Jiaqing Emperor

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Not to be confused with Jiajing Emperor.
Jiaqing Emperor
清 佚名 《清仁宗嘉庆皇帝朝服像》.jpg
7th Qing Emperor of China
Reign 9 February 1796 – 2 September 1820
Predecessor Qianlong Emperor
Successor Daoguang Emperor
Regent Qianlong Emperor (1796–1799)
Born (1760-11-13)13 November 1760
Old Summer Palace, Beijing
Died 2 September 1820(1820-09-02) (aged 59)
Chengde Summer Palace, Hebei
Burial Western Qing Tombs
Empress Empress Xiaoshurui
Empress Xiaoherui
Issue Prince Mu
Heshuo Princess Zhuangjing
Mianning, Prince Zhi
Gulun Princess Zhuangjing
Heshuo Princess Hui'an
Miankai, Prince Dun
Mianxin, Prince Rui
Mianyu, Prince Hui
Gulun Princess Huimin
five other unnamed daughters
Full name

‹The template Lang-zh is being considered for merging.› 

Chinese: Aixin-Jueluo Yongyan 愛新覺羅永琰, later Yongyan 顒琰
Manchu: Aisin-Gioro Yongyan ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ ᠶᠣᠩ ᠶᠠᠨ
Posthumous name
Emperor Shòutiān Xìngyùn Fūhuà Suīyóu Chóngwén Jīngwǔ Guāngyù Xiàogōng Qínjiǎn Duānmǐn Yīngzhé Ruì
受天興運敷化綏猷崇文經武光裕孝恭勤儉端敏英哲睿皇帝
Temple name
Qīng Rénzōng
清仁宗
House Aisin Gioro
Father Qianlong Emperor
Mother Empress Xiaoyichun

The Jiaqing Emperor (Chinese: 嘉慶帝; pinyin: Jiāqìng Dì; Wade–Giles: Chia1-ch'ing4 Ti4; Mongolian: Sayishiyaltu Yirugertu Khaan, 13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Aisin Gioro Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favourite of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire and curb the smuggling of opium into China.

Early years[edit]

Yongyan was born in the Old Summer Palace, 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of Beijing. His personal name, "Yongyan" (永琰), was later changed to "Yongyan" (顒琰) when he became the emperor. The Chinese character for yong in his name was changed from the more common 永 to the less common 顒. This novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo in the imperial family.

Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. His mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai (魏清泰), a Han Chinese official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu Eight Banners as part of a Han Banner. She was posthumously honoured as "Empress Xiaoyichun" after Yongyan became the emperor. In 1818, the Jiaqing Emperor officially converted his mother's family from Han Chinese to Manchu by transferring them from the Han Banners to the Manchu Banners and changing their family name from "Wei" to the Manchu-sounding "Weigiya".

The Qianlong Emperor originally had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia of the First Rank" (嘉親王; or simply "Prince Jia").

Accession to the throne[edit]

Portrait of the Jiaqing Emperor in his study

In October 1795, the 60th year of his reign, the Qianlong Emperor announced his intention to abdicate in favour of Prince Jia. He made this decision because he felt that it was disrespectful for him to rule longer than his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, who was on the throne for 60 years. Prince Jia ascended the throne and adopted the era name "Jiaqing" (Chinese: 嘉慶; Manchu: ᠰᠠᡳᠴᡠᠩᡤᠠ ᡶᡝᠩᡧᡝᠨ saicungga fengšen) in February 1796, hence he is historically known as the Jiaqing Emperor. For the next three years however, the Jiaqing Emperor was emperor in name only because decisions were still made by his father, who became a Taishang Huang (emperor emeritus) after his abdication.

After the death of the Qianlong Emperor in the beginning of February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor took control of the government and prosecuted Heshen, a favourite official of his father. Heshen was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, and ordered to commit suicide. Heshen's daughter-in-law, Princess Hexiao, a sister of the Jiaqing Emperor, was spared from punishment and given a few properties from Heshen's estates.

At the time, the Qing Empire faced internal disorder, most importantly the large-scale White Lotus (1796–1804) and Miao (1795–1806) rebellions, as well as an empty imperial treasury. The Jiaqing Emperor engaged in the pacification of the empire and the quelling of rebellions. He endeavored to bring China back to its 18th-century prosperity and power. However, due in part to large outflows of silver from the country as payment for the opium smuggled into China from British India, the economy declined.

Court intrigues and incidents[edit]

Members of the Qing imperial family tried to assassinate him twice – in 1803 and in 1813. The princes involved in the attempts on his life were executed. Other members of the imperial family, numbering in the hundreds, were sent into exile.[1][2][3]

Renaming Vietnam[edit]

The Jiaqing Emperor refused the Vietnamese ruler Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt. He changed the name instead to Việt Nam.[4] Gia Long's Đại Nam thực lục contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.[5]

Opposition to Christianity[edit]

The Great Qing Code includes one statute titled "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (禁止師巫邪術). In 1811, a clause was added to it with reference to Christianity. It was modified in 1815 and 1817, settled in its final form in 1839 under the Daoguang Emperor, and abrogated in 1870 under the Tongzhi Emperor. It sentenced Europeans to death for spreading Catholicism among Han Chinese and Manchus. Christians who would not repent their conversion were sent to Muslim cities in Xinjiang, to be given as slaves to Muslim leaders and beys.[6]

Chinese nobility[edit]

The Jiaqing Emperor granted the title Wujing Boshi (五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Han Yu.[7][8][9][10]

Family[edit]

Spouses[edit]

Title / Posthumous title Name Born Died Father Notes
Empress Xiaoshurui
孝淑睿皇后
Lady Hitara
喜塔臘氏
2 October 1760 5 March 1797 Horchingo (和爾經額) of the Hitara clan Married Yongyan in 1774 and became his primary consort;
Became Empress in 1796
Empress Xiaoherui
孝和睿皇后
Lady Niohuru
鈕祜祿氏
1776 1850 Gong'ala (恭阿拉) of the Niohuru clan Started out as a secondary consort of Yongyan;
Became a Noble Consort after the Jiaqing Emperor's coronation;
Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort after the death of Empress Xiaoshurui;
Promoted to Empress in 1801;
Became Empress Dowager Gongci (恭慈皇太后) in 1820
Imperial Noble Consort Heyu
和裕皇貴妃
Lady Liugiya
劉佳氏
9 January 1761 27 April 1834 Liu Fuming (劉福明) Started out as a secondary consort of Yongyan;
Became Consort Xian (諴妃) in 1796;
Promoted to Noble Consort Xian (諴貴妃) in 1808;
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Xianxi (皇考諴禧皇貴妃) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun
恭順皇貴妃
Lady Niohuru
鈕祜祿氏
1787 23 April 1860 Shanqing (善慶) of the Niohuru clan Started out as Noble Lady Ru (如貴人);
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Ru (如嬪) in 1805;
Promoted to Consort Ru (如妃) in 1810;
Promoted to Dowager Noble Consort Ru (皇考如貴妃) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor;
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Ru (皇考如皇貴妃) in 1846 by the Daoguang Emperor;
Promoted to Grand Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Ru (皇祖如皇貴太妃) in 1850 by the Xianfeng Emperor
Consort Shu
恕妃
Lady Wanyan
完顏氏
unknown unknown Hafeng'a (哈豐阿) of the Wanyan clan Started out as a secondary consort of Yongyan;
Died before Yongyan became Emperor
Consort Hua
華妃
Lady Hougiya
侯佳氏
unknown 1804 Hou Taozhu (侯討住) Started out as a concubine of Yongyan;
Became Imperial Concubine Ying (瑩嬪) in 1796;
Promoted to Consort Hua in 1801
Consort Zhuang
莊妃
Lady Wanggiya
王佳氏
unknown 1811 Yilibu (伊里布) of the Wanggiya clan Started out as Noble Lady Chun (春貴人);
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Ji (吉嬪) in 1801;
Promoted to Consort Zhuang in 1808
Consort Xin
信妃
Lady Liugiya
劉佳氏
unknown 1822 Liu Benzhi (劉本志) Started out as Noble Lady Xin (信貴人);
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Xin (信嬪) in 1808;
Promoted to Dowager Consort Xin (皇考信妃) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
Imperial Concubine Xun
遜嬪
Lady Shengiya
沈佳氏
unknown unknown Shen Yonghe (沈永和) Started out as a concubine of Yongyan;
Died before Yongyan became Emperor
Imperial Concubine Jian
簡嬪
Lady Guangiya
關佳氏
unknown 1780 Guan Decheng (關德成) Started out as a concubine of Yongyan;
Died before Yongyan became Emperor
Imperial Concubine Chun
淳嬪
Lady Donggiya
董佳氏
unknown 1819 Shitai (時泰) Started out as Noble Lady Chun (淳貴人);
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Chun in 1801
Imperial Concubine Rong
榮嬪
Lady Lianggiya
梁氏
unknown 1826 Liang Guangbao (梁光保) Started out as Noble Lady Rong (榮貴人);
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Concubine Rong (皇考榮嬪) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
Imperial Concubine En
恩嬪
Lady Uya
烏雅氏
unknown unknown Wanming (萬明) of the Uya clan Started out as Noble Lady En (恩貴人);
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Concubine En (皇考恩太嬪) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
Imperial Concubine An
安嬪
Lady Suwannigūwalgiya
蘇完尼瓜爾佳氏
1785 1837 unknown From the Gūwalgiya clan;
Started out as Noble Lady An (安貴人);
Promoted to Dowager Imperial Concubine An (皇考安太嬪) in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
Noble Lady Yun
芸貴人
unknown unknown 1805 unknown Became Noble Lady Yun in 1804
Noble Lady Yu
玉貴人
unknown unknown 1814 unknown
First Class Female Attendant Hui
慧常在
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Sons[edit]

# Title / Posthumous title Name Born Died Mother Notes
1 Prince Mu of the Second Rank
穆郡王
unnamed 4 February 1779 10 April 1780 Imperial Noble Consort Heyu Died in infancy;
Posthumously honoured as "Prince Mu of the Second Rank" in 1820 by the Daoguang Emperor
2 Daoguang Emperor
道光帝
Mianning
綿寧
16 September 1782 26 February 1850 Empress Xiaoshurui Made a qinwang under the title "Prince Zhi of the First Rank" (智親王) in 1813;
Enthroned on 3 October 1820;
Changed his personal name to "Minning" (旻寧) after he became Emperor
3 Prince Dunke of the First Rank
惇恪親王
Miankai
綿愷
6 August 1795 18 January 1838 Empress Xiaoherui Made a junwang in 1819;
Promoted to qinwang in 1820 under the title Prince Dun of the First Rank;
Demoted to junwang in 1827;
Restored as qinwang in 1828;
Demoted to junwang again in 1838 but restored as qinwang within the same year
4 Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank
瑞懷親王
Mianxin
綿忻
1805 1828 Empress Xiaoherui Made a qinwang in 1819 under the title Prince Rui of the First Rank (瑞親王)
5 Prince Huiduan of the First Rank
惠端親王
Mianyu
綿愉
8 March 1814 9 January 1865 Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun Made a qinwang under the title Prince Hui of the First Rank in 1814

Daughters[edit]

# Title / Posthumous title Born Died Mother Spouse Notes
1 unnamed 1780 1783 Imperial Concubine Jian Died young
2 unnamed 1780 1783 Empress Xiaoshurui Died young
3 Heshuo Princess Zhuangjing
莊敬和碩公主
1781 1811 Imperial Noble Consort Heyu Suotenamuduobuji (索特納木多布濟) of the Borjigit clan, married in 1801
4 Gulun Princess Zhuangjing
莊靜固倫公主
1784 1811 Empress Xiaoshurui Manibadala (瑪尼巴達喇) of the Borjigit clan, married in 1802
5 Heshuo Princess Hui'an
慧安和碩公主
1786 1795 Imperial Concubine Xun Died young
6 unnamed 1789 1790 Consort Hua Died young
7 unnamed 1793 1795 Empress Xiaoherui Died young
8 unnamed 1805 1805 Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun Died in infancy
9 Gulun Princess Huimin
慧愍固倫公主
1811 1815 Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun Posthumously honoured as a Gulun Princess in 1820

Death and burial[edit]

On 2 September 1820, the Jiaqing Emperor died at the Rehe (Jehol) Traveling Palace (熱河行宫), 230 km (140 mi) northeast of Beijing, where the imperial court was in summer quarters. The Draft History of Qing did not record a cause of death. Some have alleged that he died after being struck by lightning, but others prefer the theory that he died of a stroke as the emperor was quite obese. He was succeeded by his second son, Mianning, who became known as the Daoguang Emperor.

Renzong was interred amidst the Western Qing Tombs, 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Changling (昌陵; lit. "splendid tomb") mausoleum complex.

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from China in the light of history, by Ernst Faber, a publication from 1897 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from China in the light of history, by Ernst Faber, a publication from 1897 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 27, a publication from 1896 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China, by Robert Samuel Maclay, a publication from 1861 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  2. ^ The Chinese recorder, Volume 27. American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1896. p. 242. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  3. ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  4. ^ Woodside 1971, p. 120.
  5. ^ Jeff Kyong-McClain; Yongtao Du (2013). Chinese History in Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-0-7391-7230-8. 
  6. ^ Robert Samuel Maclay (1861). Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China. Carlton & Porter. p. 336. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  7. ^ Qin ding da Qing hui dian (Jiaqing chao). 1818. p. 1084. 
  8. ^ 王士禎 [Wang Shizhen] (3 September 2014). 池北偶談 [Chi Bei Ou Tan]. 朔雪寒 [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:ESB6TEXXDCT. 
  9. ^ 徐錫麟 [Xu, Xilin]; 錢泳 [Qian, Yong] (10 September 2014). 熙朝新語 [Xi Chao Xin Yu]. 朔雪寒 [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:J62ZFNAA1NF. 
  10. ^ Brunnert, H. S.; Hagelstrom, V. V. (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493–94. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9. 
Jiaqing Emperor
Born: 13 November 1760 Died: 2 September 1820
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Qianlong Emperor
Emperor of China
1796–1820
Succeeded by
The Daoguang Emperor