|Resident Evil character|
|First game||Resident Evil (1996)|
|Created by||Shinji Mikami and Isao Ōishi|
|Motion capture||Patricia Ja Lee|
Jill Valentine (Japanese: ジル・バレンタイン Hepburn: Jiru Barentain) is a fictional character in Resident Evil, a survival horror video game series created by Japanese developer and publisher Capcom. She is an American counterterrorism officer who regularly works with her partner Chris Redfield to fight the Umbrella Corporation, a pharmaceutical company whose bioterrorism creates zombies. Introduced as one of two player characters in the original Resident Evil (1996), Valentine features in subsequent games, novelizations and merchandise, as well as several titles in the Marvel vs. Capcom and Project X Zone franchises.
Valentine's character has been redesigned as the Resident Evil series progressed. Her appearance in later games, such as Resident Evil (a 2002 remake of the original game), Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles and Resident Evil 5, was based on Canadian model and actor Julia Voth. In the Resident Evil film series, she was portrayed by English actor Sienna Guillory.
Video game publications have listed Valentine among the more popular and iconic characters while praising the character as likeable and consistent. The character has additionally received praise and criticism in regard to gender representation in video games and her being viewed as a sexual object. Some publications have called Valentine a competent and professional soldier and considered her to be less sexualized than other female gaming characters. However, others have argued she was weakened as a protagonist by features that undermined her role as a heroine, while critical of her overtly sexualized costumes that players received as rewards for completing certain tasks within the games.
Concept and design
Jill Valentine was introduced as one of two playable protagonists – alongside her partner Chris Redfield – in Capcom's 1996 video game Resident Evil. As such, she was the first playable female character in the survival horror genre. Shinji Mikami, who directed Resident Evil and co-created Valentine alongside designer Isao Ōishi, expressed in 2014 his opposition to the sexual objectification of women in video games. In addition to avoiding eroticizing his characters, he said he refused to portray women who were submissive to men, and wrote female characters "who discover their independence as the game progresses, or who already know they are independent but have that tested against a series of challenges."
Valentine did not appear in the 1998 sequel, as the production team sought to retain the level of fear found in the original game by introducing inexperienced characters. However, she returned as the sole protagonist in Resident Evil 3: Nemesis (1999) because no character from Resident Evil 2 could be used for continuity reasons. As Mikami explained, Resident Evil 2 protagonist Claire Redfield was set to appear as the lead in the concurrently-produced Resident Evil – Code: Veronica (2000), meaning Valentine was the only suitable character remaining.
As the series progressed, the character went through several design changes. In the 2002 remake of the original game, her appearance was based on Canadian model and actor Julia Voth. Capcom producer Hiroyuki Kobayashi said they made Valentine more "kawaii" for the remake, although she remained a tough and muscular character.[a] Voth's likeness was used again for the 2007 title Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles and 2009's Resident Evil 5. The director of the latter game, Yasuhiro Anpo, said the designers of Resident Evil 5 tried to illustrate how both Valentine and Redfield had changed with time, although the characters retained their signature colors: blue for Valentine and green for Redfield.
In the game, Valentine was redesigned to reflect the fact that she was used as a test subject in biological research experiments. Her hair color was changed to blonde, her skin was made paler, and her close-fitting outfit – described as a "battle suit" – was designed to give players the impression that she had been experimented on. The mind-controlling device that she wears in the game was originally to be placed on her head, but was ultimately moved to her chest because the game's project leader felt it would be sexier. An alternate outfit for Valentine is available in the downloadable content (DLC) episode Lost in Nightmares, a prequel to the events of the main game. The style of this costume was based primarily on military clothing and sportswear. Resident Evil: Revelations was released in 2012, and was set at sea; her signature blue-colored costume resembled a wetsuit. Her buoyancy control device was designed to have more tactical gear attached, but the gear was removed to show her figure.[b]
Alternate costumes as rewards for players have been a staple of the Resident Evil series. Completing the 2002 remake with Valentine unlocks the ability to dress her in her miniskirt costume from Resident Evil 3, and as Sarah Connor from Terminator 2: Judgment Day. The former costume was not originally intended to appear in the game, and was added during development at the request of staff. After its addition, developers changed camera angles to reduce the amount of upskirting, and matched the color of the skirt and underwear to make the issue less obvious. The miniskirt appears as an alternate costume in Resident Evil: The Mercenaries 3D (2011). Her alternate costume in Resident Evil: Revelations is a revealing pirate outfit, which was deliberately made to be colorful to contrast with the storyline's dark themes.
Voice-over and live-action actors
The actors who appeared in the live-action cutscenes and performed the voice work for the original game were credited by their first names only; the actor who portrayed Valentine was credited as "Inezh", and was a high school student.[c] Voice actors who portrayed Valentine over the course of the series include Catherine Disher in Resident Evil 3, Heidi Anderson in the 2002 remake, and Kathleen Barr in Capcom's 2004 action-adventure game Under the Skin. Patricia Ja Lee provided the voice and motion capture for both The Umbrella Chronicles and Resident Evil 5. Kari Wahlgren voiced the character in the 2011 title Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds. In Revelations, she was voiced by Michelle Ruff, who provided her voice in the non-canon game Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City. Atsuko Yuya voices Valentine in the Japanese versions of the games. The character appeared in several entries of the Resident Evil film series, where she was portrayed by British actress Sienna Guillory.
|1997||Resident Evil: Director's Cut|
|1999||Resident Evil 3: Nemesis|
|2000||Marvel vs. Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes|
|2002||Resident Evil (1996 remake)|
|2003||Resident Evil: The Missions (mobile)|
|2004||Under the Skin|
|2007||Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles|
|2008||Resident Evil: Genesis (mobile)|
|2009||Resident Evil 5|
|2011||Resident Evil: Mercenaries Vs. (mobile)|
|Resident Evil: The Mercenaries 3D|
|Resident Evil Outbreak Survive (mobile)|
|Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds|
|Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3|
|2012||Resident Evil: Revelations|
|Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City|
|Project X Zone|
|2015||Project X Zone 2|
Until its destruction at the end of Resident Evil 3: Nemesis, every game in the series took place in the fictional American metropolitan area Raccoon City. Subsequent games which feature Valentine are set on an international scale, taking place in Russia, Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea. She is described as an American citizen with a Japanese American mother and French American father, and is portrayed as intelligent, brave and loyal, with expertise in weapons and explosives handling, and lock picking. A former member of Delta Force who excelled at bomb disposal during training, she joined the Special Tactics And Rescue Service (STARS) team before being assigned to the Raccoon City Police Department (RCPD), where she was frequently credited with saving the lives of both civilians and fellow officers during operations.
The original game is set in July 1998 and takes place in a mansion, which Valentine and her team have retreated into while searching for colleagues. Working with her partner Barry Burton, she discovers the property is a façade for a biological warfare laboratory operated by the Umbrella Corporation, and its undead occupants are scientists who had been developing the T-virus mutagen. Her commander, Albert Wesker, is revealed to be a double agent for Umbrella. Sometime after events in the game, Valentine and Redfield form a strong friendship, and they both become passionate opponents of bioterrorism.
Nemesis occurs two months after the first game. The reason given by Capcom for her informal clothing in this entry is that she had resigned from the police service immediately prior to Raccoon City's entire population being infected with the T-virus. She had quit in protest over the failure of law enforcement to take action against Umbrella, but remained in the city to investigate the corporation.[d] In the game, she attempts to escape Raccoon City before it is destroyed by a nuclear strike as part of a U.S. government cover-up. She is also pursued by the titular supersoldier, who infects her with the T-virus, although her new partner Carlos Oliveira – a former Umbrella mercenary – obtains a vaccine.
The Umbrella Chronicles is set in 2003, when Valentine and Redfield have joined a private organisation with the goal of exposing Umbrella's biological warfare activities, leading a group to destroy their only remaining research facility.[e] After the fall of the corporation, the pair become founding members of the United Nations' Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance (BSAA). In Revelations – set two years later – Valentine and new partner Parker Luciani are sent on a mission to rescue Redfield, who is allegedly being held hostage on a ghost ship in the Mediterranean. Once aboard, she discovers the ship is infested with a new type of mutagen, capable of infecting the aquatic ecosystem. Valentine and Redfield then unravel a political conspiracy involving an earlier mutagenic outbreak, and a botched investigation by a rival agency.
Resident Evil 5 takes place in 2009 in the fictional African town of Kijuju, where terrorists have been turning local residents into zombies. One of these terrorists is later revealed to be Valentine, who had been missing in action for the previous two and a half years. Set in 2006, the Lost in Nightmares DLC shows Valentine and Redfield searching inside a mansion for Umbrella's founder; to save Redfield from Wesker, Valentine tackles the latter through a window. Neither of their bodies were recovered, and Valentine was declared dead. In fact, she was injured by the fall and taken hostage by Wesker, who then used her as a test subject in his biological experiments. The antibodies produced by Valentine's system as a result of her Nemesis-era T-virus infection were used as the basis for the creation of the Uroboros Virus: the catalyst for the events of Resident Evil 5.
During the game, Redfield discovers that Valentine is alive. It is also revealed that Wesker attached a mind-control device to her chest which forced Valentine to commit the terrorist acts, and causes her to fight Redfield and his new partner, local BSAA agent Sheva Alomar. She struggles to find enough self-control to open her outfit so the device can be seen and removed. After its removal, Valentine explains that she knew what she was doing but was unable to control her actions, and urges Redfield and his new partner to continue their mission. Another DLC episode, titled Desperate Escape, describes her escape to safety with the help of another local BSAA agent, Josh Stone.
Valentine features in several of the Resident Evil films. In Resident Evil: Apocalypse (2004), she is a disgraced police officer who escapes the ruins of Raccoon City with the help of film-series protagonist Alice and other survivors. The character appears in a post-credits scene in Resident Evil: Afterlife (2010), where she is under the control of Umbrella and leads an attack against Alice, Chris and Claire Redfield, and the survivors they rescued after a virus outbreak in Los Angeles. In Resident Evil: Retribution (2012), Valentine is an antagonist programmed to capture Alice, but she regains control of herself when Alice removes Wesker's mind-control device from her chest. The film includes a fight between Valentine and Alice containing around 200 moves.[f]
She appears in several non-canon Resident Evil games. She is a playable character in several mobile games in the series, and is the sole protagonist in Resident Evil: Genesis (2008), an alternative-story version of the original game. Apart from the Resident Evil series, she is a playable character in several games in the Marvel vs. Capcom franchise, and the crossover tactical role-playing games Project X Zone and Project X Zone 2. She makes a brief cameo appearance in 2004's Under the Skin. The character also appears in novelisations of the films and games, and plays a supporting role in the first novel, Resident Evil: Caliban Cove (1998), in a series by S. D. Perry. In Resident Evil: The Umbrella Conspiracy (1998), Perry's novelisation of the original game, Valentine's Delta Force background is not mentioned, but before her career in law enforcement she is said to have acted as an accomplice for her father, Dick Valentine, who was a professional thief. Several comic books based on the game series have also been released.
Toys modeled on Valentine include action figures and figurines. She appears as a character in Bandai's Resident Evil Deck Building Card Game (2011). Actors portraying Valentine have appeared at Resident Evil-themed attractions at Universal Studios Japan and at Universal Orlando's Halloween Horror Nights. Capcom's themed restaurant, Biohazard Cafe & Grill S.T.A.R.S., which opened in 2012 in Shibuya, Tokyo, featured a noodle dish named after her.[g] In 2016, Valentine's face model Julia Voth released pictures of herself cosplaying as the character, and has appeared as her at fan conventions.
Reception and legacy
Gaming publications, including the 2011 version of the Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition, have listed Valentine among the most popular and iconic video game characters ever created. Complex said she was the most likeable character to feature in the entire Resident Evil game series, and deemed her "the face" of the franchise: "Capcom proved that they knew what they were doing when they put her front and center. It's always better to have a tough-as-nails, attractive female as a mascot, rather than a guy. You reach both men and women that way." GamesTM said she was its most consistent character: "When you think of a lead protagonist for the series, your mind might jump to Chris Redfield or Leon S. Kennedy ... She might not have the brute strength or obscene 90's hair of some of her [male] counterparts, but when you need a gigantic, genetically-altered zombie taken down, she's the girl to do it."
Some commentators contend that Valentine's portrayal as a competent, military professional tempered her potential to be sexualized, as common for female video game characters. The Escapist's Lara Crigger praised the series for its portrayal of women, saying its "progressive approach" produces female characters who are not judged based on their gender, and highlighted Valentine as a "competent, clever and professional" soldier who is "not 'good, for a woman' but simply 'good'." Bonnie Ruberg from the same publication included Valentine among the least-sexualized female characters, with clothing that is revealing but not obscene. GamesRadar said she was "perhaps the most sensible" female character designed in the mid-to-late 1990s. Her professional relationship with partner Chris Redfield has been celebrated for being based on loyalty and not romance, and its balance of their personalities: Valentine's intellect and Redfield's brawn. In Unraveling Resident Evil, Jenny Platz contrasted Valentine to Ada Wong, a femme fatale in the series who is said to use her sexual empowerment to subvert patriarchy, as opposed to Valentine, whom she described as entirely desexualized.
Despite this, Valentine has appeared on several lists that rank characters based on their sex appeal. In 2011, The Escapist's Lisa Foiles said she was "one of the hottest female character designs ever". In Tropes vs. Women in Video Games (2013–17), feminist media critic Anita Sarkeesian criticized the alternate costumes in the series for being too revealing, particularly Valentine's pirate costume in Resident Evil: Revelations. She also cites her movement in the game as an example of female characters who walk in an overtly sexualized manner. Commentators have additionally noted that her body shape is unrealistic and not reflective of her physical training, and that she was the only member of her team in the original game not to wear a bulletproof vest. Journalist Bob Mackey described her miniskirt outfit in Resident Evil 3 as an "embarrassing relic" from a period that catered to teenage boys. Other media scholars argue that players have been intentionally encouraged to both objectify and identify with her.
The Resident Evil films have received consistently bad reviews. Cinefantastique described Guillory's performance in Resident Evil: Apocalypse, in which she has a supporting role, as the film's only "saving grace". Her outfit in the movie was based on her clothing from Resident Evil 3. Producer Paul W. S. Anderson considered several ways to justify the usage of such a revealing costume, including having it described as an undercover outfit, while Milla Jovovich suggested using a heat wave as the reason. Anderson eventually decided to ignore the issue altogether, arguing that people who would question her attire "probably shouldn't be watching a Resident Evil movie." He later claimed that reaction to Valentine's cameo in Resident Evil: Afterlife was positive.[h] The extent to which Valentine's appearance had changed over the course of the game series has also received a mixed response; in 2011, a writer for GamesRadar said she had been redesigned so many times it was "getting ridiculous".
"You were almost a Jill sandwich", a line from the first Resident Evil game, was revived as an Internet meme a decade after the game's release. The quip, delivered in awkward voiceover by Valentine's partner after a falling ceiling trap almost crushes her, became the subject of fan art depicting Valentine in or as a sandwich. Capcom references the line in their later games Dead Rising (2006), Resident Evil: Uprising (2009), and Resident Evil: Revelations 2 (2015).
- Hiroyuki Kobayashi: "Instead, Jill got a little cuter [kawaii—in the context this appears to refer to personality]. Her action and atmosphere has charm. This time, we expect a lot more people [to be] charmed by Jill."
- "At the beginning of the game, Jill is wearing diving equipment, including BCD (buoyancy control device). I thought the gear had interesting details, but because the team wanted to show her bodyline, it was changed to one that only had straps."
- Shinji Mikami: "We shot the opening movie in the Tama River side of Japan. In the beginning of the movie, Jill makes her face look like she is scared, but she was not [supposed to be]. The actress for Jill was only a high-school girl at the time and she had to run around outside in the middle of the night and got mosquito bites, so she made that face; 'I wanna go home!' She was just an immature kid. That cheap shot was totally my mistake. I didn't have enough time and money, also I should have picked the actors judging on performances but it's too late now of course."
- "As our story opens, we learn what happened to Jill Valentine after the events of the original Resident Evil. Disillusioned with the failure of Raccoon City's Police Department to act against Umbrella Corporation and its genetic experiments, she decides to quit the force." Jill Valentine's diary can be unlocked in Resident Evil: Umbrella Chronicles (2007). The entry for 24 August 1998 reads: "Chris left town today for Europe. Barry said that he was going to send his family to Canada first and then meet up with Chris after that. I have decided to remain in Raccoon City for the time being because I know that the research facility here will be vital to this case. After gathering as much information as I can, I will regroup with Barry and Chris in about a month. I know that is when my true struggle will begin..."
- Albert Wesker: "It was the year 2003. Umbrella had a base of operations in Russia, where they were working on new B.O.W. (bio-organic weapons). They were preparing to arm the unstable regions of the world with their bio weaponry. Chris and Jill had joined a regional biohazard containment unit and had heard rumors about this nightmarish facility."
- Paul W. S. Anderson: "Milla and I stay in touch with the fans, and one of the things I know they've been looking forward to is a fight between Jill Valentine and Alice. We intend to deliver that." Sienna Guillory: "There's something like 200 [fight] moves, it's massive and it's so intricate."
- The dish was "S.T.A.R.S. Original Noodles (Women Only) 'Jill Ver.'". There was a corresponding "(Men Only) 'Barry Ver.'".
- Paul W. S. Anderson: "Jill was in the second movie and then didn't come back for the third movie. At the end of [Afterlife] I thought it would be great to kind of reintroduce her so we had this little hidden sequence that was in the end credits. The fans were super excited about it."
- "Jill Valentine Tribute". Capcom Unity (Capcom's official channel on YouTube). 14 February 2013. 00:01:30. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Capcom (22 March 1996). Resident Evil. Playstation. Scene: Closing credits.
- Guinness 2012, p. 115
- Stuart, Keith (30 September 2014). "Shinji Mikami: the godfather of horror games". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "Resident Evil" (pdf). GamePro. No. 101. February 1997. p. 37.
- "Keeping The Nightmare Alive" (74). Edge magazine. August 1999: 40, interview with Shinji Mikami
- Macy, Seth G. (5 January 2016). "Wrap Your Head Around This Jill Valentine Cosplay From Jill Valentine Actress". IGN. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- Meikleham, David (10 December 2010). "Resident Evil: Revelations goes back to horror roots. Redesigns Jill Valentine for the 14th bloody time". GamesRadar. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Sheridan, Connor (6 January 2016). "Is this Jill Valentine cosplay still cosplay if it's her actual model?". GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Nicholson 2009, p. 99, 149.
- "The Celebrities of IGN Convention Bahrain". IGN. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Nicholson 2009, p. 195.
- Martin 2016, p. 7.
- Plunkett, Luke (13 January 2011). "This Resident Evil Figure Is Dressed For Battle". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Capcom 2010, p. 32.
- Laughlin, Andrew (March 12, 2010). "Resident Evil 5: Gold Edition (PS3)". Digital Spy. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on July 5, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- Capcom 2010, p. 33.
- Capcom 2015, pp. 4, 22.
- Capcom 2015, p. 31.
- Drake, Audrey (2 June 2011). "Alternate Costumes in Resident Evil: The Mercenaries". IGN. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Birlew 2002, p. 154.
- Rad, Chloe (20 October 2015). "11 Weirdest Alternative Costumes in Games". IGN. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- Capcom 2015, pp. 27, 30.
- "The History and Making of Biohazard '96". Capcom. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Capcom (22 September 1999). Resident Evil 3: Nemesis. PlayStation. Capcom.
- Capcom (22 March 2002). Resident Evil. GameCube. Scene: Closing credits.
- Capcom (12 October 2004). Under the Skin. PlayStation 2. Scene: Closing credits.
- Capcom (13 November 2007). Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles. Wii. Scene: Closing credits.
- Capcom (5 March 2009). Resident Evil 5. PlayStation 3. Scene: Closing credits.
- Capcom (February 15, 2011). Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds. Scene: closing credits, 2:44 in, Voice Talent.
- Capcom (26 January 2012). Resident Evil: Revelations. Nintendo 3DS.
- Slant Six Games/Capcom (20 March 2012). Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City. PlayStation 3. Scene: Closing credits.
- Sources for Atsuko Yuya providing the voice of Jill Valentine in Japanese versions of the Resident Evil games:
- "Yes, We'll Get Japanese Voices For Resident Evil: Revelations, Too". Siliconera. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
- Slant Six Games/Capcom (20 March 2012). Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City (in Japanese). PlayStation 3. Scene: Closing credits.
- Reynolds, Simon (22 March 2011). "Sienna Guillory returns for 'Resident Evil 5'". Digital Spy. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Miller, Zachary (29 January 2012). "Resident Evil: The Story So Far". Nintendo World Report. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Capcom (5 March 2009). Resident Evil 5. PlayStation 3. Capcom.
- Birlew 2002, p. 5.
- Hodgson 2002, p. 22.
- "Jill Valentine". Capcom. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Denick 2013, pp. 2–3.
- Crowley 2014, p. 36.
- Denick 2013, p. 3.
- "Resident Evil 3: Nemesis". Official US PlayStation Magazine. Ziff Davis. 3 (3): 82–83. December 1999.
She is just on her way out of town (hence the casual attire) when the new nightmare begins
- Waples 2007, p. 124.
- Androvich 1999, p. 20.
- "Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles Archives Transcript – "Files and Items"". GameFAQs. Capcom (official in-game story log). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Heather, Alexandra (25 October 2017). "Resident Evil 3's Nemesis Is Still Terrifying". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017.
- Waples 2007, p. 16.
- Capcom (13 November 2007). Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles. Wii. Scene: Umbrella's End.
- Geyser 2013, p. 63.
- Reed, Kristan (18 February 2010). "Resident Evil 5: Lost in Nightmares". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Reed, Kristan (3 March 2010). "Resident Evil 5: Desperate Escape". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Resident Evil: Apocalypse (Motion picture). 2004.
- Resident Evil: Afterlife (Motion picture). 2010.
- Resident Evil: Retribution (Motion picture). 2012.
- Paul W. S. Anderson (2012). Resident Evil: Retribution (Resident Evil: Retribution Blu-ray, Resident Stuntman).
- Drake, Audrey (10 February 2012). "Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City's Multiplayer Woes". IGN. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Sources for Jill Valentine appearing in numerous Resident Evil mobile games:
- Buchanan, Levi (6 March 2006). "Resident Evil: The Missions". IGN. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Vasconcellos, Eduardo (18 January 2008). "Resident Evil: Genesis Review: Return to the outskirts of Raccoon City on your mobile phone". IGN. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Gallegos, Anthony (28 April 2011). "Resident Evil Mercenaries VS iPhone Review". IGN. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Sources for Valentine appearing in numerous Marvel Vs Capcom games:
- Goldstein, Hilary; de Souza, Alex (9 July 2009). "Marvel vs. Capcom 2: Jill vs. Storm". IGN. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Hopper, Steven (11 November 2014). "Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3 Review". IGN. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "Marvel Vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds Special Edition". IGN. 31 December 2018. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015.
- Sources for Valentine appearing in numerous Project X Zone games:
- Drake, Audrey (18 April 2012). "Project X Zone: Everything We Know". IGN. p. 1. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Eisenbeis, Richard (21 November 2015). "The 58 Playable Characters In Project X Zone 2". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "25 clever character cameos you may have missed". GamesRadar. 14 October 2015. p. 1. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Perry 2012a; Shirley 2012
- Perry 2012b.
- Perry 2012a, pp. 7, 31.
- Sources for Valentine appearing in comic books:
- Ted Adams and Kris Oprisko (w), Carlos D'Anda, Ryan Odagawa and Lee Bermejo (a). Resident Evil: The Official Comic Book Magazine 1 (March 1998), USA: WildStorm, ISBN 1887279954
- Resident Evil 1 (April 1996), Marvel Comics, ASIN B006VW6JQA
- Joe Epstein, Adam Deats, Campbell Tran and Ian Rogers (w). Marvel vs. Capcom: Fate of Two Worlds 1 (15 February 2011), Marvel Comics, ISBN 0744012872
- Sources for Jill Valentine-related action figures and figurines:
- "Resident Evil Deck Building Game [Premiere Edition]". Toy Wiz. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Sources for actors portraying Valentine appearing at numerous attractions:
- Whitehead, Dan (12 September 2012). "Universal Studios Japan transformed into Raccoon City". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Reeves, Ben (23 September 2013). "Capcom And Universal Studios Talk Real Life Resident Evil - Features". Game Informer. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Reeves, Ben (28 September 2012). "We Survived A Visit To Japan's Resident Evil Restaurant". Game Informer. Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Plunkett, Luke (March 29, 2016). "16 Killer Cosplay Shots From WonderCon". Kotaku. Univision Communications. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- "Top 50 video game characters of all time announced in Guinness World Records 2011 Gamer's Edition". Gamasutra. 16 February 2011. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Sources for Valentine being one of the most popular video game characters ever created:
- Knight, Rich; Turner, Gus (23 August 2013). "The Best Video Game Mascots of All Time". Complex. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Loveridge, Sam (8 August 2016). "Most iconic female game characters of all time, ranked". Digital Spy. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Rougeau, Michael (4 March 2013). "50 Greatest Heroines In Video Game History". Complex. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "10 of the Best Female Protagonists in Gaming". GamesTM. No. 133. 14 March 2013. p. 149.
- Crigger, Lara (8 May 2007). "Resident Evil's Second Sex". The Escapist. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Platz 2014, pp. 124, 126, 133.
- Ruberg, Bonnie (1 November 2005). "Women Monsters and Monstrous Women". The Escapist. p. 1. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015.
- Elston, Brett (14 December 2007). "Game babes: A history (part 4)". GamesRadar. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- Brock, André (September 2011). Games and Culture. 6 (5): 429–452. doi:10.1177/1555412011402676. ISSN 1555-4120. .
- Vincent, Brittany (1 October 2012). "The 25 Most A**-Kicking Video Game Duos". Complex. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Hawkins, James (4 November 2010). "The Top Ten Duos In Video Game History". Joystick Division. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Platz 2014, pp. 126, 133.
- Harper, Stephen (2007). "'I could kiss you, you bitch': race, gender, and sexuality in Resident Evil and Resident Evil 2: Apocalypse". Jump Cut. Archived from the original on 15 July 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Sources which have included Valentine in lists based on sex appeal:
- Hester, Larry (8 November 2010). "43. Jill Valentine - The 50 Hottest Women In Video Games". Complex. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Johnson, Brian (4 May 2003). "Top Ten Babes in Games". GameSpy. p. 2. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Hawkins, James (18 March 2010). "The Top Ten Sexiest Video Game Characters". Joystick Division. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Foiles, Lisa (19 January 2011). "Top 5 Hottest Blonde Chicks". The Escapist. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Sarkeesian, Anita (31 August 2015). "Women as Reward". Feminist Frequency. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- Sources for Valentine walking in an overly-sexualized in Resident Evil: Revelations:
- Sarkeesian, Anita (31 August 2016). "Body Language & The Male Gaze". Feminist Frequency. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- Frank, Allegra (31 August 2016). "Tropes vs. Women's new episode takes a look at the male gaze in games". Polygon. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- Gray, Kate (21 January 2015). "Let me get something off my chest about boob physics in video games". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 January 2015.
- Grimes 2003, pp. 7, 8.
- Mackey, Bob (2008). "Top 5 Worst Dressed Videogame Characters". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012.
- Trépanier-Jobin & Bonenfant 2017, p. 41.
- Sources for critical consensus of the Resident Evil film series:
- Clarke, Frederick S. (2005). "Resident Evil: Apocalypse". Cinefantastique. 37: 63.; Katsaridou 2017
- "Game Babes: Featurette on the emergence of female action stars in film". Resident Evil: Apocalypse (DVD commentary). Milla Jovovich, Sienna Guillory, Alexander Witt, Paul W. S. Anderson. Los Angeles: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 2004. 4547 4620444–8 8.
- "Writer and Producer Commentary". Resident Evil: Apocalypse (DVD commentary). Paul W. S. Anderson, Jeremy Bolt. Los Angeles: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 2004. 4547 4620444–8 8.
- McDonell, Jess (28 January 2013). "Gaming Meme History: Jill Sandwich". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
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- Schott, Gareth (July 2010). "Dawn of the Digital Dead: The Zombie as Interactive Social Satire in American Popular Culture". Australasian Journal of American Studies. 29 (1): 70. ISSN 1838-9554. JSTOR 41054186.
For example, the mall shop 'Jill's Sandwiches' in Dead Rising might be considered a reference to the line, 'you were almost a Jill sandwich' in Resident Evil.
- Baez, Dominic (9 June 2017). "She was almost a Claire sandwich". The Register-Guard. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- ゲームキューブ版 バイオハザード オフィシヤルナビゲーションブック [Biohazard Official Navigation Book] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Enterbrain. 2002. Cited in Morbid Creations, survivhor.biohazardfrance.net.
- Guinness World Records 2013: Gamer's Edition. Guinness World Records Ltd. 2012. ISBN 978-1904994954.
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- Birlew, Dan (2002). Resident Evil Zero Official Strategy Guide. London: BradyGames. ISBN 978-0744001648.
- Capcom (2010). The Art of Resident Evil 5. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Udon Entertainment. ISBN 978-1926778044.
- Capcom (2015). Resident Evil Revelations: Official Complete Works. London: Titan Books. ISBN 978-1783295012.
- Crowley, Adam M. (2014). Farghaly, Nadine, ed. Why They Keep Coming Back: The Allure of Incongruity. Unraveling Resident Evil: Essays on the Complex Universe of the Games and Films. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. pp. 34–44. ISBN 978-1476614403.
- Denick, Thom (2013). Resident Evil Revelations. London: BradyGames. ISBN 978-0744014921.
- Geyser, Hanli (2013). "Return to Darkness: Representations of Africa in Resident Evil 5". In Balaji, Murali. Thinking dead: What the zombie apocalypse means. Lanham, MD: Lexington/Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 103–119.
- Grimes, Sara M. (2003). ""You Shoot Like A Girl!": The Female Protagonist in Action-Adventure Video Games" (PDF). DiGRA '03: Proceedings of the 2003 DiGRA International Conference: Level Up. Digital Games Research Association. ISSN 2342-9666. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 July 2017.
- Hodgson, David (2002). Resident Evil. Roseville, California: Prima Games. ASIN B01N8Y9TJE.
- Katsaridou, Maria (2017). "Adaptation of video games into films: The adventures of the narrative". New Semiotics: Between Tradition and Innovation. doi:10.24308/iass-2014-144.
- Martin, Paul (2016). "Race, Colonial History and National Identity: Resident Evil 5 as a Japanese Game". Games and Culture: 1–19. doi:10.1177/1555412016631648. ISSN 1555-4120.
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- Platz, Jenny (2014). Farghaly, Nadine, ed. The Woman in the Red Dress: Sexuality, Femmes Fatales, the Gaze, and Ada Wong. Unraveling Resident Evil: Essays on the Complex Universe of the Games and Films. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. (pp. 126–134), pp. 126, 133. ISBN 978-1476614403.
- Shirley, John (2012). Resident Evil: Retribution - The Official Movie Novelization. London: Titan Books. ISBN 978-1781163160.
- Trépanier-Jobin, Gabrielle; Bonenfant, Maude (July 2017). "Bridging Game Studies and Feminist Theories" (pdf). Kinephanos: Journal of Media Studies and Popular Culture (Special issue: Gender Issues in Video Games): 25–53. ISSN 1916-985X.
- Waples, Damien (2007). Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles. London: Titan Books. ISBN 978-0761558453.
- MacCallum-Stewart, Esther (2008). "Real Boys Carry Girly Epics: Normalising Gender Bending in Online Games". Eludamos. Journal for Computer Game Culture. 2 (1): 27–40.
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