the same Chinese character
- Jiaolong (album), an album by DJ Daphni (musician)
- For example, shen 蜃 or mirage dragon and hong 虹) or rainbow dragon.
- But the single kanji character 蛟 can also be read Japanese-style (kun'yomi) as "mizuchi" which denotes a Japanese river dragon
- The Buddhist dictionary purports to quote the Baopuzi 抱朴子.
- The transliterations 宮毗羅 and 宮毘羅 are interchangeable. The characters "毗" and "毘" are variants of each other.
- 宮毘羅 (Japanese:Kubira) is attested in eastern Buddhist writings, as one of the Twelve Heavenly Generals. Cf. the Guardian Deity Kimbila (pinyin: Jinpiluo wang) who is one of the Twenty-eight Guardians.
- Shuyi Ji , quoted in the Bencao Gangmu. The passage is quoted below.
- The same is stated in the aforementioned Piya, but translated differently as eyebrows that are "united" (交 jiao) in Visser's excerpt (1913:79).
- The dragon supposedly witness by the father Taigong (T'ai-kung.)
- Birrell 2000:93, 97 also renders as "alligator"; but her endnote (:198) indicates "alligator" was meant to be reserved for a different creature, the t'o (tuo 鼉), which conforms with Read tr. 1934:300 and Fauvel 1879, p. 8.
- Compare the explanation that "smaller ones are called jiao and larger ones are called long (dragon)" by Wang Yi (d. 158 CE) in his commentary to the poem Li Sao in the Chu Ci.
- Visser 1913:76 renders as "tiger kiao". Birrell renders as "tiger-crocodiles".
- Shanhaijing Book 1.III
- As to habitat, these tiger jiao were said to inhabit the Yin River (泿水, "River Bank") which flows southward from Mt. Daoguo 禱過山 (tr. Birrell 2000:8; Visser 1913:76). Birrel renders Yin River as "River Bank" and the mountain as "Mount Prayerpass". Visser mis-transcribes as "浪水" and renders as "water come forth in waves" "out of the Tao Kuo mountains".
- Shanhaijing Book 5.XI
- Birrell renders jiao here as "alligators" which is misleading since in the endnotes (Birrell 2000, p. 198) she glosses alligator as t'o (i.e. tuo 鼉). Cf. Read tr. 1934:300, table. "Chiao Lung 蛟龍 Crocodiles" amd "T'o Lung 鼍龍 Alligators"
- Although it is being translated as a measure of width, wei 圍 is actually a measure of perimeter.
- A white "goiter" (癭; ying) in the Classic of Mountains and Seas; a white "necklace" or "tassels" (嬰; ying) in Piya and the Bencao Gangmu.
- The quote here is slightly modified, as per capitalization, etc., from Luo's rendition.
- The thrust of the original passage in the philosophical work is that circumstances dictate, or more specifically, a dragon (or tiger, etc.) can manifest its full power when it is in its elements.
- The Yangyu-jing is also quoted in the Qing period encyclopedia Yuanjian Leihan 淵鑑類函 according to Minakata.
- It defines chi 螭 as hornless and qiu 虯 as horned.
- An example occurs in Ge Hong's Baopuzi (10, tr. Ware 1966:170) "the horned dragon can no longer find a place to swim". The Jiaolong 角龍 "horned dragon" is also the modern Chinese name for the Ceratops dinosaur.
- Carr gives 7 definitions as follows: "Jiao < *kǒg 蛟 is defined with more meanings than any other Chinese draconym", writes Carr (1990:126), "(1) 'aquatic dragon', (2) 'crocodile; alligator', (3) 'hornless dragon', (4) 'dragoness', (5) 'scaled dragon', ( 6 ) 'shark' [= 鮫], and (7) 'mermaid'".
- 25 volumes were compiled by Xuanying 玄応. Later, an expanded 100 volume edition Yiqiejing Yinyi (Huilin) was compiled by Huilin 慧琳 (c. 807).
- 大官 daguan, an important official.
- The source of this is the 6th century work by Wu Jun (Chinese: 呉均; Wade–Giles: Wu chün) entitled Xu Qixieji (Chinese: 『續齊諧記』; Wade–Giles: Hsü-ch'ih-hsieh-chih). In several redactions such as found in the Taiping Yulan the man's name appears as Ou Hui (歐回); in other redactions, the man is called Ou Qu (歐曲).
- "After Shao Kang, king of Xia made his son prince of Kuaiji, the people there adopted the custom of cutting their hair and tattooing their bodies to avert harm from the jialong 夏後少康之子封於會稽，斷髮文身以避蛟龍之害". Gulik:247 renders as "evil dragons"; Teng as "sea monsters".
- More specifically, the portion in Book of Wei describing the Wa (the Japanese). It follows by commenting on a similar tattooing custom among the Wa.
- Cf. Late Middle Chinese:kaɨw ŋak (Pulleyblank 2011:150, 87).
- Albeit the creatures are referred to merely as "crocodile" or "crocodile fish" in Han Yu's own work, the E yu wen (鰐魚文) "Message to Crocodiles".
- Although the conception of iguanodon as appearing crocodile-like is outdated.
- Thus Joseph Needham construes as "patterned with pearls" regarding shark skin for a similar example in the Jiaozhou ji (Chinese: 交州記; Wade–Giles: Chia-chou Chi). However the presence of "pearls in the skin", literally, might have been actually meant since there was a belief since the Song Period that pearls were produced from shark skin.
- Chinese letter for sand is sha 沙; 砂 (Williams 1889:730; Bencao Gangmu). A description that is often repeated about the shark is that its skin has a pearl-like texture or pattern, and that the skin (shagreen) is used to decorate swords.[af]
- Minakata (1917) "Year of the Snake"; Minakata (1973):286 "When Piya states its poplular name is maban, it probably means a horse (ma) cannot be left tethered (ban) 『埤雅』にその俗称馬絆とあるは、馬を絆つなぎ留めて行かしめぬてふ義であろう。"
- Piya (Siku Quanshu edition) 埤雅 (四庫全書本) – via Wikisource. .
- Xuanying (c. 649). "Ch. 9. Banzhou sanmei jing" 般舟三昧經. Yiqiejing yinyi Book 5 一切經音義卷第五.
Jialong: in Sanskrit guanpiluo, pronounced jiao. Scaled ones are called jiao dragon. Baopuzi: mother dragons are called jiao, dragon offspring [or dragonets] are called qiu. Its form is like unto a fish's body with a snake's tail; its skin is [studded] with pearl[y beads] 蛟龍: 梵言宮毗羅，音交。有鱗曰蛟龍。《抱朴子》曰：母龍曰蛟，龍子曰虯。其狀魚身如蛇尾，皮有珠。
- "jiaolong 蛟龍", Li Shizhen 1596 "(Animals with) Scales I"; Li Shizhen 1782 "Vol. 43 (Animals with) Scales", Bencao Gangmu; Luo tr. 2003: 3497; Read tr. 1934: 314-318
- Mōri, Hisashi (1980). Nihon butsuzōshi kenkyū 日本佛像史研究. Hōzōkan. p. 96.
- Rösch, Petra (2007). Chinese Wood Sculptures of the 11th to 13th centuries. Columbia University Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-3-83825-662-7.
- "Kubira" 宮毘羅（読み）クビラ. Digital Daijisen. デジタル大辞泉. Shogakukan. 2019. via Kotobank accessed 2019-07-30
- Parpola, Asko (2011), Osada, Toshiki; Endo, ToshikiHitoshi (eds.), "Crocodile in the Indus Civilization and later South Asian traditions" (PDF), Linguistics, Archaeology and the Human Past, Occasional Paper 12, Kyoto, Japan: Research Institute for Humanity and Nature 人間文化研究機構総合地球環境学研究所, ISBN 978-4-902325-67-6
- Schafer 1967:217-8 :"Spiritually akin to the crocodile, and perhaps originally the same reptile, was a mysterious creature capable of many forms called the chiao (kău). Most often it was regarded as a kind of lung – a "dragon" as we say. But sometimes it was manlike, and sometimes it was merely a fish. All of its realizations were interchangeable".
- Carr 1990:126.
- Wang, Huaiyu (2015). "The Chinese totem of dragon and the greek myth of oedipus: a comparative psychoanalytic study". International Communication of Chinese Culture. 2 (3): 259–283. doi:10.1007/s40636-015-0025-y.
- Wen 2001a:95-96 apud Wang 2015).
- Ssu-Ma Ch'ien (Sima Qian) (1994). Nienhauser, William H., Jr. (ed.). The Grand Scribe's Records. 2. Translated by Weiguo Cao; Scott W. Galer; William H. Nienhauser; David W. Pankenier. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-25334-022-5., p. xvii (compare texts), p. 1 and note 4 (jiaolong translated as "kraken").
- Chō (2002):180. "It is difficult to determine whether jiaolong is the name of a type of dragon, or [two dragons] "jiao" and "long" juxtaposed 蛟龍はそもそも龍の一種の名称なのか、それとも「蛟」と「龍」からなる複合なのかは判断しにくい。"
- Chō (2002):180
- Wang, Yi. . Chuchi zhangju 楚辭章句 卷01 – via Wikisource.
- Cf. tr. Hawkes 1985:78. "Then, beckoning the water-dragons to make a bridge for me".
- Schafer 1967:217-8, quoted below.
- Kuan Feng; Lin Lü-shih (1970). "On Kuan Chung's System of Thought". Chinese Studies in Philosophy. 1. p. 263.
- Taylor, K. W. (1995). "Perceptions of Encounter in Shui Ching Chu 37". Asia Journal. 2 (1): 42. JSTOR 43105705
- Landers, James (1992). Readings in Classical Chinese: with notes and translations. SMC Publishing (Nantian shuju) 南天書局. p. 15. ISBN 9789576381263.
- Liu Yiqing (2017). Shih-shuo Hsin-yu: A New Account of Tales of the World. Translated by Richard B. Mather (Second ed.). University of Michigan Press. pp. 341–. ISBN 978-1-938-93701-9.
- Knechtges 1987:16
- Birrell 2000:8
- Read tr. 1934:300, tabulated glossary
- Nakano 1983:76
- Xu Shen 許慎. . Shuowen jiezi 說文解字 卷十三 – via Wikisource.
- Visser 1913:79
- Li Shizhen 1596 "(Category of Animals with) Scales" I; Li Shizhen 1782, Volume 43, Luo tr. 2003:3508
- Luo tr. 2003:3497. With some exceptions, like the viper.
- Shanhaijing guangzhu expanded commentaries (Siku Quanshu edition)/Book 5 山海經廣注 (四庫全書本)/卷05. 1782 – via Wikisource.
- Zhang 2002(Chō 2002):181
- Dubs tr. 1954 Hist. of the Former Han :94
- Tominaga, Kazuto 富永一登 (1993), "Rojin shū 'Koshōsetsu kōchin' kōshaku : So Taishi 'Shikai'" 魯迅輯「古小説鉤沈」校釈--租台之「志怪」 (PDF), The Hiroshima University Studies, Faculty of Letters, 53: 156–157, doi:10.15027/27621
- Huainanzi 20.6. Major et al. tr. 2010:800.
- Huainanzi 淮南子 第二十 泰族訓:"蛟龍伏寝於淵而卵剖於陵".
- Yuan 1998, Chinese Mythology Dictionary: 287
- Shanhaijing /Zhongshanjing 山海經/中山經 – via Wikisource. .
- Shanhaijing /Zhongshanjing 山海經/中山經 – via Wikisource. .
- Zhao Lu, Lu. (2019). In Pursuit of the Great Peace: Han Dynasty Classicism and the Making of Early Medieval Literati Culture. SUNY Press. p. 230 note 43. ISBN 978-1-43847-493-9.
- Strassberg, Richard E., ed. (2018). "Six-headed bird (liushouniao) 六首鳥 and jiao-dragon (jiao) 蛟". A Chinese Bestiary: Strange Creatures from the Guideways Through Mountains and Seas. University of California Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-52029-851-4.
- Chapin, Helen Burwell (1940). Toward the Study of the Sword as Dynastic Talisman: The Feng-ch'eng Pair and the Sword of Han Kao Tsu. University of California, Berkeley. p. 91.: "See the quotation from the 廣雅 Kuang-ya in the K'ang-hsi: 'Those (dragons) that have scales are called 蛟竜 chiao-lung (i.e. jiaolong); those that have wings, 應〃 ying-lung; those that have horns, 虬〃 ch'iu-lung; those that have no horns, 螭〃 ch'ih-lung; those that have not yet risen to Heaven, 螭〃 p'an-lung'".
- "Keisei-kai (Xingshijie; commentary to Conditions and Circumstances)" 形勢解 64. Kanshi kokujikai ge-kan 管子国字解 下巻 [Guangzi commentaries in Japanese Vol. 2]. 漢籍国字解全書 : 先哲遺著 Kanseki kokuji-kai zensho: Sentetsu icho tsuiho [Supplement to the complete commentaries in Japanese of Chinese classical literature] 19. Waseda University. 1911. p. 110.
- "Keisei (Xingshi; Conditions and Circumstances)" 形勢 2. Kanshi kokujikai jō-kan 管子国字解 上巻 [Guangzi commentaries in Japanese Vol. 1]. 漢籍国字解全書 : 先哲遺著 Kanseki kokuji-kai zensho: Sentetsu icho tsuiho [Supplement to the complete commentaries in Japanese of Chinese classical literature] 18. Waseda University. 1911. p. 43.
- Jia Sixie 賈思勰. Qimin Yaoshu 齊民要術 – via Wikisource. .
- Kumagusu, Minakata (1926). "Suppon to kaminari" 鼈と雷 [Soft-shelled turtle and lightning)]. Minakata zuihitsu 南方随筆. Oka Shoin. p. 306.
- An incomplete quote is given by Visser 1913:76.
- "Henceforth the water-serpents must be my companions, And dragon-spirits lie with me when I would rest".
- Chi, Hsing (Qi Xing) (1988). Folk Customs at Traditional Chinese Festivities. Foreign Languages Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780835115933.
dragon in the river
- Chi, Hsing (Qi Xing) (2000). "Chu Yuan". Classical and Medieval Literature Criticism. 36. Gale Research Company. pp. 125, 95 (in brief), 132 (notes). ISBN 0-78764-378-5.: "chiao-lung"
- Senbō, Sachiko 先坊幸子 (2011-09-20), "Chūgoku koshosetsu yakuchū: Zoku sseikaiki" 中国古小説訳注 : 『續齊諧記』 (PDF), Studies of Chinese Literature of the Middle Age, HIroshima University (59): 80–120
- Yifa (2002). The Origins of Buddhist Monastic Codes in China: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui. University of Hawaii Press. p. 241, note 298. ISBN 9780824824945.
- Brindley, Erica F. (2016), Mair, Victor H. (ed.), "Layers of Meaning:Hairstyle and Yue Identity in Ancient Chinese Texts", Imperial China and Its Southern Neighbours, Flipside Digital Content Company Inc., pp. 27–28, ISBN 978-9-814-62055-0
- Li Daoyuan 酈道元. . Shui Jing Zhu (Siku Quanshu edition) 水經注釋 (四庫全書本) – via Wikisource.
- Schafer 1973:32.
- Sanguo zhi 三國志 [Records of the Three Kingdoms] – via Wikisource. .
- Gulik, Willem R. van (1982). Irezumi: The Pattern of Dermatography in Japan. Brill. p. 247.
- Teng, Jun (2018). The History of Sino-Japanese Cultural Exchange. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-351-26910-0.
- Reed, Carrie Elizabeth (2000), "Early Chinese Tattoo" (PDF), Sino-Platonic Papers, 120 (103): 7; Reed, Carrie E. (2000). "Tattoo in Early China". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 120 (3): 362. doi:10.2307/606008. JSTOR 606008. JSTOR 606008
- Kong Yingda (6th c.), Lizi Zhengyi 禮記正義 12.15b or 16b apud Reed 2000a:7; 2000b:362.
- Kong Yingda. . Liji zhengyi 禮記正義. Zheng Xuan 鄭玄, annot. – via Wikisource.
Zhengyi says, considering the Han shu Dili zhi (Geography treatise)'s text that the Yue people crop their hair and tattoo their bodies, thus averting harm from jiaolong, etc. 正義曰：按《漢書•地理志》文，越俗斷髮文身，以辟蛟龍之害，故刻其肌，以丹青涅之
- Schafer 1967:345
- Clark 2016:107–108 and notes 43, 44.
- Zhang Du 張讀 (1777). Xuanshi zhi (Siku Quanshu edition) 宣室志 (四庫全書本) – via Wikisource. .
- 宮毗羅 is equivalent to 宮毘羅 when you swap out one character into a variant form.
- "tuolong 鼉龍", Li Shizhen 1596 "(Animals with) Scales I"; Li Shizhen 1782 "Vol. 43 (Animals with) Scales", Bencao Gangmu; Luo tr. 2003: 3509 identifies as Alligator sinensis Fauvel, with synonym tuoyu (鮀魚) and tulong (土龍) ; Read tr. 1934: 314-318
- As does Read tr. 1934:300, tabulated glossary.
- Cf. Read tr. 1934:301 noting the similarity of the Sanskrit name to gonglong Wade–Giles: kung-lung for Naosaurus listed in ZN,Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature.
- Zhang Hua (1997). Bowuzhi 博物志. 五南圖書出版股份有限公司. p. 102. ISBN 9789578499409.
- In later printed editions of Bowuzhi
- Hao Yixing; Guo Pu, eds. (1809). "Shanhaijing Book 1". Shanhaijin jianshu 山海經箋疏 [Guideways through the Mountains and Seas with supplementary commentary] (in Chinese). Yangzhou: Langhuan xianguan 琅嬛僊館. p. 10.
- Xuanying 玄應 (c. 649). "Ch. 52. Modengqie 摩登伽經". Yiqiejing yinyi Book 13 一切經音義卷第五.
- Cf. Guo Pu glosses jiao 鮫 as a type of cuo 䱜.
- "jiaoyu 鮫魚", Li Shizhen 1596 "(Animals with) Scales IV"; Li Shizhen 1782 "Vol. 43 (Animals with) Scales", Bencao Gangmu; Luo tr. 2003: 3613
- Needham, Joseph (1971), Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Cambridge University Press, p. 677, ISBN 9780521070607
- Nakano (1983), p. 143.
- The Huainanzi. 2. Translated by John S. Major; Sarah A. Queen; Andrew Seth Meyer; Harold D. Roth. Columbia University Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0-231-52085-0.
- Ban Gu; Ban Zhao (1954). The History of the Former Han Dynasty, Part II. 2. Translated by Homer Hasenpflug Dubs. Waverly Press. p. 94.
From Hsün-yang he [Emperor Wu] traveled on the [Yang-tze] River in person and shot an alligator in the river
- The Classic of Mountains and Seas. Translated by Birrell, Anne. Penguin Books. 2000. ISBN 9780140447194.; 2011 edition previewable via Google.
- Broad, William J., "China Explores a Frontier 2 Miles Deep", The New York Times, September 11, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- Carr, Michael (1990). "Chinese Dragon Names". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 13 (2): 87–189.; selection (pp. 87–90)
- Chittick, Andrew (2016), Mair, Victor H. (ed.), "Dragon Boats and Serpent Prows: Naval Warfare and the Political Culture of China's Southern Borderlands", Imperial China and Its Southern Neighbours, Flipside Digital Content Company Inc., pp. 117–, ISBN 978-9-814-62055-0
- Clark, Hugh R. (2016), Mair, Victor H. (ed.), "What Makes a Chinese God? Or, What Makes a God Chinese?", Imperial China and Its Southern Neighbours, Flipside Digital Content Company Inc., pp. 97–116, ISBN 978-9-814-62055-0
- Chō, Kyō (Zhang Jing) 張競 (2002). Amakakeru shinboru tachi: gensō dōbutsu no bunka-shi 天翔るシンボルたち: 幻想動物の文化誌. Nōsanryō bunka kyōkai. pp. 180–185. ISBN 9784540020438.
- Eberhard, Wolfram (1968). The Local Cultures of South and East China. E. J. Brill. pp. 34, 37, 197, 200, 238, 242, 249, 257, 292, 293, 364. 378f, 400.
- Fauvel, Albert-Auguste (1879). Alligators in China: Their History, Description & Identification. Celestial Empire office. pp. 1–8.
- Hawkes, David (1985). The Songs of the South: An Anthology of Ancient Chinese Poems by Qu Yuan and Other Poets. Penguin Books.
- Knechtges, David R. (1987). Wen Xuan, Or, Selections of Refined Literature: Rhapsodies on Sacrifices, Hunting, Travel, Sightseeing, Palaces and Halls, Rivers and Seas. 2. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-69105-346-4.
- Legge, James, tr. 1885. The Li Ki, 2 vols. Oxford University Press.
- Li, Muru 李慕如 (1998). Zhongguo wen xue tan wei 中國文學探微. 余崇生; 陳寶條; 黃瑞枝; 劉明宗; 鍾吉雄、鍾屏蘭. Taipei: Wu nan tu shu chu ban gong si. ISBN 9-57111-618-1. OCLC 043898503.
- Li Shizhen (1596). . Bencao Gangmu (Siku Quanshu edition) 本草綱目 – via Wikisource.
- Li Shizhen (1782) . . Bencao Gangmu (Siku Quanshu edition) 本草綱目 (四庫全書本) – via Wikisource.
- (Eng. tr.), Shizhen Li (2003). "Volume 43: The Category of Animals with Scales". Compendium of materia medica: bencao gangmu. Translated by Luo Xiwen. Foreign Languages Press. pp. 3497–. ISBN 978-7-119-03260-3.
- (Eng. tr.) Shizhen Li (1934). Translated by Read, Bernard E. "Chinese Materia Medica VII; Dragons and Snakes". Peking Natural History Bulletin. 8 (4): 279–362.
- Minakata, Kumagusu 南方熊楠 (1917), "Jūnishikō (4): hebi ni kansuru minzoku to densetsu" 十二支考(4):蛇に関する民俗と伝説 [On the Zodiac (4): folklore and legends of the serpent], Taiyō. Aozora Bunko No.2536
- Ōgata, Tōru 大形徹 (1983). "Ryūkaku kō: sono 2 shika no tsuno" 龍角考 : その二、鹿の角. The Humanities. Jimmongaku ronshu. Osaka Prefecture University. 34: 75–92. hdl:10466/14929.
- Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (2011). "jiāo". Lexicon of Reconstructed Pronunciation: in Early Middle Chinese, Late Middle Chinese, and Early Mandarin. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 150, 87. ISBN 978-0-774-84467-3.
- Schafer, Edward H. (1967). The Vermillion Bird: T'ang Images of the South. University of California Press.
- ——— (1973). The Divine Woman: Dragon Ladies and Rain Maidens in T'ang Literature. University of California Press.
- Schuessler, Axel (2007). "jiao4". ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. University of Hawaii Press. p. 308. ISBN 9780824829759.
- Visser, Marinus Willem de (1913), "§7 Kiao Lung (蛟龍)", The Dragon in China and Japan, Amsterdam: J. Müller, pp. 76–81, pdf Archived 19 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Watson, Burton, tr. 1968. The Complete works of Chuang Tzu. Columbia University Press.
- Wen, Yiduo (1956), "A study of Fu Xi" 伏羲考, Shenhua yu shi 神話與詩, Wen Yiduo quanji 聞一多全集 8, Amsterdam: Guji, pp. 3–68
- —— (2001) . A study of Fu Xi 伏羲考. Dead Water, Myth, and Poetry 死水,神话与诗. Amsterdam: Gui Zhou Education Publishing House.
- Williams, Samuel Wells (1889). "chiao; sha" 鮫; 鯊. A Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language. Amsterdam: American Presbyterian Mission Press. pp. 368, 730.