Jim Jordan (American politician)
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Ohio's 4th district
|Assumed office |
January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||Mike Oxley|
|Member of the Ohio Senate|
from the 12th district
January 3, 2001 – December 31, 2006
|Preceded by||Robert R. Cupp|
|Succeeded by||Keith Faber|
|Member of the Ohio House of Representatives|
from the 85th district
January 3, 1995 – December 31, 2000
|Preceded by||Jim Davis|
|Succeeded by||Derrick Seaver|
James Daniel Jordan
February 17, 1964
Urbana, Ohio, U.S.
|Education||University of Wisconsin–Madison (BS)|
Ohio State University (MA)
Capital University (JD)
James Daniel Jordan (born February 17, 1964) is the U.S. Representative for Ohio's 4th congressional district, serving since 2007. He is a member of the Republican Party, and a founding member of the Freedom Caucus. The district is located in the north-central and western portions of the state and includes Lima, Tiffin, and Elyria.
In 2018, he announced that he would run for the House Speaker position that will be vacant upon Paul Ryan's retirement in January 2019, but the Democratic party took the majority in the U.S. House of Representatives that year, barring Jordan from becoming speaker. After the election, Jordan lost his bid for House Minority Leader to California Republican Kevin McCarthy in a 159-43 vote.
- 1 Early life, education and early career
- 2 Political career
- 3 Political campaigns
- 4 Ohio State University abuse scandal
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Electoral history
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early life, education and early career
Jordan was born and raised in Champaign County, Ohio, and attended Graham High School, graduating in 1982. While at Graham, he was a four-time state wrestling champion with a career record of 150–1. He graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1986, obtaining his bachelor's degree in economics.
Ohio General Assembly
Jordan was first elected to the Ohio General Assembly in November 1994 and went on to serve three terms as State Representative of the 85th Ohio House District. In 1996, he offered an amendment to the Welfare Reform Bill that limited the amount of time that an able-bodied individual could remain on welfare. He also created the Income Tax Reduction Fund, which required that any state revenue surpluses be used to lower the income tax burden on Ohioans rather than be used for further government spending.
In 2000, he won a seat in the Ohio Senate by defeating independent candidate Jack Kaffenberger by a margin of 88 percent to 12 percent. In 2004, Jordan defeated Kaffenberger again, this time by a smaller margin of 79 percent to 21 percent. In May 2006, Jordan won the Republican primary race for the 4th Congressional district of Ohio. He also won a 100% lifetime rating from the Ohio Taxpayers Association, which endorsed Jordan in his bid for Congress.
Jordan was named Watchdog of the Treasury (1996, 2000, 2004), Outstanding Legislator (2004), Outstanding Freshman Legislator (1996), Friend of the Taxpayer (1997), and Pro-Life Legislator of the Year (1998) by the United Conservatives of Ohio, the Defender of Life award from the Ohio Right to Life Society, and the 2001 Leadership in Government Award from the Ohio Roundtable and Freedom Forum. Additionally, Senate President Bill Harris appointed Jordan to be the chairman of the Senate Judiciary on Criminal Justice Committee.
U.S. House of Representatives
Jordan won the Republican primary for the 4th District in 2006 after 26-year incumbent Mike Oxley announced his retirement. Despite the strong anti-Republican mood in Ohio that year, Jordan won the general election, defeating Democrat Rick Siferd, 60% to 40%. The 4th has long been considered one of the most (if not the most) Republican districts in Ohio and the nation; the district and its predecessors have been in Republican hands for all but 16 years since the Civil War.
He was reelected in 2008, defeating Democrat Mike Carroll 65% to 35%.
Jordan chaired the Republican Study Committee during the 112th Congress. He was elected over Representative Louie Gohmert. Jordan reportedly turned down a position on the Appropriations Committee.
During the 114th Congress, Jordan helped found the House Freedom Caucus, a group of conservatives working to "support open, accountable and limited government, the Constitution and the rule of law, and policies that promote the liberty, safety and prosperity of all Americans." He served as the group's first chairman.
Jordan received a vote for Speaker on January 3, 2013, the first day of the 113th Congress from fellow conservative, Tea Party Caucus chairman Tim Huelskamp, of Kansas. Jordan received two votes for Speaker during the 114th Congress.
On July 26, 2018, Jordan announced his new campaign to take the House speakership that will be vacated by the departure of Paul Ryan. On November 14, he lost his bid to be House Minority Leader to Kevin McCarthy. 
- Committee on the Judiciary
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
- House Select Committee on the Events Surrounding the 2012 Terrorist Attack in Benghazi
Jordan serves as chairman of the Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Health Care, Benefits, and Administrative Rules.
On May 2, 2014, Jordan introduced the simple resolution Calling on Attorney General Eric H. Holder, Jr., to appoint a special counsel to investigate the targeting of conservative nonprofit groups by the Internal Revenue Service (H.Res. 565; 113th Congress) into the House, where it passed on May 7, 2014. The resolution asks Holder to appoint a special counsel to investigate the 2013 IRS scandal. Jordan said that "we need this special counsel to help us get to the truth because the so-called investigation by the Justice Department has been a joke. The current investigation has no credibility because it is being headed by a maxed-out donor who is financially invested in the president's success."
In March 2017, Jordan criticized the newly-introduced American Health Care Act, the Republican replacement bill for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as an unacceptable form of "Obamacare Lite." He later revised his position, voting on May 4, 2017, to pass a revised version of the American Health Care Act.
In a Vanity Fair article published October 30, 2017, John Boehner, former Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, said of Jim Jordan's legislative background: "Jordan was a terrorist as a legislator going back to his days in the Ohio House and Senate … A terrorist. A legislative terrorist."
According to The Dayton Daily News, Jordan "is known for being one of Congress’ most conservative members."
In Congress, Jordan is among the most conservative Republicans, earning a perfect score from the American Conservative Union. He has voted consistently for anti-abortion legislation and was endorsed by Ohio Right to Life in 2012. During the 112th Congress, he was one of 40 "staunch" members of the Republican Study Committee who frequently voted against Republican party leadership and vocally expressed displeasure with House bills.
Jordan has supported the continued production and upgrades of M1 Abrams tanks in his district. The Pentagon opposed the bipartisan action to maintain funding. The Pentagon wants to put a hold on tank upgrades at a Lima plant until a new version is ready, possibly in 2017, in order to save $3 billion. The plant supports approximately 800 jobs in the district.
Asked by Anderson Cooper in April 2018 whether he had heard President Trump tell a lie, Jordan said "I have not" and "nothing comes to mind." He also said, "I don't know that [Mr. Trump has ever] said something wrong that he needs to apologize for."
While serving in the Ohio Senate, he supported the Tax and Expenditure Limitation Amendment, a state constitutional amendment that would require a vote of the people in order to raise taxes or increase spending over certain limits.
In July 2008, Jordan was the first member of Congress to sign the "No Climate Tax" pledge, drafted by the conservative political advocacy group, Americans for Prosperity, founded and funded by the Koch brothers, which read "I will oppose any legislation relating to climate change that includes a net increase in government revenue." He followed this with votes to open Outer Continental Shelf to oil drilling, prevent the EPA from regulating greenhouse gases, and bar greenhouse gases from Clean Air Act rules. He voted against enforcing limits on carbon dioxide (CO2) global warming pollution, tax credits for renewable electricity, tax incentives for renewable energy and energy conservation and on curtailing subsidies for oil & gas company exploration, earning him a 4% lifetime score on the National Environmental Scorecard from the League of Conservation Voters.
On September 29, 2015, Jordan questioned Planned Parenthood president Cecile Richards. In the fiercest confrontation of the hearing, Jordan sparred with Richards over her apology over a "staff member's tone and statements" on a video recording when discussing fetal tissue donation she issued after the first video was made public. Jordan is against Planned Parenthood and actively supports ending Medicaid reimbursements to the organization.
Special Counsel and FBI
In December 2017, Jordan sought to discredit the FBI and Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election. Jordan questioned the impartiality of Mueller, and called on Deputy Attorney General Rod J. Rosenstein to use his authority to disband the Mueller investigation or create a second special counsel to simultaneously investigate Mueller himself. Rosenstein rejected the request, saying that he could not appoint another special counsel as there was not any credible allegation of any potential crime. The New York Times noted that Mueller, "a registered Republican appointed by President George W. Bush to direct the F.B.I.", had come under growing criticism after Mueller's investigation "delivered a series of indictments to high-profile associates of the president and evidence that at least two of them are cooperating with the inquiry". In July 2018, Jordan led efforts to impeach Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein as a way to shut down the Special Counsel's investigation. During a hearing on July 12, 2018, Jordan repeatedly interrupted FBI agent Peter Strzok while Strzok tried to explain that he couldn’t answer specific questions in order to preserve the confidentiality of an ongoing investigation. Jordan's behavior caused committee Democrats to protest his dilatory tactics and to allow Strzok to respond. They also objected to Jordan's exceeding his allowed time for questioning. House Judiciary Committee Chairman, Republican Bob Goodlatte, admonished Jordan for his repeated interruptions of the witness.
In July 2018, Jordan, along with Mark Meadows called on the Department of Justice to "review allegations that Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein threatened to subpoena phone records and documents from a House Intelligence Committee staffer". In their written request, the two wrote that in his use of investigative powers, Rosenstein had retaliated "against rank-and-file (congressional) staff members", therefore abusing his authority. Talking to John Catsimatidis on WNYM, Jordan said he would force a vote on the impeachment of Rosenstein if the DOJ does not deliver documents Congress requested.
2013 U.S. government shutdown
Jordan was a critic of Speaker John Boehner's plan to raise the debt ceiling. In 2010, he was chair of the Republican Study Committee, and during the U.S. government shutdown of 2013, he was still considered its most powerful member. That group was the primary proponent and executor of the Republican Congressional strategy to force a government shutdown, in order to force changes in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare.
Jordan won against Democratic nominee Mike Carroll.
Jordan defeated Democrat Doug Litt and Libertarian Donald Kissick in the general election.
Jordan defeated Democrat Jim Slone and Libertarian Chris Kalla in the general election.
Jordan defeated Democrat Janet Garrett in the general election.
Jordan again defeated Democrat Janet Garrett in the general election.
Garrett once more secured the nomination to challenge Jordan. She has avoided the controversy over Jordan's alleged role in the Ohio State University sexual harassment scandal, focusing her campaign instead on health care and job development. Jordan defeated Garret in the general election.
Ohio State University abuse scandal
Jordan was an assistant wrestling coach with Ohio State University's wrestling program from 1987 to 1995. OSU opened an investigation in April 2018 that looked into allegations of sexual misconduct by the former wrestling team's physician, Richard Strauss — who was the physician during Jordan's tenure as an assistant coach. Dr. Strauss committed suicide in 2005. In early July 2018, at least eight former wrestlers said that Jordan had been aware of, but didn't respond to, allegations of sexual misconduct by Strauss. If he had seen abuse at the time, Jordan replied, “I would have done something about it.” Former UFC world champion Mark Coleman said, “He knew as far as I'm concerned.” Former 1980's Ohio State wrestler David Range said teammates spoke of Strauss’ behavior often in the locker room while Jordan was present. A nurse who worked with the team was interviewed on video by Politico and confirmed observing Strauss fondling a team member until the athlete ejaculated. Another Ohio wrestler, Dunyasha Yetts, told Politico he had asked both Jordan and Hellickson to be present for an examination with Strauss, to avoid inappropriate touching by Strauss. That allegation was denied by Jordan’s office. One former wrestler said that he saw Jordan kick a male voyeur out of the wrestlers’ sauna, though that would suggest that Jordan was aware that there was a problem -- something he has to date denied. None of the wrestlers accused Jordan of personal sexual misconduct. On August 9, 2018, former UFC world champion Mark Coleman, who had previously said that Jordan knew of the abuse, clarified: "At no time did I ever say or have any direct knowledge that Jim Jordan knew of Dr. Richard Strauss’s inappropriate behavior. I have nothing but respect for Jim Jordan as I have known him for more than 30 years and know him to be of impeccable character." Coleman stated he was one of the wrestlers abused by the team physician.
Jordan said that the timing of the allegations were “suspect” and said that one of the many former wrestlers who have gone public had a “vendetta” against Ohio State and Jordan’s family. Jordan’s congressional office released a statement by the wrestling team’s former head coach Russ Hellickson in which both he and Jordan denied knowing about the abuse. However, after Jordan’s denial, a June 2018 video emerged showing Hellickson saying that he had confronted Strauss during the doctor's tenure, for being too “hands on” with the wrestlers and about Strauss showering with them “for an hour”.
After news of the scandal broke, Jordan criticized CNN for “asking for dirt” from his former staffers and interns. Florida Congressman Matt Gaetz suggested the allegations were intended to damage Jordan’s criticism of Special Counsel Robert S. Mueller's investigation of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. Speaker Ryan defended Jordan, saying he was "a man of honesty and a man of integrity.”
On August 9 ex-Ohio State wrestler, Mark Coleman, clarified his comment about the congressman's awareness of abuse.
|Election results of Jim Jordan|
|1998||Ohio House of Representatives||General||R||23,763||68.36%||Robert Burns||D||10,999||31.64%|
|2000||Ohio Senate||General||R||99,803||76.94%||Jack Kaffenberger Sr.||D||15,545||11.98%||Debra Mitchell||NL||14,373||11.08%|
|2004||Ohio Senate||General||R||118,193||79.27%||Jack Kaffenberger Sr.||I||30,902||20.73%|
|2006||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||129,958||59.99%||Richard E. Siferd||D||86,678||40.01%|
|2008||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||186,154||65.17%||Mike Carroll||D||99,499||34.83%|
|2010||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||146,029||71.49%||Doug Litt||D||50,533||24.74%||Donald Kissick||L||7,708||3.77%|
|2012||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||182,643||58.35%||Jim Slone||D||114,214||36.49%||Chris Kalla||L||16,141||5.16%|
|2014||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||125,907||67.67%||Janet Garrett||D||60,165||32.33%|
|2016||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||210,227||67.99%||Janet Garrett||D||98,981||32.01%|
|2018||U.S. House of Representatives||General||R||164,640||65.41%||Janet Garrett||D||87,061||34.59%|
- Conservative Ohio Rep. Jim Jordan to run for House speaker, CNN, Sunlen Serfaty and Lauren Fox, July 26, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- "55th NCAA Wrestling Tournament: 1985" (PDF). Wrestlingstats.com. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- "ohiotaxpayers.com". ohiotaxpayers.com. Archived from the original on October 20, 2006. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "U.S. Congress: November 4, 2008". Sos.state.oh.us. November 4, 2008. Archived from the original on August 11, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "Member List". Republican Study Committee. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Sabrina Eaton/The Plain Dealer (December 8, 2010). "Rep. Jim Jordan selected to chair Republican Study Committee". cleveland.com. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- "Appropriations panel loses its luster – Simmi Aujla and Richard E. Cohen". Politico.Com. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- Eaton, Sabrina (January 26, 2015). "Rep. Jim Jordan to co-found new GOP "House Freedom Caucus"". Cleveland Plain Dealer.
- Eaton, Sabrina (February 11, 2015). "It's official: Rep. Jim Jordan now chairs the House Freedom Caucus". Cleveland Plain Dealer.
- Davis, Susan (January 6, 2015). "Boehner re-elected as speaker despite GOP dissenters". USA Today.
- "Members". Congressional Constitution Caucus. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- "Members". Congressional Western Caucus. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- "Members". U.S. - Japan Caucus. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- "Subcommittee on Healthcare, Benefits, and Administrative Rules - United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform". United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
- "H.Res. 565 – All Actions". United States Congress. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- Bedard, Paul (May 2, 2014). "Next: Demand for special counsel to probe IRS scandal, Lois Lerner". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Yen, Hope (March 13, 2017). "Republicans brace for downbeat CBO analysis of health bill". CNBC. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- "How the House voted to pass the GOP health-care bill". Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- "Health care vote puts pressure on dozens of vulnerable GOP reps". USA Today. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Nguyen, Tina (October 30, 2017). ""Idiots," "Anarchists," and "Assholes": Boehner Unloads on Republicans". The Hive. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- "Who is Rep. Jim Jordan's favorite liberal? The answer might surprise you". daytondailynews. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
- "2008 Votes By State Delegation". archive.org. Archived from the original on March 24, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- "Ohio Right to Life". Ohiovotesforlife.org. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (March 16, 2012). "G.O.P. Freshmen Not as Defiant as Reputation Suggests". New York Times.
- "Cleaning Up the Mortgage Mess". The Wall Street Journal. August 10, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
- Lardner, Richard (April 28, 2013). "Army says no to more tanks, but Congress insists". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- Sweigart, Josh (August 18, 2012). "Congress pushes for weapons Pentagon didn't want". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- "Downsizing the military". The Week. September 30, 2012. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Savransky, Rebecca (April 17, 2018). "Anderson Cooper confronts GOP lawmaker: You haven't heard the president lie?". TheHill. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
- Cooper, Anderson. "Cooper to lawmaker: Does President Trump lie?" CNN. Video.
- Drewblade, James. "The Blade ~ Toledo Ohio". toledoblade.com. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- Davenport, Coral and Lipton, Eric "How G.O.P. Leaders Came to View Climate Change as Fake Science", New York Times, June 3, 2017, Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- On the Issues: Jim Jordan on Energy and Oil Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "National Environmental Scorecard: Jim Jordan", Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Planned Parenthood defunding". c-span.org.
- Ferris, Sarah (September 29, 2015). "Republican gets into shouting match with Planned Parenthood executive". TheHill. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- "A Quick and Easy Guide to the Planned Parenthood Videos". The Federalist. September 29, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- Fandos, Nicholas; Savage, Charlie (December 13, 2017). "Justice Dept. Official Defends Mueller as Republicans Try to Discredit Him". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline (2018-07-13). "Conservatives moving to impeach Rosenstein soon: report". TheHill. Retrieved 2018-07-15.
- Committee Erupts In Shouting As Jordan Trucks Over FBI Agent’s Answer To His Question, The Hill, Tierney Sneed, July 12, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
- Brufke, Julie Grace. "Freedom Caucus lawmakers call on DOJ to probe Rosenstein allegations". The Hill. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline. "Jordan: If Rosenstein doesn't deliver, Meadows and I will force impeachment vote". The Hill. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "Tea Party Politics: A Look Inside the Republican Suicide Machine". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- Meet the Democrat trying to unseat scandal-plagued Rep. Jim Jordan in his heavily Republican district Janet Garrett, Jordan’s third-time challenger, has already raised well into six-figures in Ohio,Vox, Tara Golshan, July 11, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
- "Jim Jordan (R-Ohio)". Washington Post. 29 September 2017.
Career History: ... Assistant wrestling coach at Ohio State University (OSU) (1987–1995) ... After graduating in 1986, Jordan returned to his home state to work as an assistant wrestling coach at OSU for nine years.
- Stankiewicz, Kevin (5 April 2018). "Ohio State investigating allegations of sexual misconduct by former wrestling team doctor". The Lantern. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- Kesling, Ben; Peterson, Kristina (5 July 2018). "Former Ohio State wrestlers say Rep. Jim Jordan knew of team doctor's alleged misconduct". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018.
Former Ohio State wrestler Mike DiSabato has led a campaign to publicize Dr. Strauss’s alleged wrongdoings for months and only recently began to criticize Mr. Jordan for allegedly ignoring athletes’ concerns.
- Viebeck, Elise; Crites, Alice (9 July 2018). "Representative Jim Jordan returns to Washington as scrutiny over alleged sexual abuse at Ohio State intensifies". Washington Post. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- Edmonsen, Catie. "Unshaken by Abuse Scandal, Conservatives Are Sticking With Jim Jordan". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- "Jim Jordan's Accusers". Jordan Scandal. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Viebeck, Elise; Crites, Alice. "Rep. Jim Jordan faces new accusation that he must have known about alleged sexual abuse at Ohio State". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018.
David Range ... said Jordan had to have known about alleged sexual misconduct by Richard Strauss ... because it happened regularly to team members and people talked about it.
- "'A cesspool of deviancy': New claims of voyeurism test Jordan denials". Politico. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- Wehrman, Jessica (2018-08-09). "Ohio State wrestler who accused Jordan of knowing about sex abuse now recants". dispatch.com. Retrieved 2018-08-09.
- CNN, Jean Casarez, Elizabeth Joseph and Jay Croft,. "Ex-Ohio State wrestler clarifies comment about congressman's awareness of abuse". CNN. Retrieved 2018-08-10.
- ""It's false": Rep. Jim Jordan slams accusers amid accusations he ignored sexual abuse at Ohio State". Washington Post. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- "Jim Jordan is accused of turning a blind eye to Ohio State sexual abuse. Now he's attacking the accusers". Vox. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- Almasy, Steve; Andone, Dakin. "Ohio State team doctor was warned about being 'too hands on' with athletes, former coach says". CNN. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- "Congressman Jim Jordan blasts CNN for doing actual journalism". Newsweek. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
Congressman Jim Jordan blasts CNN for doing actual journalism
- Cite error: The named reference
Strauss3was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Speaker Ryan, Republicans rally around Rep. Jim Jordan amid wrestler abuse allegations". NBC News. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- CNN, Jean Casarez, Elizabeth Joseph and Jay Croft,. "Ex-Ohio State wrestler clarifies comment about congressman's awareness of abuse". CNN. Retrieved 2018-08-10.
- "Election Results". Ohio Secretary of State. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- Congressman Jim Jordan official U.S. House site
- Jim Jordan for Congress
- Jim Jordan at Curlie
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
|Ohio House of Representatives|
| Member of the Ohio House of Representatives
from the 85th district
Robert R. Cupp
| Member of the Ohio Senate
from the 12th district
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 4th congressional district
|Party political offices|
| Chair of the Republican Study Committee
|New office|| Chair of the Freedom Caucus
|Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
| United States Representatives by seniority