Jiroft

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Jiroft
جيرفت
City
IMaryan20190409 174513.jpg
Jiroft is located in Iran
Jiroft
Jiroft
Coordinates: 28°40′41″N 57°44′26″E / 28.67806°N 57.74056°E / 28.67806; 57.74056Coordinates: 28°40′41″N 57°44′26″E / 28.67806°N 57.74056°E / 28.67806; 57.74056
Country Iran
ProvinceKerman
CountyJiroft
BakhshCentral
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Urban
130,429[1]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)

Jiroft (Persian: جيرفت‎, also Romanized as Jīroft; formerly, Sabzāwārān, Sabzevārān, Sabzevārān-e Jiroft, and Sabzvārān)[2] is a city and capital of Jiroft County, Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 95,031, in 19,926 families.[3] It is located 230 kilometres (140 mi) south of the city of Kerman, and 1,375 kilometres (854 mi) south of Tehran along Road 91. In the past it was also called Sabzevaran, and on account of its being very fertile land it is famous as Hend-e-Koochak (the little India).

Jiroft is located in a vast plain, Halil River, on the southern outskirts of the Jebal Barez mountain chain, surrounded by two rivers. The mean elevation of the city is about 650 metres (2,130 ft) above sea level. The weather of the city is sweltering in summer – it is one of the hottest places in Iran – but temperatures are moderate in winter.

There is a large dam (Jiroft Dam) upstream the city (40 km North-East of Jiroft) on the Halil River (Halilrood). It is under operation since 1992. Having a reservoir of more than 410 million cubic meters of water, irrigates 14200 hectares of the downstream and generates electricity.[4]

The city is served by Jiroft Airport, located several kilometres to the northwest.

Jiroft culture[edit]

A "Jiroft culture"[5] has been postulated as an early Bronze Age (late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in the territory of present-day Sistan and Kermān Provinces of Iran. The hypothesis is based on a collection of artifacts that were confiscated in Iran and accepted by many to have derived from the Jiroft area in south central Iran, reported by online Iranian news services, beginning in 2001.

The proposed type site is Konar Sandal, near Jiroft in the Halil River area. Other significant sites associated with the culture include; Shahr-e Sukhteh (Burnt City), Tepe Bampur, Espiedej, Shahdad, Tal-i-Iblis and Tepe Yahya.

The local language of Jiroft is Jirofti, also designated as Garmsiri. Garmsiri is a continuum of closely related dialects extending from the Halilrud river valley in the north down to the Strait of Hormuz in the south.[6]

Recent finds[edit]

A report from Iran states that the Halil Rud region near "Jiroft became famous between 2002/2003 [when news of] thousands of confiscated burial goods, especially elaborated carved chlorite vessels from the necropolises of Halil Rud" were released to public.[7]

Since February 2003, archaeologists have recovered a wealth of artifacts from the necropolis which they had named Mahtoutabad. For example, one grave contained "animal bones and food offerings, ceramics, and stone and copper items ... [indicating] a coherent cultural and chronological framework, around 2400-2200 BC".[8]

Two nearby mounds were also excavated, named Konar Sandal South and North. A 2013 research paper about the South mound states that work during 2006 to 2009 "revealed the remains of three successive settlements dating to the fourth millennium BC".[9]

Excavation re-commenced in 2014 and revealed art works of "complexity and beauty" and artifacts that proved that the society had several writing systems. According to National Geographic, the content of the mounds is significant:[10]

They turned out to contain the remains of two major architectural complexes. The northern mound included a cult building, while in the southern one were the remains of a fortified citadel. At the foot of the mounds, buried under many feet of sediment, were the remains of smaller buildings. It’s believed that the two mounds had once formed part of a unified urban settlement that stretched many miles across the plateau ... [artifacts] "have been dated to between 2500 and 2200 B.C. [They are said to be evidence of] the "development of a complex civilization".

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Statistical Center of Iran > Home". www.amar.org.ir.
  2. ^ Jiroft can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3068011" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Statistical Center of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11.
  4. ^ Abdolreza Bahremand, 1997, MSc thesis, Flood routing through the Jiroft Dam reservoir, Tehran University, Iran.
  5. ^ Oscar White Muscarella, Jiroft (2008), in: Encyclopedia Iranica. "For archeological accuracy the terms "Jiroft" or "Jiroft culture" employed to define a specific ancient Iranian culture and its artifacts should only be cited within quotation marks. All the artifacts known to date that are accorded the Jiroft label have not been excavated; they have in fact been plundered."
  6. ^ Habib Borjian, “KERMAN xvi. LANGUAGES,” Encyclopædia Iranica, XVI/3, pp. 301-315, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kerman-16-languages
  7. ^ "Jiroft Civilization: Based on the Cuneiform Texts and Archaeological Evidences from Varamin and Konar Sandal". Alzahra. 22 October 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  8. ^ "A GRAVE OF THE HALIL RUD VALLEY (JIROFT, IRAN, CA. 2400-2200 BC): STRATIGRAPHY, TAPHONOMY, FUNERARY PRACTICES". Research Gate. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  9. ^ "Mahtoutabad I (Konar Sandal south, Jiroft) : preliminary evidence of occupation of a Halil Rud site in the early fourth millennium BC". Research Gate. 2 August 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  10. ^ "Buried for 4,000 years, this ancient culture could expand the 'Cradle of Civilization'". NGS. 25 February 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.

External links[edit]

Media related to Jiroft at Wikimedia Commons