Jimmy Smith (musician)
Smith at the Liri Blues Festival in 2004
|Birth name||James Oscar Smith|
December 8, 1925|
Norristown, Pennsylvania, United States
February 8, 2005 (aged 79)|
|Genres||Hard bop, mainstream jazz, jazz-funk, jazz fusion|
|Instruments||Hammond B-3 organ|
|Labels||Blue Note, Verve|
James Oscar Smith (December 8, 1925 or 1928 – February 8, 2005) was an American jazz musician who achieved the rare distinction of releasing a series of instrumental jazz albums that often charted on Billboard. Smith helped popularize the Hammond B-3 electric organ, creating an indelible link between 1960s soul and jazz improvisation. In 2005, Smith was awarded the NEA Jazz Masters Award from the National Endowment for the Arts, the highest honor that America bestows upon jazz musicians.
There is confusion about Smith's birth year, with various sources citing either 1925 or 1928. Born James Oscar Smith in Norristown, Pennsylvania, at the age of six he joined his father doing a song-and-dance routine in clubs. He began teaching himself to play the piano. When he was nine, Smith won a Philadelphia radio talent contest as a boogie-woogie pianist. After a stint in the U.S. Navy, he began furthering his musical education in 1948, with a year at Royal Hamilton College of Music, then the Leo Ornstein School of Music in Philadelphia in 1949. He began exploring the Hammond organ in 1951. From 1951 to 1954 he played piano, then organ in Philly R&B bands like Don Gardner and the Sonotones. He switched to organ permanently in 1954 after hearing Wild Bill Davis.
He purchased his first Hammond organ, rented a warehouse to practice in and emerged after little more than a year. Upon hearing him playing in a Philadelphia club, Blue Note's Alfred Lion immediately signed him to the label and his second album, The Champ, quickly established Smith as a new star on the jazz scene. He was a prolific recording artist and, as a leader, dubbed The Incredible Jimmy Smith, he recorded around forty sessions for Blue Note in just eight years beginning in 1956. Albums from this period include The Sermon!, House Party, Home Cookin', Midnight Special, Back at the Chicken Shack and Prayer Meetin'.
Smith signed to the Verve label in 1962. His first album, Bashin', sold well and for the first time set Smith with a big band, led by Oliver Nelson. Further big band collaborations followed, most successfully with Lalo Schifrin for The Cat and guitarist Wes Montgomery, with whom he recorded two albums: The Dynamic Duo and Further Adventures Of Jimmy and Wes. Other albums from this period include Blue Bash and Organ Grinder Swing with Kenny Burrell, The Boss with George Benson, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Got My Mojo Working, and Root Down.
During the 1950s and 1960s, Smith recorded with some of the great jazz musicians of the day such as Kenny Burrell, George Benson, Grant Green, Stanley Turrentine, Lee Morgan, Lou Donaldson, Tina Brooks, Jackie McLean, Grady Tate and Donald Bailey.
In the 1970s, Smith opened his own supper club in the North Hollywood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, at 12910 Victory Boulevard and played there regularly with Kenny Dixon on drums, Herman Riley and John F. Phillips on saxophone; also included in the band was harmonica/flute player Stanley Behrens. The 1972 album Root Down, considered a seminal influence on later generations of funk and hip-hop musicians, was recorded live at the club, albeit with a different group of backing musicians.
Holle Thee Maxwell, then known as Holly Maxwell, was Smith's vocalist for two years in the late 1970s. During a South African tour, they recorded the album, Jimmy Smith Plays For The People in 1978.
Smith had a career revival in the 1980s and 1990s, again recording for Blue Note and Verve, and for Milestone and Elektra. Smith also recorded with other artists including Quincy Jones, Frank Sinatra, Michael Jackson (he can be heard on the title track of the Bad album), Dee Dee Bridgewater, and Joey DeFrancesco.
Smith and his wife Lola moved to Scottsdale, Arizona, in 2004, but she died of cancer a few months later. Smith later recorded an album, Legacy, with Joey DeFrancesco, and the two prepared to go on tour. However, before the tour began, Smith died on February 8, 2005 at his Scottsdale home where he was found by his manager, Robert Clayton. He had died in his sleep of natural causes. Smith is survived by two sisters, Janet Taylor and Anita Jones; and three children, Jia, Connie and Jimmy.
While the electric organ had been used in jazz by Fats Waller, Count Basie, Wild Bill Davis and others, Smith's virtuoso improvisation technique on the Hammond helped to popularize the electric organ as a jazz and blues instrument. The B3 and companion Leslie speaker produce a distinctive sound, including percussive "clicks" with each key stroke. The drawbar setting most commonly associated with Smith is to pull out the first three drawbars on the "B" preset on the top manual of the organ, with added harmonic percussion on the 3rd harmonic. This tone has been emulated by many jazz organists since Smith. Smith's style on fast tempo pieces combined bluesy "licks" with bebop-based single note runs. For ballads, he played walking bass lines on the bass pedals. For uptempo tunes, he would play the bass line on the lower manual and use the pedals for emphasis on the attack of certain notes, which helped to emulate the attack and sound of a string bass.
Smith influenced a constellation of jazz organists, including Jimmy McGriff, Brother Jack McDuff, Don Patterson, Richard "Groove" Holmes, Joey DeFrancesco, Tony Monaco and Larry Goldings, as well as rock keyboardists such as Jon Lord, Brian Auger and Keith Emerson. Later, he influenced bands such as Medeski, Martin & Wood and the Beastie Boys, who sampled the bassline from "Root Down (and Get It)" from Root Down—and saluted Smith in the lyrics—for their own hit "Root Down". Often called the father of acid jazz, Smith lived to see that movement come to reflect his organ style. In the 1990s, Smith went to Nashville, taking a break from his ongoing gigs at his Sacramento restaurant which he owned and, in Music City, Nashville, he produced, with the help of a webmaster, Dot Com Blues, his last Verve album. In 1999, Smith guested on two tracks of a live album, Incredible!, the hit from the 1960s, with his protégé, Joey DeFrancesco, a then 28-year-old organist. Smith and DeFrancesco's collaborative album Legacy was released in 2005 shortly after Smith's death.
- 1956: A New Sound... A New Star... Jimmy Smith at the Organ, Volume 1
- 1956: A New Sound A New Star: Jimmy Smith at the Organ Volume 2
- 1956: The Incredible Jimmy Smith at the Organ Volume 3
- 1956: At Club Baby Grand, Volume One
- 1956: At Club Baby Grand, Volume Two
- 1957: A Date with Jimmy Smith Volume One
- 1957: A Date with Jimmy Smith Volume Two
- 1957: Jimmy Smith at the Organ, Vol. 1
- 1957: Jimmy Smith at the Organ, Vol. 2
- 1957: The Sounds of Jimmy Smith
- 1957: Plays Pretty Just for You
- 1957: Jimmy Smith Trio + LD (with Lou Donaldson) [released in Japan only]
- 1957: Groovin' at Smalls' Paradise [2LP] [rel. 1958]
- 1958: House Party
- 1958: The Sermon! [rel. 1959]
- 1958: Confirmation [rel. 1979]
- 1958: Softly as a Summer Breeze [rel. 1965]
- 1958: Cool Blues [rel. 1980]
- 1958: Six Views of the Blues [rel. 1999]
- 1959: Home Cookin' [rel. 1960]
- 1960: Crazy! Baby
- 1960: Open House [rel. 1968]
- 1960: Plain Talk [rel. 1968]
- 1960: Midnight Special [rel. 1961]
- 1960: Back at the Chicken Shack [rel. 1963]
- 1961: Straight Life [rel. 2007]
- 1962: Plays Fats Waller
- 1963: I'm Movin' On [rel. 1967]
- 1963: Bucket! [rel. 1966]
- 1963: Rockin' the Boat
- 1963: Prayer Meetin' [rel. 1964]
- 1979: Confirmation (compilation of previously unreleased studio out-takes and left-overs, originally recorded 1957-1958)
- 1981: On The Sunny Side (compilation of previously unreleased studio out-takes and left-overs, originally recorded 1957-1960)
- 1983: The Singles (compilation of jukebox singles from 1956-1958: #45-1638 A&B sides, #45-1652 B side, #45-1668 A side, #45-1711 A&B sides, #45-1727 A&B sides, #45-1728 A&B sides) [released in Japan only]
- 1984: Special Guests (compilation of previously unreleased studio out-takes and left-overs, originally recorded 1957, 1960, 1963) [released in Japan only]
- 1985: One Night with Blue Note, Preserved - Vol. 3
- 1986: Go For Watcha Know
- 1993: The Master
- 1993: The Master II [rel. 1994]
- 1962: Bashin': The Unpredictable Jimmy Smith
- 1963: Hobo Flats
- 1963: Any Number Can Win
- 1963: Blue Bash! (with Kenny Burrell)
- 1963: Live At The Village Gate – The Amazing Jimmy Smith Trio (Metro/MGM MS-521) [rel. 1965]
- 1964: The Cat
- 1964: Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
- 1964: Christmas '64 (re-released as Christmas Cookin' in 1966)
- 1965: Monster
- 1965: Organ Grinder Swing (with Kenny Burrell)
- 1965: Got My Mojo Workin' [rel. 1966]
- 1965: La Métamorphose des Cloportes (original soundtrack) [released in France only] -note: reissued on CD in 2002 by EmArcy/Universal Records.
- 1965: Jimmy Smith And The Trio En Concert – Salle Pleyel 28 Mai 1965 (RTE; later released on Trema) [rel. 1995]
- 1966: Live In Concert – The Incredible Jimmy Smith (Metro/MGM MS-568)
- 1966: Hoochie Coochie Man
- 1966: Peter & the Wolf
- 1966: Jimmy & Wes: The Dynamic Duo (with Wes Montgomery)
- 1966: Further Adventures of Jimmy and Wes (with Wes Montgomery) [rel. 1968]
- 1967: Incredible! (Metro/MGM MS-607) also released as Jimmy Smith In Hamburg – Live!
- 1967: Respect
- 1967: The Best of Jimmy Smith (V6-8721) compilation
- 1968: Stay Loose...Jimmy Smith Sings Again
- 1968: Livin' It Up
- 1968: The Boss [rel. 1969]
- 1968: Jimmy Smith And The Trio Live – Salle Pleyel 20 Novembre 1968 (Trema) [rel. 1999]
- 1970: Groove Drops
- 1970: The Other Side of Jimmy Smith (MGM SE-4709)
- 1971: I'm Gonna Git Myself Together (MGM SE-4751)
- 1971: In a Plain Brown Wrapper
- 1972: The History of Jimmy Smith (2-V6S-8814) [2LP] compilation
- 1972: Root Down: Jimmy Smith Live!
- 1972: Bluesmith
- 1973: Portuguese Soul
- 1977: Sit On It! (Mercury SRM-1-1127) -note: reissued on CD in 2012 by Soul Brother Records.
- 1977: It's Necessary: Recorded Live At Jimmy Smith's Supper Club (Mercury SRM-1-1189)
- 1978: Unfinished Business (Mercury SRM-1-3716) -note: reissued on CD in 2012 by Soul Brother Records.
- 1995: Damn!
- 1996: Angel Eyes: Ballads & Slow Jams
- 2001: Dot Com Blues (Blue Thumb/Verve/UMe)
- 1981: All The Way Live (with Eddie Harris) [rel. 1996]
- 1989: Prime Time
- 1990: Fourmost (with Stanley Turrentine, Kenny Burrell, Grady Tate)
- 1990: Fourmost Return (with Stanley Turrentine, Kenny Burrell, Grady Tate) [rel. 2001]
- 1993: Sum Serious Blues
- 2006: Milestone Profiles (Milestone/Concord/UMe) compilation
- Other labels
- 1955: The Exciting Jimmy Smith With The Don Gardner Trio (Guest Star Records; later released on Crown Records; and even later on Upfront Records) -note: reissued on CD in 2002 by Empire Musicwerks as The Fantastic Jimmy Smith (Expanded Edition).
- 1967: Jimmy Smith Plays The Standards (Sunset/Liberty SUM-1175 [mono]/SUS-5175 [stereo]) compilation of Blue Note albums: #1512, #1514, #1525 (all material from Smith's first three studio sessions in Feb/Mar/Jun 1956).
- 1972: Newport In New York '72 / The Jam Sessions, Vol. 5 (Cobblestone CST-9027) with Joe Newman, Clark Terry, Illinois Jacquet, Zoot Sims, Kenny Burrell, Roy Haynes, and surprise guest: B.B. King.
- 1974: Black Smith (Pride/Atlantic PD-6011)
- 1974: Paid In Full (Mojo Records MJ-12828)
- 1974: Live In Israel (Isradisc SI 31066) [released in Israel only]
- 1975: Jimmy Smith '75 (Mojo Records MJ-12829)
- 1978: Jimmy Smith Plays For The People [released in South Africa only]
- 1980: The Cat Strikes Again (Inner City IC-1121)
- 1981: Second Coming (Mojo Records MJ-12830)
- 1982: Off The Top (Elektra/Musician 60175)
- 1983: Keep On Comin' (Elektra/Musician 60301)
- 2001: Daybreak (West Wind) also released as Black Cat (Castle), and The Cat Swings Again (Jazz Hour)
- Quincy Jones & Bill Cosby - The Original Jam Sessions 1969 (Concord, 1969, [rel. 2004])
- Quincy Jones - Smackwater Jack (A&M, 1971)
- Kenny Burrell - Ellington Is Forever (Fantasy, 1975)
- Kenny Burrell - Ellington Is Forever Volume Two (Fantasy, 1975 [rel. 1977])
- Lenny White - Venusian Summer (Nemperor, 1975) - with Larry Young, Larry Coryell, Al Di Meola, Weldon Irvine, Hubert Laws
- Yoshiaki Miyanoue - Touch Of Love (Vap, 1981)
- James Ingram - It's Your Night (Qwest-WB, 1983)
- Stanley Turrentine - Straight Ahead (Blue Note, 1984) - with George Benson, Les McCann, Jimmy Ponder
- Toshihiko Kankawa - Quarter Run (Paddle Wheel, 1984) - with Phil Upchurch, Yoshiaki Miyanoue
- Frank Sinatra - L.A. Is My Lady (Qwest-WB, 1984)
- Michael Jackson - Bad (Jimmy plays the Hammond B3 Midi organ solo in "Bad") (Epic, 1987)
- Dee Dee Bridgewater - Love and Peace: A Tribute to Horace Silver (Verve, 1994) - with Horace Silver
- Joey DeFrancesco - Incredible! (Concord, 1999)
- Joey DeFrancesco - Legacy (Concord, 2005)
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 509. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- Holley, Joe (February 11, 2005). "Jazz Musician Jimmy Smith, Master Organist, Dies at 76". The Washington Post.
- Allmusic biography
- Musician Biographies[dead link]
- John Fordham (June 2, 2010). "50 great moments in jazz: Jimmy Smith and the Hammond organ". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Dicaire, David (2006). Jazz musicians, 1945 to the present. McFarland. pp. 110–13. ISBN 0-7864-2097-9.
- Leonard Feather; Ira Gitler (2007). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz. Oxford University Press US. p. 611. ISBN 0-19-532000-X.
- "Jimmy Smith Plays for the People: Rare South African - only LP with program". collectorsfrenzy.com. 2013 CollectorsFrenzy. February 19, 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Joe Holley (11 February 2005). "Jazz Musician Jimmy Smith, Master Organist, Dies at 76". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 April 2012.[dead link]
- "Jimmy Smith Biography". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- John Murph (9 February 2005). "Jazz pioneer Jimmy Smith dies". MSNBC. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Ollie Bivens (21 June 2005). "Joey DeFrancesco with Jimmy Smith: Legacy (2005)". All About Jazz. Retrieved 23 April 2012.