James "Jim" Judd (born 1947) is a retired Canadian diplomat and senior civil servant. He served as the Director of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS). He was appointed to the position by Liberal Prime Minister Paul Martin on November 29, 2004 and retired from the position on June 27, 2009, before the end of his term. He was succeeded by Richard Fadden, the former Deputy Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Sources
- 4 References
Judd was born in August 1947 in Montreal, Quebec. Before entering university, he lived in Germany and the Netherlands, and several places in Canada, including Edmonton, Fort Nelson, Whitehorse, Carleton Place and CFB Borden. He graduated from Carleton University where he received his Honours B.A. in Political Science and a Masters degree majoring in International affairs at the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs.
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Between 1973 and 1987, Judd worked in several positions within Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), both in Ottawa and outside of Canada.
Between 1977 and 1981, he worked at the Personnel Operations Bureau of the Department of External Affairs.
From 1981 to 1982, Judd worked as the Secretary of the Restrictive Trade Practices Enquiry on Competitiveness in the Canadian Petroleum Industry. Afterwards, between 1982 and 1983, Judd worked as a Senior Advisor to the Deputy Minister (for Reorganization) at the Department of External Affairs.
Other roles in government
Between 1987 and 1990, he was the Senior Departmental Assistant in the Canadian Office of the Secretary of State for External Affairs.
Between 1991 and 1992, he served as Chief of Staff to the President of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada and Minister Responsible for Constitutional Affairs.
In September 1994, Judd was working on Special Assignment in the Deputy Minister’s Office of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade until, in July 1995, he became Assistant Deputy Minister Corporate Services in the department.
Department of Finance
In November 1996, Judd was appointed G-7 Deputy and Assistant Deputy Minister, International Trade and Finance of the Department of Finance.
In February 1998, he was named Deputy Minister of National Defence.
On May 13, 2002, Judd was appointed Secretary of the Treasury Board and Comptroller General of Canada. He later declared that the Public Works Department, not the Prime Minister, was responsible for the mismanagement of funds investigated by the Gomery Inquiry.
Director of CSIS (2004-2009)
War on terrorism
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On March 8, 2005, Jim Judd was asked by Canadian Senator David Paul Smith about whether Canadian mosques were being monitored by CSIS, to which Judd replied that he was unaware of any such policy. Assistant Director Dale Neufeld then interjected, and confirmed that CSIS was indeed monitoring Canadian mosques, which it suspected of recruiting and funding terrorism.
In October 2005, Judd said that the 2003 Invasion of Iraq was creating "long-term problems" for other countries, including Canada. While facing criticism for CSIS's role in handling the case of Mohamed Harkat and other Muslim-Canadians detained under Security certificates in November 2005, he offered the Members of Parliament the chance to "ride along with agents" as they conducted interrogations of others.
In September 2006, he referred to the concept of racial profiling as "fundamentally stupid", pointing to cases like Richard Reid and the 2006 Toronto terrorism case where the suspects were not Arab.
On March 31, 2009, veteran CSIS lawyer and advisor Geoffrey O’Brian told the Commons Committee on Public Safety that CSIS would use information obtained under torture. Testifying on the same committee on April 2, 2009, Jim Judd said O’Brian would be recanting his statement in a letter.
On November 29, 2010 online whistleblower Wikileaks released a U.S. diplomatic cable sent from the U.S. Embassy in Ottawa dated July 2, 2008 that reported a meeting between Judd and US State Department official Eliot Cohen.
In the meeting Jim Judd, then head of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, tells Eliot Cohen that the Canadian spy agency was still “vigorously harassing” known sympathizers of Hezbollah in Canada.
In the same cable the American officer quotes Jim Judd as he laments a soon to be released video of Canadian citizen Omar Khadr being interrogated by CSIS's officers at American Guantanamo Bay detention camp in Cuba. Judd refers to video saying that it "would likely show three ... adults interrogating a kid who breaks down in tears. He adds the comment that the release of the video would trigger “knee-jerk anti-Americanism” and “paroxysms of moral outrage, a Canadian specialty,” he says.
In another instance, Jim Judd said Canadians and their courts had an "Alice in Wonderland" worldview and he "derided" Canadian court judgments that, as per his view, threaten foreign governments' intelligence-sharing with Canada. The cable goes on reporting Judd as having said that "These judgments posit that Canadian authorities cannot use information that 'may have been' derived from torture, and that any Canadian public official who conveys such information may be subject to criminal prosecution."
Views on China
In testimony before the Senate Committee on National Security and Defence in April 2007, Judd appeared concerned about Chinese espionage activities. The alarm had been raised publicly in 2005 by Chen Yonglin, a former Chinese diplomat who defected to Australia, insisting that China had 1,000 agents operating there. Chen also claimed that similar numbers of Chinese spies also surveil in Canada. As of April 2007, Judd had almost half of CSIS resources devoted to counter the Chinese.
From its inception in January 2006, the Harper government took a hard line with the Chinese. As of 2007, they maintained that position. The government stance has changed radically since then, signalled in spring 2009 by the purchase of a 17% share fraction of Teck Resources by the China Investment Corporation. Since that time, the Canada China Energy and Environment Forum has seen a vast increase in business associated with the National Energy Administration of China. For example, a framework agreement was signed in October 2013 by Alberta Energy Minister Ken Hughes to give provincial officials “unprecedented access” to Chinese decision-makers, strengthening ties to “what we believe will become one of our key markets” for energy products.
Retirement from CSIS 8 months before schedule
In April 2009, Judd announced his resignation from the post effective in June of that year, before his term was scheduled to end in November 2009. He resigned 8 months after the appointment of cancer specialist Professor Arthur T. Porter to the Security Intelligence Review Committee which has the mandate to review the activities of Jim Judd's operations or the operations of any future Director of CSIS. He was succeeded by Richard Fadden, who had his own controversies over the Chinese in 2010.
- http://www.embassymag.ca/page/view/tp2-4-22-2009 "Spy Master to Retire" retrieved March 13, 2010
- http://faisalkutty.com/editors-picks/head-of-csis-stepping-down-in-surprise-move-jim-judd-is-leaving-before-end-of-his-term-as-chief-of-spy-agency/ Head of CSIS stepping down – In surprise move, Jim Judd is leaving before end of his term as chief of spy agency retrieved April 20, 2010
- CBC.ca 20 October 2010
- CBC.ca 31 October 2005
- Toronto Sun 19 July 2006
- An indictment of racial profiling
- Meeting No. 13 SECU - Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security - Canada
- Meeting No. 14 SECU - Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security - Canada
- https://www.theguardian.com/world/us-embassy-cables-documents/161421 "US embassy cables: Terror suspects, Canada and the law" - The Guardian UK - 14 December 2010 - retrieved April 30, 2011
- http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/article/898426--csis-vigorously-harassing-hezbollah-got-help-from-iran-u-s-cable "CSIS ‘vigorously harassing’ Hezbollah, got help from Iran: U.S. cable" - The Toronto Star - retrieved April 30, 2011
- http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2010/11/29/wikileaks-canada-csis-judd-cable.html "CSIS ex-chief slams courts, Canadians: WikiLeaks" - CBC News Canada - November 29, 2010- retrieved April 30, 2011
- http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/Cnds+have+Alice+Wonderland+approach+security+Wikileaks/3902117/story.html "Canadians have 'Alice in Wonderland' approach to security, Wikileaks documents say" - By Mark Kennedy - The Gazette - November 29, 2010 - retrieved April 30, 2011
- Toronto Star: "China fishes for secrets in rich, vulnerable waters" 11 Dec 2007
- G+M "The man behind the Teck-CIC deal" 3 Jul 2009
- "Alberta courts China as ‘key’ energy market in framework deal" 18 Oct 2013 Financial Post
- https://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5g_Goa3EVaRb_XGDsMZ6LXZgO3VZg "Top spymaster set to retire" (AFT) April 15, 2009 retrieved March 13, 2010