Jiaozuo

Coordinates: 35°12′57″N 113°14′31″E / 35.2157°N 113.2419°E / 35.2157; 113.2419
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jiaozuo
焦作市
Tsiaotso
Top:View of Red Stone Gorge and waterfall in Yuntai Mountain Geological Park, Bottom left:View of Qingling Valley, Bottom upper right:Jiaozuo Sports Stadium, Bottom lower right:Jiaozuo Television Tower and Longyuan Lake
Top:View of Red Stone Gorge and waterfall in Yuntai Mountain Geological Park, Bottom left:View of Qingling Valley, Bottom upper right:Jiaozuo Sports Stadium, Bottom lower right:Jiaozuo Television Tower and Longyuan Lake
Jiaozuo in Henan
Jiaozuo in Henan
Jiaozuo is located in Northern China
Jiaozuo
Jiaozuo
Location on the North China Plain
Jiaozuo is located in China
Jiaozuo
Jiaozuo
Jiaozuo (China)
Coordinates (Jiaozuo municipal government): 35°12′57″N 113°14′31″E / 35.2157°N 113.2419°E / 35.2157; 113.2419
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHenan
Municipal seatJiefang District
Area
 • Prefecture-level city4,000.9 km2 (1,544.8 sq mi)
 • Urban
413.8 km2 (159.8 sq mi)
 • Metro
896.3 km2 (346.1 sq mi)
Elevation
139 m (456 ft)
Population
 (2018 estimation)
 • Prefecture-level city3,590,700[1]
 • Urban
1,044,400link
 • Metro
1,424,500
 • Metro density1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
454000
Area code0391
ISO 3166 codeCN-HA-08
GDP¥2,342.80(2017) link
Major NationalitiesHan, Hui
County-level divisions10
Township-level divisions116
License plate prefixesH
Websitelink

Jiaozuo (Chinese: 焦作; pinyin: Jiāozuò [tɕjáʊ.tswô]; postal: Tsiaotso) is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Henan province, China. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the south, Xinxiang to the east, Jiyuan to the west, Luoyang to the southwest, and the province of Shanxi to the north. Jiaozuo is one of the core cities of the Central Plains urban agglomeration and a regional central city along the Shanxi–Henan border area.[2]

Its population was 3,590,700 as of the 2018 estimate whom 1,424,500 lived in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts (Jiefang, Shanyang, Zhongzhan and Macun) and Bo'ai County largely being urbanized.

Administration[edit]

The prefecture-level city of Jiaozuo administers 4 districts, 2 county-level cities and 4 counties.

Map

History[edit]

In the Jiaozuo Administrative Region, human tribes existed as early as the matriarchal commune period, more than 8,000 years ago.

The Xia Dynasty was under the jurisdiction of Jizhou and was called Qinhuai Land. "Yu Gong" divides the world into nine states belonging to Jizhou.

The Shang Dynasty and the Western Zhou Dynasty belonged to the interior of Ji. According to the "Hanshu Geography", after the Zhou Dynasty destroyed the Shang Dynasty, it belonged to the three kingdoms of Yong, Xin and Wen. The Eastern Zhou Dynasty belonged to the Nanyang territory of Jin, and the Warring States Period belonged to the two kingdoms of Wei and Wei.

From the Qin Dynasty to Sanchuan County, it belonged to Hanoi County from the Han Dynasty to the Three Kingdoms period.

The Jin Dynasty was divided into Hanoi County, Ji County, and Xingyang County in Sizhou; the Southern and Northern Dynasties were divided into Hanoi County and Xingyang County; the Later Wei Dynasty was divided into Hanoi County, Wude County, Sizhou Ji County, Xingyang County, and Donghengnong County in Huaizhou (Eastern Wei, formerly Wu, Yangwu County belongs to Guangwu County of Northern Yuzhou); Northern Qi Dynasty belongs to Ji County of Sizhou.

In the Sui Dynasty, it belonged to Hanoi County, Ji County, and Xingyang County; in the Tang Dynasty, it belonged to Huaizhou and Hanoi County of Hebei Province, Heyang Sancheng Shimengzhou (i.e. Mengzhou), Henan County of Henan Prefecture of Henan Province, and Xingyang County of Zhengzhou.

In the Five Dynasties, it belonged to Huaizhou and Mengzhou; in the Song Dynasty, it belonged to Huaizhou and Hanoi County on the West Road of Hebei Province; and to Jiyuan County (governing Mengzhou) on the Northwest Road of Beijing; in the Jin Dynasty, it belonged to Huaizhou and Mengzhou on the South Road of Henan Province.

The Yuan Dynasty belongs to Huaiqing Road and Mengzhou, Yannan and Hebei Roads.

In the Ming Dynasty, it belonged to Huaiqing Mansion (governing Hanoi, today's Qinyang) and was under the jurisdiction of Henan Province (later changed to Henan Chief Envoy Department).

The Qing Dynasty belonged to Huaiqing Prefecture of Henan Province and included Hanoi County, Jiyuan County, Xiuwu County, Wuzhi County, Wen County, Meng County, Yuanwu County and Yangwu County.

In 1910, the Qing government established Jiaozuo Town in Xiuwu County.

In 1912, the county-prefecture was abolished, and Hanoi County was changed to Huai Khanh Prefecture.

In 1913 Fu Cun County was abolished, and Huaiqing Prefecture was renamed Qinyang County. The counties of the original Huaiqing Prefecture belonged to Henan Province, Henan Province.

In 1914, it was changed to Hebei Road.

In August 1927, the eastern part of Qinyang County was analyzed, and Boai County was established.

In 1932, the counties of the former Huaiqing Prefecture were affiliated with the Office of the Fourth Administrative Inspectorate of Henan Province.

On September 8, 1945, Jiaozuo was liberated, and Jiaozuo City was established. It was under the Eighth Special Administrative Office of Taihang District. In November, it was changed to the Fourth Special Administrative Office, which governed Jiaozuo and Wen County, Xiuwu, Wuzhi, Boai and other counties; in March 1948, The Fourth Taihang Office abolished Jiaozuo City and established Jiaozuo County.

In May 1949, the Fourth Special Office of Taihang District was changed to the Xinxiang Special Office (stationed in Jiaozuo and moved to Xinxiang in March 1953), with jurisdiction over Jiaozuo and Xinxiang cities as well as Huojia, Huixian, Xinxiang, Xiuwu, Wuzhi, and Qinyang, Wen County, Boai and other 9 counties. In August of the same year, the Pingyuan Provincial Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the Provincial People's Government were established in Xinxiang; in September, the Pingyuan Provincial People's Government issued an order. , Jiyuan and other 15 counties. In the same month, Jiaozuo Mining Bureau was established; in October, Jiaozuo County was changed to Jiaozuo Mining Area.

In November 1952, the organizational structure of Pingyuan Province was abolished, and the Jiaozuo mining area and counties such as Jiyuan, Qinyang, Wenxian, Mengxian, Xiuwu, Wuzhi, and Boai were placed under the Xinxiang Special Administration Bureau of Henan Province.

On July 9, 1956, the State Council approved the Henan Provincial People's Committee's "Report on Converting the Jiaozuo Mining Area into a Provincial Municipality" decision: the Jiaozuo Mining Area was abolished, and Jiaozuo City was established, under the direct leadership of Henan Province.

In December 1958, the State Council approved the entrustment of Jiaozuo City to the Xinxiang Special Administrative Office (District).

In December 1959, Xiuwu County and Boai County were placed under Jiaozuo City.

In August 1960, Xiuwu County, Boai County and Wen County were abolished, and their administrative areas were merged into Jiaozuo City and Qinyang County, respectively.

In October 1961, Xiuwu County, Boai County, and Wen County were restored and placed under the Xinxiang Special Administrative Office.

In January 1974, Jiaozuo City came under the dual leadership of Henan Province and Xinxiang Special Administrative Office.

In March 1982, the Provincial Party Committee and the Provincial Government decided to make Jiaozuo City a provincial municipality.

In September 1983, Xiuwu County and Boai County were transferred to Jiaozuo City from the Xinxiang Special Administration Bureau.

In January 1986, Jiyuan County, Qinyang County, Wen County, Meng County, and Wuzhi County were placed under Jiaozuo City.

In August 1988, Jiyuan County was abolished, and Jiyuan City was established (it came under the province's jurisdiction in January 1997).

In September 1989, Qinyang County was abolished, and Qinyang City was established.

In May 1996, Meng County was abolished, and Mengzhou City was established.

In March 2010, Jiaozuo New District was established (in March 2014, it was renamed Jiaozuo Urban-rural Integration Demonstration Zone); by the end of 2019, Jiaozuo City governs Qinyang City, Mengzhou City, Boai County, Wuzhi County, Xiu County There are 4 counties of Wu County and Wen County, 4 districts of Jiefang District, Shanyang District, Zhongzhan District, Macun District and Jiaozuo City Urban-rural Integration Demonstration Zone.

Climate[edit]

Jiaozuo has a temperate semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with four distinct seasons; owing to the shielding influence of the Taihang Mountains, temperatures in the urban core of Jiaozuo are warmer than in Xinxiang and Zhengzhou. Winters are cool and relatively dry while summers are hot and often rainy. The normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 1.3 °C (34.3 °F) in January to 27.7 °C (81.9 °F) in July, with the annual mean temperature at 15.61 °C (60.1 °F). Extremes exist from −22.4 °C (−8.3 °F) to 43.6 °C (110.5 °F).[citation needed] Precipitation averages 552 mm (21.7 in) annually.

Climate data for Jiaozuo (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.0
(68.0)
25.4
(77.7)
31.7
(89.1)
37.0
(98.6)
40.8
(105.4)
43.5
(110.3)
40.4
(104.7)
39.0
(102.2)
38.6
(101.5)
35.9
(96.6)
27.5
(81.5)
24.6
(76.3)
43.5
(110.3)
Average high °C (°F) 6.1
(43.0)
10.3
(50.5)
16.2
(61.2)
22.9
(73.2)
28.4
(83.1)
32.9
(91.2)
32.9
(91.2)
31.4
(88.5)
27.6
(81.7)
22.1
(71.8)
14.5
(58.1)
8.2
(46.8)
21.1
(70.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
5.2
(41.4)
10.9
(51.6)
17.3
(63.1)
22.9
(73.2)
27.3
(81.1)
28.3
(82.9)
27.0
(80.6)
22.7
(72.9)
16.9
(62.4)
9.6
(49.3)
3.6
(38.5)
16.1
(61.0)
Average low °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
1.0
(33.8)
6.1
(43.0)
12.1
(53.8)
17.6
(63.7)
22.1
(71.8)
24.4
(75.9)
23.3
(73.9)
18.4
(65.1)
12.3
(54.1)
5.3
(41.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
11.7
(53.0)
Record low °C (°F) −12.9
(8.8)
−17.8
(0.0)
−5.1
(22.8)
0.3
(32.5)
8.2
(46.8)
13.4
(56.1)
17.4
(63.3)
13.9
(57.0)
8.5
(47.3)
−0.8
(30.6)
−6.7
(19.9)
−10.8
(12.6)
−17.8
(0.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 8.5
(0.33)
11.1
(0.44)
18.4
(0.72)
30.8
(1.21)
49.1
(1.93)
67.8
(2.67)
140.8
(5.54)
102.0
(4.02)
63.1
(2.48)
35.2
(1.39)
25.8
(1.02)
6.1
(0.24)
558.7
(21.99)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.3 3.9 4.3 5.7 7.0 7.9 11.1 10.3 8.3 6.4 5.1 2.6 75.9
Average snowy days 4.2 3.1 1.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 2.3 11.9
Average relative humidity (%) 55 52 51 55 55 56 71 74 68 63 60 54 60
Mean monthly sunshine hours 117.5 131.9 176.2 205.3 225.8 204.1 178.0 179.6 157.7 160.2 142.3 131.0 2,009.6
Percent possible sunshine 38 42 47 52 52 47 41 44 43 46 46 43 45
Source: China Meteorological Administration[3][4]

Economy[edit]

In 2020, the GDP of Jiaozuo City reached 212.4 billion yuan, and the general public budget revenue exceeded 15 billion yuan.link

In 2019, the city's GDP reached 276.11 billion yuan, an increase of 8.0% over the previous year. Specifically, the value added of the primary industry was 14.98 billion yuan, up by 4.2%; The added value of the secondary industry was 148.02 billion yuan, up by 8.7%; The value added of the tertiary industry was 113.12 billion yuan, up by 7.5%. Per capita GDP was 76,827 yuan. The structure of the tertiary industry changed from 5.5:53.9:40.6 in the previous year to 5.4:53.6:41.0, and the proportion of tertiary industry increased by 0.4 percentage points over the previous year.

The consumer price index rose by 3.0 percent over the previous year, including 6.8 percent for food, tobacco and alcohol, 3.3 percent for clothing, 1.6 percent for housing, 1.7 percent for retail commodities, and 2.9 percent for agricultural means of production.

The city's general public budget revenue was 15.647 billion yuan, an increase of 7.5% over the previous year, of which the tax revenue was 10.959 billion yuan, an increase of 7.2%, accounting for 70.0% of the general public budget revenue. Expenditure in the general public budget is 29.760 billion yuan, up 10.6%, of which expenditure on general public services is up 17.2%, expenditure on public security is up 3.4%, expenditure on social security and employment is up 7.6%, and expenditure on urban and rural communities is up 58.4%.

People[edit]

According to the results of the seventh national census, as of 0:00 on November 1, 2020, the permanent population of Jiaozuo City was 3,521,078 people. Compared with the 3,539,860 people in the sixth national census in 2010, 18,782 people decreased in 10 years.

As of the end of 2022, Jiaozuo City has a permanent population of 3.5235 million, including 2.2674 million urban residents and 1.2561 million rural residents; the urbanization rate of the permanent population is 64.35%, an increase of 0.62 percentage points from the end of the previous year. The annual birth rate was 7.65‰; the population death rate was 7.42‰; and the natural growth rate was 0.23‰.[5]

Transport[edit]

Zhengjiaojin Expressway, Xinjiaoji Expressway, Jiluo Expressway and Jiaowen Expressway pass through the territory. Local expressways are connected with national trunk expressways, realizing "county expressway", "township expressway" and "village expressway". [4] In October 2020, it will be included in the list of pilot areas for deepening the reform of rural road management and maintenance system.

By the end of 2019, the expressway mileage was 239.51 km. The annual highway cargo turnover was 30.25 billion tons per kilometer, up 9.4% over the previous year; Road passenger turnover reached 697 million person kilometers, down 11.8%.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Henan Polytechnic University (HPU),[6] with a history of nearly 100 years, is the first mining university in Chinese history. Its former is Jiaozuo Coal Mining School which was established by the British Syndicate Co. Ltd., in 1909. It has changed its names several times in the course of development, namely, FuZhong Coal Mining University, Jiaozuo Private Institute of Technology, North-west Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo National Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo Mining Institute and Jiaozuo Institute of Technology. The university resumed its name of Henan Polytechnic University in 2004. Henan University of Science and Technology (Province-Building Universities, Central and Western Universities Infrastructure Capacity Building Engineering Universities)

Natural Scenery[edit]

Jiaozuo is located adjacent to the Yellow River and is just south of the Taihang Mountain.

In the southern foothills of the Taihang Mountains in the northern part of Jiaozuo, there are about 500 square miles of gravel slopes. The geology is hard and stable, and the strata have great endurance. It is also close to mines, water sources, traffic arteries and cities and towns. It is an ideal industrial land. Very suitable for the construction of high-rise buildings.

In Shanyang distinct, Fengshanzhen mountain is a leisure and entertainment place for people living around it.

Yuntai Mountain, Qing Tian River, Qing Long Cape, Shen Nong Mountain, Feng Lin Cape, and so on.

Yuntai Mountain is said to have the waterfall with main cascade of 314 meters in height, together with numerous smaller cascades.

On February 13, 2004, Yuntai Mountain as the fifth in the world, the third in the country China, was named the world's first World Geopark by UNESCO and caused attention at home and abroad. Meanwhile, Yuntaishan is also a national scenic spot, National Civilized Scenic Area, the first national AAAAA-level scenic spot, national natural heritage, national forest parks, national macaque nature reserve. Yuntain Mountain also has Asia's highest head drop waterfall.

Other landmarks[edit]

Amongst Jiaozuo's best sights are:

  • Old city with tombs
  • Old rocks-hanging Taiping temple with cave grottoes
  • Giant red new Jiaozuo temple
  • TV tower
  • Large futuristic Jiaozuo Sport centre
  • Renmin bridge
  • Building of People's government
  • City's tallest building

Notable People[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "China: Hénán (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. ^ JING, WANG (2017-07-22). 焦作市城市总体规划(2011~2020年)获国务院批准_河南要闻_河南省人民政府门户网站 [The Master plan of Jiaozuo City (2011 ~ 2020) has been approved by The State Council]. Henan People's Government.
  3. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  4. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  5. ^ "河南省第七次全国人口普查_河南省统计局" [The 7th National Population Census of Henan Province]. tjj.henan.gov.cn. Retrieved 2023-09-17.
  6. ^ 河南理工大学. Henan Polytechnic University.

External links[edit]