|First appearance||Resident Evil (1996)|
|Last appearance||Resident Evil 3 (2020)|
|Designed by||Isao Ohishi|
Jill Valentine[a] is a character in Resident Evil (Biohazard in Japan), a survival horror video game series created by Japanese company Capcom. She was introduced as one of two player characters in the original Resident Evil (1996). Valentine is a former member of the Raccoon City Police Department's S.T.A.R.S team, and initially worked alongside her partner Chris Redfield to fight the Umbrella Corporation, a pharmaceutical company whose bioterrorism creates zombies and other bio-organic weapons. Jill and Chris Redfield later became founding members of the United Nations' Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance (B.S.A.A).
Valentine is the protagonist of several Resident Evil games, novelizations, movies, and other media. In later games, such as the 2002 Resident Evil remake, Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles, and Resident Evil 5, her features were based on Canadian model and actress Julia Voth. Valentine also appears in the Resident Evil film series, portrayed by actress Sienna Guillory, and in the 2021 film reboot, played by Hannah John-Kamen. She is featured in several other game franchises, including Street Fighter, Marvel vs. Capcom, and Project X Zone.
Video game publications listed Valentine among the most popular and iconic video game characters, and praised her as the most likable and consistent Resident Evil character. She has received both acclaim and criticism with regard to gender representation in video games. Several publications praised the series for its portrayal of women and considered Valentine significantly less sexualized than other female game characters; she was also cited as an example of a female character who was as competent and skilled as her male counterparts. Others argued she was weakened as a protagonist by attributes that undermined her role as a heroine, specifically an unrealistic body shape that did not reflect her military background; some of her overtly sexualized costumes have also been criticized.
Concept and design
Jill Valentine was introduced as one of two playable protagonists, alongside her partner Chris Redfield, in Capcom's 1996 survival horror video game Resident Evil. She was created by director Shinji Mikami and designer Isao Ohishi. To avoid the sexual objectification of women in video games, Mikami refused to eroticize or portray women as submissive in Resident Evil; instead, Valentine was characterized as independent.
Of Japanese and French descent, Valentine excelled at bomb disposal during her training with Delta Force, and later joined the Special Tactics and Rescue Service (STARS) special operations unit. Experienced with weapons, explosives material, and lock picking, she was intelligent, brave, and loyal. Although their storylines progress toward "the same general direction", the gameplay differs for Valentine and Redfield; her inventory is larger, and she has a lock pick, giving her early access to more health and ammunition. Based on these differences, Valentine was recommended to first-time players of Resident Evil.
According to digital media scholar Esther MacCallum-Stewart, Mikami's female roles possess unique qualities making them viable choices for players to select over their male counterparts, and said their combat attire helped them avoid criticism of adhering to the male gaze. Mikami explained: "I don't know if I've put more emphasis on women characters, but when I do introduce them, it is never as objects. In [other] games, they will be peripheral characters with ridiculous breast physics. I avoid that sort of obvious eroticism." Despite this, subsequent games in the series not directed by Mikami depicted her wearing revealing costumes. Media scholars said players have been intentionally encouraged to both objectify and identify with the character. Several commentators suggested that Mikami's initial portrayal of Valentine as a military professional tempered the ability of subsequent game directors to overtly sexualize the character.
Valentine continued to be redesigned over the course of the series. In the 2002 remake of the original game, her appearance was based on Canadian model and actress Julia Voth. Capcom producer Hiroyuki Kobayashi said they made her more kawaii in the remake, but also kept her tough and muscular.[b] Voth's likeness was reused for Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles (2007) and Resident Evil 5 (2009). Resident Evil 5 features Redfield as a protagonist; designers opted to focus on how both characters had aged since the original game. Valentine underwent another redesign for Resident Evil 5 to reflect her status as a test subject in biological research experiments. Depicted with blonde hair, pale skin, and tight-fitting outfit – described as a battle suit – these changes represent the effects of the experimentation. Fans criticized the new appearance as an example of whitewashing. MacCallum-Stewart suggested the popularity of the series was damaged by the unexplained reappearance of Valentine as a "mind-controlled BDSM assassin". In the 2020 remake of Resident Evil 3, Jill is modeled after Russian model Sasha Zotova. Jill's redesign reflects the developers' creative vision behind the character's reimagination as a genuine action hero; because the art direction for the remake is based on photorealism, Capcom wanted to ensure that Jill fits into the game world environment.
Alternate costumes as rewards for players have been a staple of the Resident Evil series. Completing the 2002 remake unlocked the ability to dress Valentine in her Resident Evil 3: Nemesis miniskirt costume and as Sarah Connor from the 1991 film Terminator 2: Judgment Day. The miniskirt was added during development upon the staff's request. Following its addition, developers changed camera angles to reduce the amount of upskirting and matched the color of the skirt and underwear to make it less obvious. The outfit reappears in Resident Evil: The Mercenaries 3D (2011). A prequel to the events of Resident Evil 5, the downloadable content (DLC) episode Lost in Nightmares includes an alternative outfit for Valentine, based on military clothing and sportswear. Since Resident Evil: Revelations (2012) was set at sea, her costume was made to resemble a wetsuit. The initial design featured more tactical gear attached to her buoyancy control device, but it was removed to highlight her body's contours.[c] Her alternate outfit in the game, a revealing pirate costume, was deliberately made to be colorful to contrast with the storyline's dark themes.
Voice-over and live-action actresses
The actresses who appeared in the original game's live-action cutscenes and recorded the voice work were credited only by their first names; Valentine was portrayed by a high school student credited as "Inezh".[d] Over the course of the franchise, voice actresses who played Valentine included Catherine Disher in Resident Evil 3, Heidi Anderson in the 2002 remake, Kathleen Barr in Capcom's 2004 action-adventure game Under the Skin, and Tara Platt in Pachislot Biohazard, a recreational arcade game released solely in Japan. Patricia Ja Lee provided the voice and motion capture for both The Umbrella Chronicles and Resident Evil 5. Kari Wahlgren voiced the character in the 2011 game Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds. In Revelations, Valentine was voiced by Michelle Ruff, who returned for the non-canon game Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City. Nicole Tompkins voiced and provided motion capture performance for Valentine in the 2020 Resident Evil 3 remake. Atsuko Yuya voiced Valentine in the Japanese versions of the games.
The character appeared in three entries of the original Resident Evil film series, where she was portrayed by English actress Sienna Guillory. Hannah John-Kamen is cast in the role for the 2021 film Resident Evil: Welcome to Raccoon City.
In Resident Evil series
|1997||Resident Evil: Director's Cut|
|1999||Resident Evil 3: Nemesis|
|2002||Resident Evil (remake)|
|2003||Resident Evil: The Missions|
|2007||Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles|
|2008||Resident Evil: Genesis|
|2009||Resident Evil 5|
|2011||Resident Evil: Mercenaries Vs.|
|Resident Evil: The Mercenaries 3D|
|Resident Evil Outbreak Survive|
|2012||Resident Evil: Revelations|
|Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City|
|2020||Resident Evil 3 (remake)|
|Resident Evil: Resistance|
Every game in the series is set in the fictional American metropolitan area Raccoon City until its destruction at the end of Resident Evil 3: Nemesis. Subsequent games featuring Valentine take place on an international scale: namely Russia, Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea. The original game is set in July 1998 in a mansion on the outskirts of Raccoon City, which Valentine and her team enter into while searching for colleagues. Working with partner Barry Burton, she discovers the property is a façade for a biological warfare laboratory operated by the Umbrella Corporation and its undead occupants are the scientists who developed the T-virus mutagen. Her commander Albert Wesker is revealed to be a double agent for Umbrella. Valentine and Redfield are among the five survivors of the incident, who form a strong friendship and become passionate opponents of bioterrorism.
Valentine did not appear in the 1998 sequel, as the production team used new protagonists (Leon S. Kennedy and Claire Redfield) to preserve the original game's horror elements: Mikami believed Valentine and Chris Redfield would be too experienced to be scared by the events in the sequel. She returned as the sole protagonist in Resident Evil 3 (1999). Mikami – the lead producer of both Nemesis and the concurrently-produced Resident Evil – Code: Veronica (2000) – wanted each game to highlight a female character who had previously appeared in the series; Valentine is the protagonist in Nemesis, while Claire Redfield is the lead character in Code: Veronica. Commentators suggested these decisions were made as a result of the success of the Tomb Raider series, which featured Lara Croft as the protagonist.
Nemesis occurs two months after the first game, during which time Valentine joined the Raccoon City Police Department (RCPD) to protect as many civilians as possible from the T-virus. The reason given by Capcom for her informal clothing in this entry was her resignation from the police immediately before the city's population was infected with the virus. She quit in protest over the failure of law enforcement to take action against Umbrella but remained in the city to investigate the corporation.[e] The police uniform she wore in the original game was replaced with a less formal blue tube top, black miniskirt and knee-high boots.
In Nemesis, she escapes Raccoon City before its destruction from a nuclear strike as part of a U.S. government cover-up. She is pursued by Nemesis, a supersoldier whose task is to kill all remaining members of the STARS team. Instead of killing Valentine, Nemesis infects her with the T-virus; her new partner Carlos Oliveira – a former Umbrella mercenary – cures her of the infection with an Umbrella-produced vaccine. The Umbrella Chronicles occurs in 2003, when Valentine and Redfield join a private organization with the goal of exposing Umbrella's biological warfare activities, leading a group to destroy their only remaining research facility.[f] After the fall of the corporation, the pair become founding members of the United Nations' Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance (BSAA). In Revelations – set two years later – Valentine and new partner Parker Luciani are sent on a mission to rescue Redfield, who is allegedly being held hostage on a ghost ship in the Mediterranean. Once aboard, she discovers the ship is infested with a new type of mutagen capable of infecting the aquatic ecosystem. Valentine and Redfield then unravel a political conspiracy involving an earlier mutagenic outbreak and a botched investigation by a rival agency.
Resident Evil 5 takes place in 2009 in the fictional African town of Kijuju, where terrorists are turning local residents into zombies. One of these terrorists is revealed to be Valentine, who was missing in action for the previous two and a half years. Set in 2006, the Lost in Nightmares DLC showed Valentine and Redfield searching inside a mansion for Umbrella's founder; to save Redfield from Wesker, Valentine tackled the latter through a window. Neither of their bodies were recovered, and Valentine is declared dead. In fact, she was injured by the fall and taken hostage by Wesker, who then used her as a test subject in his biological experiments. The antibodies produced by Valentine's system as a result of her Nemesis-era T-virus infection were used as the basis for the Uroboros Virus, the catalyst for the events of Resident Evil 5.
During Resident Evil 5, Redfield discovers that Valentine is alive; Wesker attached a mind-control device on Valentine which forced her to commit the terrorist acts and fight Redfield and his new partner, local BSAA agent Sheva Alomar. Valentine finds enough self-control to open her outfit so the device can be seen and removed. After its removal, she explains that she knew what she was doing but was unable to control her actions and urges Redfield and Alomar to continue their mission. Another DLC episode, Desperate Escape, describes how Valentine was able to escape safety with the help of local BSAA agent Josh Stone before they aid both Chris and Sheva to kill Wesker.
Valentine features in several of the Resident Evil films. She was originally scheduled to be the protagonist for the first Resident Evil movie (2002), while it was under the direction of George A. Romero. When Paul W. S. Anderson took over from Romero, he created a new character for the film series, Alice, portrayed by Milla Jovovich. Valentine appears in the 2004 sequel Resident Evil: Apocalypse, where she is a disgraced police officer who escapes the ruins of Raccoon City with the help of Alice and other survivors. Her outfit in the movie is based on her clothing from Resident Evil 3. Anderson considered explanations to justify the usage of the costume, such as having it described as an undercover outfit, while Jovovich suggested using a heat wave as the reason. Anderson eventually decided to ignore the issue altogether, arguing that people who would criticize her attire "probably shouldn't be watching a Resident Evil movie [at all]."
Valentine appears in a post-credits scene in Resident Evil: Afterlife (2010), wearing the mind-controlling device from Resident Evil 5 and leading an attack against Alice, Chris, Claire Redfield, and the survivors they rescued after a virus outbreak in Los Angeles. In Resident Evil: Retribution (2012), Valentine is an antagonist programmed to capture Alice, but regains control of herself after Alice removes Wesker's mind-control device. The film includes a fight between Valentine and Alice containing around 200 moves.[g] She did not appear in the final film, Resident Evil: The Final Chapter (2016), apparently dying offscreen. According to Jovovich, Valentine was excluded because there were too many Resident Evil characters to include in the film. The Resident Evil film series consistently received negative reviews. Cinefantastique praised Guillory's performance in Apocalypse as the film's only highlight. In the reboot film Resident Evil: Welcome to Raccoon City (2021), Jill is played by Hannah John-Kamen.
Valentine is a playable character in several non-canon Resident Evil games. She features in numerous Resident Evil mobile games, and is the protagonist of Resident Evil: Genesis (2008), an alternative-story version of the original game. She appears in two games in the Marvel vs. Capcom franchise and the crossover tactical role-playing games Project X Zone and Project X Zone 2. She makes a brief cameo in 2004's Under the Skin, and is a playable character in We Love Golf! (2007), Dead by Daylight (2016) and the digital collectible card game Teppen (2019). She appears as an alternate skin for two characters in the Street Fighter series: alternate outfits for Chun-Li in Super Gem Fighter Mini Mix (1998) and Cammy in Street Fighter V (2016) shows them wearing Valentine's costume from the original Resident Evil. Jill appears as a Spirit in the Nintendo crossover video game Super Smash Bros. Ultimate (2018). In 2020, Jill made a cameo appearance in Astro's Playroom. In March 2021 during the Resident Evil 25th anniversary celebrations, the character Zofia from Rainbow Six Siege received Jill Valentine's skin. In October 2021, Jill and Chris appeared in Fortnite Battle Royale.
Valentine features in novelizations of the films and games and plays a supporting role in the first novel, Resident Evil: Caliban Cove (1998), in a series by S. D. Perry. In Resident Evil: The Umbrella Conspiracy (1998), Perry's novelization of the original game, Valentine's Delta Force background is not mentioned; before her career in law enforcement, she is said to have acted as an accomplice for her father Dick Valentine, a professional thief. Several comic books based on the games were released, and she is a character in Bandai's Resident Evil Deck Building Card Game (2011). Merchandise featuring Valentine include action figures and figurines. The character was featured in Resident Evil-themed attractions at Universal Studios Japan and Universal Orlando's Halloween Horror Nights. Capcom's themed restaurant Biohazard Cafe & Grill S.T.A.R.S., which opened in Shibuya, Tokyo, in 2012, sold a noodle dish named after her.[h]
Reception and legacy
Game publications, including the 2011 version of the Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition, listed Valentine among the most popular and iconic video game characters. At the 2013 Penny Arcade Expo, journalists and game developers nominated her as one of the top-three lead characters of Western and Japanese role-playing video games. Magazines praised her as the most likable Resident Evil character, with the most believable and consistent story arc in the series. She was also identified as one of the all-time greatest mascots of the video game industry,[i] as a tough, strong and attractive female character who could appeal to a broad demographic.
Critics commented that Valentine was not oversexualized in her initial appearances. She was highlighted as an example of the series' female characters who were not judged solely on gender, and for having "the most sensible design" for a female character of the mid-to-late 1990s. Her professional relationship with Redfield was celebrated for its basis in loyalty rather than romance and its balance in their personalities: Valentine's intellect and Redfield's brawn. Female digital critics felt that several of Valentine's features undermine her role as a heroine and weaken her as a protagonist – specifically that her body shape is unrealistic and not reflective of her military background or physical training, noting that she was the only member of her team in the original game not to wear a bulletproof vest. The extent to which her appearance changed over the course of the game series has been criticized as excessive, with the Resident Evil 3 outfit derided for deviating too much from Mikami's initial militaristic iteration of the character. In Tropes vs. Women in Video Games, feminist media critic Anita Sarkeesian criticized Valentine's alternate costumes as too revealing, particularly the pirate costume in Resident Evil: Revelations. She also cited Valentine's movement in Revelations as an example of female characters who walk in an overtly sexualized manner.
MacCallum-Stewart said the first Resident Evil game became famous for its "extremely clunky dialogue and voice acting, an element which lent the otherwise suspenseful game an element of charm that endeared it to players". Although she explains that the weak dialogue might be attributed to poor translation of the original Japanese text, she said this inadvertently helped differentiate the series from its rivals. Several lines from the game achieved enduring popularity: "You were almost a Jill sandwich", a quip delivered in awkward voiceover by Barry Burton after a falling ceiling trap almost crushes Valentine, was revived as an Internet meme a decade after the game's release; it became the subject of fan art depicting Valentine in or as a sandwich. Capcom referenced the line in several of their later games, including Dead Rising (2006), Resident Evil: Uprising (2009), and Resident Evil: Revelations 2 (2015). Another piece of dialogue spoken by Burton – "And, Jill, here's a lock pick. It might be handy if you, the master of unlocking, take it with you" – also gained notoriety. The quote has been parodied for containing an excessive amount of silence between words. It was removed from later editions.
- Known in Japan as ジル・バレンタイン (Jiru Barentain)
- Hiroyuki Kobayashi: "Instead, Jill got a little cuter [kawaii – in the context this appears to refer to personality]. Her action and atmosphere has charm. This time, we expect a lot more people [to be] charmed by Jill."
- "At the beginning of the game, Jill is wearing diving equipment, including BCD (buoyancy control device). I thought the gear had interesting details, but because the team wanted to show her bodyline, it was changed to one that only had straps."
- Shinji Mikami: "We shot the opening movie in the Tama River side of Japan. In the beginning of the movie, Jill makes her face look like she is scared, but she was not [supposed to be]. The actress for Jill was only a high-school girl at the time and she had to run around outside in the middle of the night and got mosquito bites, so she made that face; 'I wanna go home!' She was just an immature kid. That cheap shot was totally my mistake. I didn't have enough time and money, also I should have picked the actors judging on performances but it's too late now of course."
- "As our story opens, we learn what happened to Jill Valentine after the events of the original Resident Evil. Disillusioned with the failure of Raccoon City's Police Department to act against Umbrella Corporation and its genetic experiments, she decides to quit the force." Jill Valentine's diary can be unlocked in Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles (2007). The entry for August 24, 1998, reads: "Chris left town today for Europe. Barry said that he was going to send his family to Canada first and then meet up with Chris after that. I have decided to remain in Raccoon City for the time being because I know that the research facility here will be vital to this case. After gathering as much information as I can, I will regroup with Barry and Chris in about a month. I know that is when my true struggle will begin..."
- Albert Wesker: "It was the year 2003. Umbrella had a base of operations in Russia, where they were working on new B.O.W. (bio-organic weapons). They were preparing to arm the unstable regions of the world with their bio weaponry. Chris and Jill had joined a regional biohazard containment unit and had heard rumors about this nightmarish facility."
- Paul W. S. Anderson: "Milla and I stay in touch with the fans, and one of the things I know they've been looking forward to is a fight between Jill Valentine and Alice. We intend to deliver that." Sienna Guillory: "There's something like 200 [fight] moves, it's massive and it's so intricate."
- The dish was "S.T.A.R.S. Original Noodles (Women Only) 'Jill Ver.'". There was a corresponding "(Men Only) 'Barry Ver.'".
- "Mascots are a crucial part of video gaming lore. This is because, as their legacies begin to develop, and the years pile on, they begin to represent not only their respective companies, but also the gaming industry as a whole. Think: where would we be today if not for a certain plumber, one blue hedgehog, and our favorite yellow hero swallowing up Power Pellets and ghosts? Well, somewhere, but not in the place we are now, where video games are a billion – yes, that's billion with a "B" – dollar industry.
- @biomovieJP (December 31, 2021). "#新バイオハザード声優は誰だ Red question mark ornament 『#バイオハザード：ウェルカム・トゥ・ラクーンシティ』 ジル 役🗣日本語吹替版 声優は… ◤◢◤◢◤◢◤◢◤◢◤◢ ジル・バレンタイン 🎙#沢城みゆき ◤◢◤◢◤◢◤◢◤◢◤◢ 1月28日（金）📽全国の映画館で公開🎞" (Tweet) (in Japanese). Retrieved December 31, 2021 – via Twitter.
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She is just on her way out of town (hence the casual attire) when the new nightmare begins
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- Sources for critical consensus of the Resident Evil film series:
- "Resident Evil: Apocalypse (2004)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on November 26, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- "Resident Evil: Afterlife (2010)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on November 26, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- "Resident Evil: Retribution (2012)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on October 25, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- Clarke, Frederick S. (2005). "Resident Evil: Apocalypse". Cinefantastique. 37: 63.; Katsaridou 2017
- "Resident Evil: Welcome to Raccoon City". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on November 24, 2021.
- Drake, Audrey (February 10, 2012). "Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City's Multiplayer Woes". IGN. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Sources for Jill Valentine appearing in numerous Resident Evil mobile games:
- Buchanan, Levi (March 6, 2006). "Resident Evil: The Missions". IGN. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Vasconcellos, Eduardo (January 18, 2008). "Resident Evil: Genesis Review: Return to the outskirts of Raccoon City on your mobile phone". IGN. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Gallegos, Anthony (April 28, 2011). "Resident Evil Mercenaries VS iPhone Review". IGN. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Sources for Valentine appearing in numerous Marvel Vs Capcom games:
- Goldstein, Hilary; de Souza, Alex (July 9, 2009). "Marvel vs. Capcom 2: Jill vs. Storm". IGN. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Hopper, Steven (November 14, 2014). "Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3 Review". IGN. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- "Marvel Vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds Special Edition". IGN. December 31, 2018. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015.
- Sources for Valentine appearing in numerous Project X Zone games:
- Drake, Audrey (April 18, 2012). "Project X Zone: Everything We Know". IGN. p. 1. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Eisenbeis, Richard (November 21, 2015). "The 58 Playable Characters In Project X Zone 2". Kotaku. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- "25 clever character cameos you may have missed". GamesRadar+. October 14, 2015. p. 1. Archived from the original on October 13, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- "Capcom lets you choose who loves Golf". Engadget. February 10, 2008. Archived from the original on August 11, 2019. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- Marshall, Cass (2021-05-25). "Dead by Daylight adds Resident Evil's Jill, Leon, and Nemesis". Polygon. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
- "Capcom Characters Come Together in the Ultimate Card Battle 'Teppen'". Yahoo! Finance. Verizon Media. August 9, 2019. Archived from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- "I've got two big bags of old Japan..." GameSpot. July 23, 2006. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- Walker, Ian (November 27, 2018). "Cammy Is Finally Getting Pants In Street Fighter V". Kotaku. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- Byrd, Matthew (November 27, 2019). "Super Smash Bros. Ultimate Event Features Resident Evil Characters". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- "Every cameraman reference in Astro's Playroom". Gamepur. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
- "Rainbow Six Siege adds Jill Valentine skin for the Resident Evil 25th anniversary celebrations". GamesRadar. 24 March 2021.
- Erick Tay (October 23, 2021). "Fortnite X Resident Evil - Jill Valentine and Chris Redfield Join the Fight". GameSpot.
- Perry 2012a; Shirley 2012
- Perry 2012b.
- Perry 2012a, pp. 7 & 31.
- Sources for Valentine appearing in comic books:
- Ted Adams and Kris Oprisko (w), Carlos D'Anda, Ryan Odagawa and Lee Bermejo (a). Resident Evil: The Official Comic Book Magazine 1 (March 1998), WildStorm, ISBN 1887279954
- Joe Epstein, Adam Deats, Campbell Tran and Ian Rogers (w). Marvel vs. Capcom: Fate of Two Worlds 1 (February 15, 2011), Marvel Comics, ISBN 0744012872(registration required)
- "Resident Evil Deck Building Game". Bandai. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Sources for Jill Valentine-related action figures and figurines:
- Sources for actors portraying Valentine appearing at numerous attractions:
- Whitehead, Dan (September 12, 2012). "Universal Studios Japan transformed into Raccoon City". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Reeves, Ben (September 23, 2013). "Capcom And Universal Studios Talk Real Life Resident Evil – Features". Game Informer. Archived from the original on January 14, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Reeves, Ben (September 28, 2012). "We Survived A Visit To Japan's Resident Evil Restaurant". Game Informer. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- "Top 50 video game characters of all time announced in Guinness World Records 2011 Gamer's Edition". Gamasutra. February 16, 2011. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- Sources for Valentine being one of the most popular video game characters ever created:
- Knight, Rich; Turner, Gus (August 23, 2013). "The Best Video Game Mascots of All Time". Complex. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- Loveridge, Sam (August 8, 2016). "Most iconic female game characters of all time, ranked". Digital Spy. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- Ewalt, David M. (August 31, 2013). "Are These The Top Women Game Characters of All Time?". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
- Rougeau, Michael (March 4, 2013). "50 Greatest Heroines In Video Game History". Complex. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- "10 of the Best Female Protagonists in Gaming". GamesTM. No. 133. March 14, 2013. p. 149.
- Crigger, Lara (May 8, 2007). "Resident Evil's Second Sex". The Escapist. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- Ruberg, Bonnie (November 1, 2005). "Women Monsters and Monstrous Women". The Escapist. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015.
- Elston, Brett (December 14, 2007). "Game babes: A history (part 4)". GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
- "Girl Trouble". Next Generation. No. 37. Imagine Media. January 1998. p. 102.
Jill in Resident Evil and Zoe in LBA2 are positive females who don't parade around in their underwear.
- Brock, André (September 2011). "When Keeping it Real Goes Wrong: Resident Evil 5, Racial Representation, and Gamers". Games and Culture. 6 (5): 429–452. doi:10.1177/1555412011402676. ISSN 1555-4120. S2CID 146539948.
- Vincent, Brittany (October 1, 2012). "The 25 Most A**-Kicking Video Game Duos". Complex. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- Gray, Kate (January 21, 2015). "Let me get something off my chest about boob physics in video games". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 24, 2015.
- Grimes 2003, pp. 7 & 8.
- Sarkeesian, Anita (August 31, 2015). "Women as Reward". Feminist Frequency. Archived from the original on January 12, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Sources for Valentine walking in an overtly sexualized way in Resident Evil: Revelations:
- Sarkeesian, Anita (August 31, 2016). "Body Language & The Male Gaze". Feminist Frequency. Archived from the original on November 27, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Frank, Allegra (August 31, 2016). "Tropes vs. Women's new episode takes a look at the male gaze in games". Polygon. Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Perron 2018, p. 396.
- McDonell, Jess (January 28, 2013). "Gaming Meme History: Jill Sandwich". GameSpot. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- Woo, Ryan, Ryan (January 18, 2012). "The 50 Best Video Game Easter Eggs". Complex. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- Schott, Gareth (July 2010). "Dawn of the Digital Dead: The Zombie as Interactive Social Satire in American Popular Culture". Australasian Journal of American Studies. 29 (1): 61–75. ISSN 1838-9554. JSTOR 41054186.
For example, the mall shop 'Jill's Sandwiches' in Dead Rising might be considered a reference to the line, 'you were almost a Jill sandwich' in Resident Evil.
- Baez, Dominic (June 9, 2017). "She was almost a Claire sandwich". The Register-Guard. Archived from the original on April 22, 2018. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- Clements, Ryan; Drake, Audrey (August 29, 2012). "The Most Absurd Resident Evil Quotes". IGN. Archived from the original on November 2, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
- Famularo, Jessica (January 19, 2017). "The Silliest 'Resident Evil' Moments". Inverse. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
- de Rochefort, Simone (September 6, 2017). "Revisiting Resident Evil's most powerful scene". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
- Cowan, Danny (October 21, 2015). "Resident Evil HD Mod Masterfully Unlocks 1996 Dialog Recordings". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on February 19, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
- ゲームキューブ版 バイオハザード オフィシヤルナビゲーションブック [Biohazard Official Navigation Book] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Enterbrain. 2002. Cited in Morbid Creations, survivhor.biohazardfrance.net.
- Androvich, Mark (1999). Resident Evil 3 Nemesis. Roseville, CA: Prima Games. ISBN 978-0761526179.
- Birlew, Dan (2002). Resident Evil Zero Official Strategy Guide. London: BradyGames. ISBN 978-0744001648.
- Capcom (2010). The Art of Resident Evil 5. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Udon Entertainment. ISBN 978-1926778044.
- Capcom (2015). Resident Evil Revelations: Official Complete Works. London: Titan Books. ISBN 978-1783295012.
- Crowley, Adam M. (2014). "Why They Keep Coming Back: The Allure of Incongruity". In Farghaly, Nadine (ed.). Unraveling Resident Evil: Essays on the Complex Universe of the Games and Films. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. pp. 34–44. ISBN 978-1476614403.
- Denick, Thom (2013). Resident Evil Revelations. London: BradyGames. ISBN 978-0744014921.
- Geyser, Hanli (2013). "Return to Darkness: Representations of Africa in Resident Evil 5". In Balaji, Murali (ed.). Thinking Dead: What the Zombie Apocalypse Means. Lanham, MD: Lexington/Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 103–119.
- Grimes, Sara M. (2003). "You Shoot Like A Girl!": The Female Protagonist in Action-Adventure Video Games (PDF). DiGRA '03: Proceedings of the 2003 DiGRA International Conference: Level Up. Vol. 2. Digital Games Research Association. ISSN 2342-9666. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2017.
- Hodgson, David (2002). Resident Evil: Prima's Official Strategy Guide. Roseville, CA: Prima Games. ASIN B01N8Y9TJE.
- Katsaridou, Maria (2017). "Adaptation of video games into films: The adventures of the narrative". New Semiotics. Between Tradition and Innovation. New Semiotics. Between Tradition and Innovation. doi:10.24308/iass-2014-144. ISBN 9789545359439.
- Martin, Paul (2016). "Race, Colonial History and National Identity: Resident Evil 5 as a Japanese Game" (PDF). Games and Culture. 13 (6): 568–586. doi:10.1177/1555412016631648. ISSN 1555-4120. S2CID 147016727. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-07-19.
- Nicholson, Zy; Price, James (2009). Resident Evil 5: The Complete Official Guide. London: Piggyback. ISBN 978-1906064419.
- Perry, S. D. (2012a). Resident Evil: The Umbrella Conspiracy. London: Titan Books. ISBN 978-1781161883.
- Perry, S. D. (2012b). Resident Evil: Caliban Cove. London: Titan Books. ISBN 978-1781161869.
- Platz, Jenny (2014). "The Woman in the Red Dress: Sexuality, Femmes Fatales, the Gaze, and Ada Wong". In Farghaly, Nadine (ed.). Unraveling Resident Evil: Essays on the Complex Universe of the Games and Films. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. (pp. 126–134), pp. 126, 133. ISBN 978-1476614403.
- Shirley, John (2012). Resident Evil: Retribution – The Official Movie Novelization. London: Titan Books. ISBN 978-1781163160.
- Trépanier-Jobin, Gabrielle; Bonenfant, Maude (July 2017). "Bridging Game Studies and Feminist Theories" (PDF). Kinephanos: Journal of Media Studies and Popular Culture (Special issue: Gender Issues in Video Games): 25–53. ISSN 1916-985X.
- Waples, Damien (2007). Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles. London: Titan Books. ISBN 978-0761558453.
- Perron, Bernard (2018). The World of Scary Video Games: A Study in Videoludic Horror. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1501316197.
- MacCallum-Stewart, Esther (2019). The Playful Undead and Video Games: Critical Analyses of Zombies and Gameplay. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1138895461.
- Walsh, Karen M. (2019). Geek Heroines: An Encyclopedia of Female Heroes in Popular Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO/Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1440866401.
- MacCallum-Stewart, Esther (2008). "Real Boys Carry Girly Epics: Normalising Gender Bending in Online Games". Eludamos. Journal for Computer Game Culture. 2 (1): 27–40. doi:10.7557/23.5970. S2CID 7456966.