||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (September 2014)|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Jamil Dehlavi|
|Produced by||Jamil Dehlavi|
|Screenplay by||Akbar S. Ahmed
|Narrated by||Shashi Kapoor|
|Music by||Nigel Clarke
|Cinematography||Nicholas D. Knowland|
|Edited by||Robert M. Reitano
|Distributed by||Dehlavi Films Productions|
|Budget||$6 million (estimated)|
Jinnah is a 1998 epic biographical film which follows the life of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. It was directed by Jamil Dehlavi; and written by Akbar S. Ahmed and Jamil Dehlavi. The film was released in 1998 in the United Kingdom and Pakistan.
The film opens with the words of Professor Stanley Wolpert:
Fewer still modify the map of the world.
Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state.
Mohammad Ali Jinnah did all three.
The film begins with the events surrounding the death of Jinnah. On 11 September 1948, the ailing Jinnah's plane lands at Karachi Airport from Quetta where he was retreating at higher altitude in Ziarat. Jinnah's deteriorating health had led doctors to urge him to go to Karachi. On his way to Governor House Jinnah's ambulance breaks down with engine failure, where fate leaves the dying Quaid of Pakistan in a state of confusion.
The film then cuts to a heavenly place where Jinnah is awaiting the final judgement on his deeds, where it is found that the celestial bureaucrats in charge have misplaced Jinnah's life-file and the whole heavenly computer network is down. With nothing but time on his hands, Jinnah has to answer the questions of his life asked by the heaven guide or Narrator (Shashi Kapoor) in order to decide where Jinnah should be sent, to Heaven or Hell.
The guide takes Jinnah to 1947 where, at the Simla conference with Lord Mountbatten, Jinnah demanded a separate homeland for Indian Muslims. After World War II, the British Imperial Government intends to grant independence to India. The would mean a Hindu-dominated state. Religious tensions between Hindus and Muslims erupt into nationwide violence, leading to the idea of the Partition of India. Jinnah's sister Fatima Jinnah starts to campaign for Muslims and is arrested by an Indian police officer for inciting Muslims. In a meeting with Mountbatten, Gandhi proposes making Jinnah the first prime minister of India in order to avoid partition, but Jawaharlal Nehru opposes the idea. Jinnah in any case refuses the offer and says, "Why do you want to force reluctant partners into a marriage?" He argues that by encouraging the Muslims to live in a separate country, violence will abate.
Flashbacks resume when the Guide recounts the marital life of Jinnah, when he fell in love and married a Parsi named Rattanbai Petit, later known as Maryam Jinnah, against the will of her parents on grounds of religion. In 1922, Jinnah faces political isolation as he devoted every spare moment to be the voice of moderation in a nation torn by Hindu-Muslim antipathy. This created tension between Rattan and Jinnah, which made her alcoholic. She finally leaves him with their daughter in September 1922, and they eventually separate in 1927. Ratti died of cancer on February 18, 1929. The death of Ratti had a huge impact on Jinnah's life. Allama Iqbal writes to Jinnah to run the Muslim League and fight for Pakistan. Initially, Jinnah refuses but accepts after the betrayal of the Indian National Congress. He went to India in order to start political journey of two nation theory. In 1940, the Muslim League annual conference is held from 22–24 March. Jinnah addresses thousands of Muslims and gives them the assurance of the birth of Pakistan.
Guide questions Jinnah as to who he loves the most apart from Ratti and Fatima. He then remembers his daughter who married a Parsi boy without his permission.
While addressing a Muslim League conference in 1947, rebel Indian Muslims who were not in the favor of separation attack the conference. However, the separation was carried out and Guide and Jinnah saw the massacre of Muslims in migration done by Hindus and Sikhs. Jinnah is sworn in as the first Governor-General of Pakistan and announces Liaqat Ali Khan as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan.
After independence and the end of British rule, Pakistan stands as a new nation for Islam and Jinnah is given the title of Quaid-e-Azam of Pakistan. Jinnah waits for the first train carrying Muslims who left India for Pakistan, but when the train arrives, they are all found dead. Fatimah and Lady Edwina Mountbatten visit refugees and Iris learns the importance of independence. Mountbatten betrays Jinnah as the Hindu Maharaja, Sir Hari Singh, stalls his decision on which nation to join. With the population in revolt in October 1947, aided by Pakistani irregulars, the Maharaja accedes to India; Indian troops are airlifted in. Jinnah objects to this action, and orders that Pakistani troops move into Kashmir. This leads to a war between India and Pakistan then and afterward from time to time in the Kashmir conflict.
The film jumps into a final fictional scene of Mountbatten in a Heavenly Court. Jinnah is fighting a case against him over his betrayal.
- Christopher Lee as Mohammed Ali Jinnah
- Shashi Kapoor as Narrator
- James Fox as Lord Louis Mountbatten
- Maria Aitken as Edwina
- Richard Lintern as Jinnah (Younger)
- Shireen Shah as Fatima Jinnah
- Indira Varma as Rattanbai ('Ruttie') Jinnah
- Robert Ashby as Nehru
- Sam Dastor as Mahatma Gandhi
- Shakeel as Liaquat Ali Khan
- Vaneeza Ahmed as Dina Wadia (Older)
- Roger Brierley as Judge
- Vernon Dobtcheff as Lord Willingdon
- Rowena Cooper as Lady Willingdon
- James Curran as Colonel Knowles
- Michael Elwyn as Sir Cyril Radcliffe
- Ian Gelder as The English police officer
- Christopher Godwin as Recruitment officer In charge
- John Grillo as Sir Dinshaw Petit
- Talat Hussain as Refugee
- John Nettleton as General Gracie
- David Quilter as Porrit
- Khayyam Sarhadi as Abdur Rab Nishtar
- David Sterne as Birtwhistle
- Marc Zuber as Muhammad Iqbal
- Shahid Iqbal as Barrister M. C. Chagla
- Mervyn Hosein as Abul Kalam Azad
- Stephen Mortlock as English Reporter
Despite the early criticism of the movie, it received an overwhelmingly positive response in Pakistan. Christopher Lee has spoken highly of the film, calling his performance in it by far the best of his career as well as stressing the importance of the film.
|“||The most important film I made, in terms of its subject and the great responsibility I had as an actor was a film I did about the founder of Pakistan, called Jinnah.
It had the best reviews I've ever had in my entire career - as a film and as a performance. But ultimately it was never shown at the cinemas.
- Troubled Jinnah movie opens (BBC News, September, 1998)
- IO Film Reviews
- Close-up Film Review: Jinnah
- "Jinnah the Movie" reviews by Rizwan
- Jinnah at the Internet Movie Database
- Jinnah at AllMovie
- Christopher Lee on the making of legends and Jinnah
- Christopher Lee launches film about Jinnah in London (Asians in Media Magazine)