Tol language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Jicaque language)
Jump to: navigation, search
(Eastern) Jicaque, Jicaque de la Flor
Region Honduras
Ethnicity 19,600 Tolupan (1990)[1]
Native speakers
almost 500 (2012)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 jic
Glottolog toll1241[3]

Tol, also known as Eastern Jicaque, Tolupan, and Torupan, is spoken by approximately 500 Tolupan people in La Montaña de la Flor reservation in Morazán Department, Honduras.[citation needed][clarification needed] It was also spoken in much of Yoro Department, but only a few speakers were reported in the Yoro Valley in 1974. Tol speakers refer to themselves as the Tolpán, but are called Jicaques or Turrupanes by ladinos.

Tol used to be spoken from the Río Ulúa in the west, to modern-day Trujillo in the east, and to the Río Sulaco in the inland south. This area included the areas around modern-day El Progreso, La Ceiba, and possibly also San Pedro Sula. Most Tolupan had fled the Spanish from coastal regions by the early 1800s. The Tol speakers at La Montaña de la Flor fled the Yoro Valley in 1865 to avoid being conscripted into forced labor by the local governor (Campbell & Oltrogge 1980:206, Hagen 1943, Chapman 1978).


  1. ^ Tol at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Haurholm-Larsen, Steffen. 2012. ¿A quién le importa? Una encuesta sociolingüística de la lengua tol o jicaque de Honduras. Talk given at 54th Congress of Americanists. Vienna.
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tol". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  • Campbell, Lyle, and David Oltrogge (1980). "Proto-Tol (Jicaque)." International Journal of American Linguistics, 46:205-223
  • Dennis, Ronald K. (1976). "La lengua tol (jicaque): los sustantivos." Yaxkin 1(3): 2-7.
  • Fleming, Ilah. (1977). "Tol (Jicaque) phonology." International Journal of American Linguistics 43(2): 121-127.
  • Holt, Dennis. (1999). Tol (Jicaque). Languages of the World/Materials 170. Munich: LincomEuropa.