Herbert James Sanborn, Jr. (born November 14, 1945 in Washington, D.C.) is an American sculptor. He is best known for creating the encrypted Kryptos sculpture at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.
Sanborn's father was the head of exhibitions at the Library of Congress, and his mother was a concert pianist and photo researcher. He grew up in Alexandria and Arlington, Virginia, attending JEB Stuart High School in Fairfax, and then attended Randolph-Macon College, receiving a degree in paleontology, fine arts, and social anthropology in 1968, followed by a Master of Fine Arts degree in sculpture from the Pratt Institute in 1971. He taught at Montgomery College in Rockville, Maryland, and then for nine years was the artist-in-residence at Glen Echo Park.
His artwork has been displayed at High Museum of Art, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. He has created sculptural works for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Themes in his work have included "making the invisible visible", with many sculptures focusing on topics such as magnetism, the coriolis effect, secret messages, and mysteries of atomic reactions.
While in England studying archaeology, Sanborn endeavored to create a structure out of stone to gain a better insight on Romanesque sculptures. From this he has created many works of art that deal with invisible forces. These include the coriolis effect and its use of Newton's laws of motion that govern the motion of an object in an inertial frame of reference. He has also worked on pieces that implemented the Earth's magnetic field using lodestones. Other sculptures have featured the science of cryptography. One of Sanborn's most famous cryptographic works, entitled Kryptos, is featured in Dan Brown's novel The Lost Symbol.
Kryptos was the first cryptographic sculpture made by Sanborn. It was presented to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Langley, Virginia, USA on November 3, 1990.
The sculpture has been both a puzzle and a mystery for those who hope to crack the cyphered messages contained within the sculpture's 2,000 alphabetic letters. Since Kryptos was erected, three of the four sections have been confirmed to have been solved. No one has yet been able to solve the remaining 97-character message. He has also said that should he die before the sculpture's code is cracked, there will be a "sort of historic record" left to verify the claim.
Sanborn has also created works of art that reach into the realms of atomic energy and experimental physics. In Atomic Time: Pure Science and Seduction, he presented a "life-size re-creation of a hypothetical atomic lab." The exhibit featured the sculpture Critical Assembly, a three-dimensional representation of the components of an atomic bomb. The sculpture included a disassembled sphere that had been designed to hold the nuclear payload of plutonium and uranium.
His next exhibit Terrestrial Physics, was scheduled to be displayed in June 2010 as part of Denver, Colorado's Biennial of the Americas. It will include a sculpture that is able to generate a 1 million volt potential difference. Utilizing a recreated Van de Graaff generator, Sanborn will have created a fully functional particle accelerator capable of creating nuclear fission.
Large-scale outdoor projects
In addition to designing intricate sculptures and exhibits, Sanborn has also turned some of his large-scale outdoor art into an interactive experience. Coastline located at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Headquarters in Silver Spring, Maryland is one such piece. A recreation of a portion of Atlantic coastline, the waves experienced here are transferred in "real time" from a monitoring station at Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
Sanborn designed Indian run park located adjacent to the U.S. Federal Courthouse in Beltsville, Maryland with inspiration from the Iroquois Nations that inhabited the area nearly 900 years ago. On this site, hundreds of artifacts by the Iroquois have been discovered, and it is estimated that thousands still remain. The artist himself has also "seeded" 10,000 arrowheads within the grounds, allowing visitors the opportunity of taking a piece of this work of art with them. The park, named after the original Indian Run river that once existed there, includes a waterfall and walkway resembling the snaking waterway. Also, located within the park is a bronze cylindrical sculpture written in Onondaga language and "transcribed from the ancient oral tradition of the five Iroquois nations." At night it is illuminated with a pinpoint light that emits its text upon the surrounding environment.
Sanborn has written a book entitled Atomic Time: Pure Science and Seduction. The book includes images detailing his exhibit Atomic Time: Pure Science and Seduction inspired by the Manhattan Project.
- Kryptos, CIA, 1990. Embedded with four ciphers, it was intended to be a challenge to the employees of the CIA. Presently only three of the four messages have been deciphered.
- Coastline, 1993, an outdoor wave pool sculpture at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration complex in Silver Spring, Maryland.
- Cyrillic Projector, a sculpture installed at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte in 1997.
- A,A, erected in 2004 on the campus of the University of Houston, adjacent to the M.D. Anderson Library.
- Lingua located at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center. It contains historical text ranging from 1400 BC to the present day.
- Critical Assembly, 2003, modeled the first atomic bomb and key experiments of the Manhattan Project and was displayed at the Corcoran Gallery of Art.
- Radiance, 2003, Louisiana State University, erected in front of the Center for Energy Studies.
- Terrestrial Physics, 2009, which includes a full-scale working particle accelerator. It premiered in June 2010 as part of Biennial of the Americas.
Awards and grants
1982 National Endowment For The Arts Fellowship
1983 Kawasaki International Sculpture Symposium, Kawasaki Japan.
1984 Virginia Commission On The Arts Fellowship.
1986 National Endowment For The Arts Fellowship.
1987 Kaoshiung Taiwan International Sculpture Symposium, Kaoshiung Taiwan.
1988 Awards In The Visual Arts Grant.
1988 Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation Grant.
1990 Art Matters Inc. Grant.
1991 Virginia Museum Fellowship.
1992 Virginia Commission On the Arts Grant.
1992 Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant.
1994 Virginia Commission on The Arts Grant.
1997 Sirius Project Residency, Cork Ireland.
- "Sculptor Jim Sanborn gets wealth of ideas from the likes of 'Wealth of Nations'". The Washington Post. August 15, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
- Dunin, Elonka. "Jim Sanborn". Retrieved December 14, 2009.
- "James Sanborn". Cultural Programs of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- Dunin, Elonka (2009). "Art, Encryption, and the Preservation of Secrets: An interview with Jim Sanborn". In Daniel Burstein; Arne de Keijzer. Secrets of the Lost Symbol: The Unauthorized Guide to the Mysteries Behind The Da Vinci Code Sequel. Harper Collins. pp. 294–300. ISBN 978-0-06-196495-4.
- Vasquez, Leticia (June 28, 2004). "Art that speaks for itself". The University of Houston. Retrieved October 29, 2009.
- Zetter, Kim (January 5, 2005). "Questions for Kryptos' Creator". Wired. Retrieved October 29, 2009.
- "'Kryptos' and Dan Brown: Inside the CIA's code of secrecy". Independent News and Media Limited. May 18, 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2009.
- Dunin, Elonka (2009). "Kryptos: The Unsolved Enigma". In Daniel Burstein; Arne de Keijzer. Secrets of the Lost Symbol: The Unauthorized Guide to the Mysteries Behind The Da Vinci Code Sequel. Harper Collins. pp. 319–326. ISBN 978-0-06-196495-4.
- "Kryptos Story". Central Intelligence Agency. April 30, 2007. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
- Gopnik, Blake (November 3, 2003). "Atomic Time: Pure Science and Seduction". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- "Exhibit: Nuke allure". chinadaily.com. November 3, 2003. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Gopnik, Blake (August 25, 2009). "Sparking Interest Within the Sphere of Art". Washington Post. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
- Dunin, Elonka. "Sanborn's Coastline Sculpture". Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- Dunin, Elonka. "Sanborn's Indian Run Park". Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- Sanborn, Jim (February 1, 2004). Jonathan P. Binstock, ed. Atomic Time: Pure Science and Seduction. Corcoran Gallery of Art. ISBN 0-88675-072-5. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- Vasquez, Leticia (June 28, 2004). "Art that Speaks for Itself Enlightens New Sculpture". University of Houston Today. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
- "Walter E. Washington Convention Center Art Collection". Washington Convention Center Authority. September 6, 2009. Archived from the original on February 10, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- Flynn, Michael (January–February 2004). "But is it art? (Bulletins)". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. doi:10.2968/060001003. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- Schneider, Emma. "Energy, Coast and Environment Building Achieves "Radiance"". . External link in
- Gopnik, Blake (August 25, 2009). "Sparking Interest Within the Sphere of Art". Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
- "Sanborn Resume" (PDF). PDF. Irvine Contemporary. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 24, 2007. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
- Sanborn, Jim (August 2010). "Jim Sanborn – the artist's list of works". jimsanborn.net. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
- Dunin, Elonka (2003). "Elonka Dunin's Sanborn page (his photograph, short biography, selected list of works". elonka.com. Retrieved August 8, 2010.