Jivanmukta

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A jivan mukta or mukta[1] is someone who, in the Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism, has gained and assimilated infinite and divine knowledge and power and gained complete self-knowledge and self-realisation and attained kaivalya or moksha (enlightenment and liberation ), thus is liberated with an inner sense of freedom while living and not yet died.[2][3] The state is the aim of moksha in Advaita Vedanta, Yoga and other schools of Hinduism, and it is referred to as Jivanmukti (Liberation or Enlightenment).[4][5][6]

A Jivanmukti is also called atma-jnani (self-realized) because they are the knowers of their true self (atman) and the universal self hence also called as Brahma-Jnani. At the end of their lives, jivanmuktas destroy remaining karmas and attains Paramukti (final liberation) and becomes Paramukta. When a Jivanmukti gives his insight to others and teach them about his realisation of the true nature of the ultimate reality (Brahman) and self (Atman) and takes the role of a guru to show the path of Moksha to others, then that jivanmukta is called as Avadhuta and some Avadhutas also achieves the title of Paramhamsa. When a Rishi (Seer sage) becomes a Jivanmukta then that rishi is called Brahmrishi.

Some of the examples of Jivan Mukta are Mahavira, Buddha, Adi Shankaracharya, Saint Dnyaneshwar, Kabirdas, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Ramakrishna Paramahansa, Ramana Maharshi, Vishwamitra, etc. They realized Self (atman) i.e. God within their lifetime by travelling the path of pure Spirituality. They reached the stage of Enlightenment, Self-Realization, God-Realization, Jivan-mukti, Atma-jnana(all words are synonyms). They have negated the karma to zero, to reach the state of Jivan-Mukta. After gaining enlightenment, they retained their body, to disseminate the Jnana to masses. After leaving the body, they attained the Paramukti.

Etymology[edit]

Jivanmukta (जीवन्मुक्त) is an adjective derived from a combination of Sanskrit noun जीव jiva, "life", and the past participle of the verb मुच् (much, or IAST muc), "to liberate". Monier-Williams gives the meaning "emancipated while still alive".

Jivanmukti (जीवन्मुक्ति), the corresponding abstract noun means, "liberation during life, liberation before death",[7][8] or "emancipation while still alive".[9][6] This is the only meaning given in authoritative dictionaries of classical Sanskrit, including Monier-Williams. Other translations, not found in standard dictionaries and therefore presumably of more modern date, include "self realization",[10][11][12] "living liberation", "enlightenment", "liberated soul", or "self liberation".[13][14][15]

Description[edit]

The various texts and schools of Hinduism describe Jivanmukti state of existence as one of liberation and freedom reached within one's life.[16][17] Some contrast jivanmukti with videhamukti (moksha from samsara after death).[18] Jivanmukti is a state that transforms the nature, attributes and behaviors of an individual, claim these ancient texts of Hindu philosophy. For example, according to Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad, the enlightened individual shows attributes such as:[19]

  • he is not bothered by disrespect and endures cruel words, treats others with respect regardless of how others treat him;
  • when confronted by an angry person he does not return anger, instead replies with soft and kind words;
  • even if tortured, he speaks and trusts the truth;
  • he does not crave for blessings or expect praise from others;
  • he never injures or harms any life or being (ahimsa), he is intent in the welfare of all beings;[20]
  • he is as comfortable being alone as in the presence of others;
  • he is as comfortable with a bowl, at the foot of a tree in tattered robe without help, as when he is in a mithuna (union of mendicants), grama (village) and nagara (city);
  • he does not care about or wear sikha (tuft of hair on the back of head for religious reasons), nor the holy thread across his body. To him, knowledge is sikha, knowledge is the holy thread, knowledge alone is supreme. Outer appearances and rituals do not matter to him, only knowledge matters;
  • for him there is no invocation nor dismissal of deities, no mantra nor non-mantra, no prostrations nor worship of gods, goddess or ancestors, nothing other than knowledge of Self;
  • he is humble, high spirited, of clear and steady mind, straightforward, compassionate, patient, indifferent, courageous, speaks firmly and with sweet words.

Advaita view[edit]

Adi Shankara explains that nothing can induce one to act who has no desire of his own to satisfy. The supreme limit of vairagya ("detachment"), is the non-springing of vasanas in respect of enjoyable objects; the non-springing of the sense of the "I" (in things which are the ānatman) is the extreme limit of bodha ("awakening"), and the non-springing again of the modifications which have ceased is the extreme limit of Uparati ("abstinence"). The Jivanmukta gains divine and infinite knowledge and has complete self-knowledge and Self-realization, a Jivanmukta by reason of his ever being Brahman, is freed from awareness of external objects and no longer aware of any difference between the inner atman and Brahman and between Brahman and the world, he knows the he is same as Brahman and has an ever experiencing infinite consciousness. "Vijnatabrahmatattvasya yathapurvam na samsrtih" – "there is no saṃsāra as before for one who has known Brahman".[21]

There are three kinds of prarabdha karma: Ichha ("personally desired"), Anichha ("without desire") and Parechha ("due to others' desire"). For a self realized person, a Jivanamukta, there is no Ichha-Prarabdha but the two others, Anichha and Parechha, remain,[22] which even a jivanmukta has to undergo.[22][23] According to the Advaita school, for those of wisdom Prarabdha is liquidated only by experience of its effects; Sancita ("accumulated karmas") and Agami ("future karmas") are destroyed in the fire of Jnana ("knowledge").[21]

The term Paramukti is commonly used to refer to final liberation, which occurs upon the death of the body of someone who has attained Jivanmukti or Kaivalya during his or her lifetime. It implies the ultimate release of the soul (atman) from the Saṃsāra and karma and merger of the atman in Brahman, so when a Jivanmukta dies he becomes a Paramukta. In the Hindu view, when an ordinary person dies and his physical body disintegrates, the person's unresolved karma causes his atman to pass on to a new birth; and thus the karmic inheritance is reborn in one of the many realms of samsara. However, when a person attains Jivanmukti, he is liberated from karmic rebirth. When such a person dies and his physical body disintegrates, his cycle of rebirthing ends and he become one with Brahman, then that person is said to have achieved Paramukti and became a Paramukta, so, a Jivanmukta has a body while a Paramukta is bodyless and pure. When a Jivanmukta attains the state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi then he or she can become a Paramukta by his or her own will. A Jivanmukta who has attained the state of nirvikalpa samadhi, will, at an appropriate time, consciously exit from their body and attains Paramukti. This act of consciously and intentionally leaving one's body is called as Mahasamadhi.

In the śramaṇic traditions, the jivanmukta is called an arhat in Buddhism and arihant in Jainism.[citation needed]

Implication[edit]

The Advaita school holds the view that the world appearance is owing to avidya (ignorance) that has the power to project i.e. to superimpose the unreal on the real (adhyasa), and also the power to conceal the real resulting in the delusion of the Jiva who experiences objects created by his mind and sees difference in this world, he sees difference between the ātman ("the individual self") and Brahman ("the supreme Self"). This delusion caused by ignorance is destroyed when ignorance itself is destroyed by knowledge. When all delusion is removed there remains no awareness of difference. He who sees no difference between Self and Brahman is said to be a Jivanmukta. Jivanmukta experience infinite knowledge, infinite power and infinite bliss while alive and also after death i.e., after becoming Paramukta, while Videhmukta experiences these only after death. There are four stages for becoming a Jivanmukta:–

1. Sālokya – living in the same world.

2. Sārūpya – having the same form

3. Sāmīpya – being close to

4. Sāyujya – merging into.[24]

STAGE 1. The first stage is called sālokya — corresponding to the waking state of consciousness (jāgrata) — the realization that the entire vast universe of billions of galaxies and universes is all pervaded by the Divine Consciousness. (Viṣṇu means That which pervades the entire universe and everything in it.) It is the undifferentiated Ocean of Being. When this stage is achieved then the person gets the freedom from the idea that the world is separate and independent from us and is an ultimate source of abiding pleasure and joy.

STAGE 2. The second stage is sarūpya or sadhārmya — corresponding to the dreaming state of consciousness – realization that every being is interconnected and all "apparently" separate jivas are embodiments of the One Divine Consciousness. When this stage is achieved then the person gets the freedom from ahaṅkāra - the notion of self-identity and the notion of difference and the other, thus being able to cultivate empathy with all and universal compassion for all beings.

STAGE 3. The third stage samīpya — is intimacy with the Divine — corresponding to the unconscious dreamless state of consciousness – God-realization occurs when the nature of the saguṇa īśvara is cognized and one surrenders to Him/Her. When this stage is achieved then the person gets the freedom from all self-effort to achieve liberation, freedom from religion and its bondage and the relinquishing of all self-imposed burdens – achieving a state of equanimity, tranquility, abiding joy and peace.

STAGE 4. The final stage sāyujya — communion with, or unification with the Absolute Godhead — corresponding to the Turiya or inconceivable and inexpressible fourth state of consciousness – a merging with the Godhead bordering on complete identity. When this stage is achieved then the person becomes a complete Jivanmukta and gets the absolute freedom from rebirth and suffering —this is the final stage of Brahma-nirvāna.

Significance[edit]

The Advaita philosophy rests on the premise that noumenally the Absolute alone exists, Nature, Souls and God are all merged in the Absolute; the Universe is one, that there is no difference within it, or without it; Brahman is alike throughout its structure, and the knowledge of any part of it is the knowledge of the whole (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad II.4.6-14), and, since all causation is ultimately due to Brahman, since everything beside Brahman is an appearance, the Atman is the only entity that exists and nothing else. All elements emanated from the Atman (Taittiriya Upanishad II.1) and all existence is based on Intellect (Aitareya Upanishad III.3). The universe created by Brahman from a part of itself is thrown out and re-absorbed by the Immutable Brahman (Mundaka Upanishad I.1.7). Therefore, the Jiva (the individual self) is non-different from Brahman (the supreme Self), and the Jiva, never bound, is ever liberated. Through Self-consciousness one gains the knowledge of existence and realizes Brahman.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Vivekacūḍāmaṇi of Śaṅkarācārya Bhagavatpāda: An Introduction and Translation edited by John Grimes "A mukta is a mukta, with or without a body.110 It may be said that a knower of the Self with a body is a Jivan Mukta and when that person sheds the body, he attains Videhamukti. But this difference exists only for the onlooker, not the mukta."
  2. ^ Gavin Flood (1998), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780, page 92-93
  3. ^ Klaus Klostermaier, Mokṣa and Critical Theory, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1985), pages 61-71
  4. ^ Andrew Fort and Patricia Mumme (1996), Living Liberation in Hindu Thought, ISBN 978-0-7914-2706-4
  5. ^ Norman E. Thomas (April 1988), Liberation for Life: A Hindu Liberation Philosophy, Missiology, Volume 16, Number 2, pp 149-160
  6. ^ a b Gerhard Oberhammer (1994), La Délivrance dès cette vie: Jivanmukti, Collège de France, Publications de l'Institut de Civilisation Indienne. Série in-8°, Fasc. 61, Édition-Diffusion de Boccard (Paris), ISBN 978-2868030610, pages 1-9
  7. ^ Gonda, Jan (1977). Medieval Religious Literature in Sanskrit. Harrassowitz. p. 71. ISBN 978-3-447-01743-5.
  8. ^ Geoffrey A. Barborka (1968). The pearl of the Orient: the message of the Bhagavad-Gītā for the Western World. Theosophical Pub. House. p. 155.
  9. ^ Jivanmukti, Sanskrit English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  10. ^ Andrew O. Fort (1998). Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta. State University of New York Press. pp. 32–35. ISBN 978-0-7914-3904-3.
  11. ^ Cousens, Gabriel (2009). Spiritual Nutrition. North Atlantic. pp. 7, 35, 41. ISBN 978-1-55643-859-2.
  12. ^ P S Roodurmum (2002). Bhāmatī and Vivaraṇa Schools of Advaita Vedānta: A Critical Approach. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 231. ISBN 978-81-208-1890-3.
  13. ^ Richards, Glyn (2016). Studies in Religion: A Comparative Approach to Theological and Philosophical Themes. Springer. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-349-24147-7.
  14. ^ Rosen, Richard (2002). Yoga Journal. Active Interest. p. 159.
  15. ^ Richards, Glyn (2005). The Philosophy of Gandhi: A Study of His Basic Ideas. Routledge. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-135-79935-9.
  16. ^ See for example Muktika Upanishad, Varaha Upanishad, Adhyatma Upanishad, Sandilya Upanishad, Tejobindu Upanishad, etc.; in K.N. Aiyar (Transl. 1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Robart Library Archives, Canada
  17. ^ Paul Deussen, The philosophy of the Upanishads, Translated by A.S. Geden (1906), T&T Clark, Edinburgh
  18. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1 & 2, ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7
  19. ^ see: K.N. Aiyar (Transl. 1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Robart Library Archives, Canada, pp 140-147
    • S. Nikhilananda (1958), Hinduism: Its meaning for the liberation of the spirit, Harper, ISBN 978-0911206265, pp. 53–79;
    • Andrew Fort (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-3904-6
  20. ^ see also Sandilya Upanishad for ahimsa and other virtues; Quote: "तत्र हिंसा नाम मनोवाक्कायकर्मभिः सर्वभूतेषु सर्वदा क्लेशजननम्"; Aiyar translates this as: He practices Ahimsa - no injury or harm to any living being at any time through actions of his body, his speech or in his mind; K.N. Aiyar (Transl. 1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Robart Library Archives, Canada, pp 173-174
  21. ^ a b Śaṅkarācārya (1973). Vivekacūḍāmaṇi of Śrī Samkara Bhagavatpāda. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 403–423.
  22. ^ a b Maharshi, Ramana. "Karma and Destiny". Hinduism.co.za. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
  23. ^ Shah-Kazem, Reza (2006). Paths to Transcendence: According to Shankara, Ibn Arabi, and Meister Eckhart. World Wisdom, Inc. pp. 59–60. ISBN 0-941532-97-6.
  24. ^ Ranade, R. D. (1986) [1926]. A Constructive Survey Of Upanishadic Philosophy: Being An Introduction To The Thought Of The Upanishads. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 157.
  25. ^ A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (1972). Bhagavad-Gita As It Is. Mumbai: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. p. 621.