a trunk road in Jiguan Distinct
Jixi (red) in Heilongjiang province (orange) and China
|• mayor||Zhu Deyi (朱德义)|
|• secretary of a municipal committee of the CPC||Xu Zhaojun(许兆君)|
|• Prefecture-level city||22,351 km2 (8,630 sq mi)|
|• Urban||79.2 km2 (30.6 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,234 km2 (863 sq mi)|
|• Prefecture-level city||1,862,161|
|• Density||86.1/km2 (223/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China standard time)|
Jixi (simplified Chinese: 鸡西; traditional Chinese: 鶏西; pinyin: Jīxī; Russian: Цзиси) is a city with a metropolitan population of 740,500 in eastern Heilongjiang Province in the People's Republic of China. Jixi is on Muling River about 30 km from the border with Russia and 120 km from Khanka Lake. The mayor of Jixi is Zhu Deyi (朱德义) since July 2009. The area is one of the important coal mining base in China. A crater on asteroid 253 Mathilde was named after the city. In 2010 the city had a GDP of RMB 41.95 billion with a 16.1% growth rate。
- 1 Administrative divisions and population
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Transportation
- 5 Economy
- 6 Tourism
- 7 Influence of ethnic Koreans
- 8 Sister cities
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Administrative divisions and population
List of Districts and zones in Jixi
The prefecture-level city of Jixi has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts (区 qu), 2 county-level cities (市 shi) and 1 county (县 xian):
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2003 est.)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Jiguan District||鸡冠区||Jīguān Qū||331,814||144||2,292|
|2||Hengshan District||恒山区||Héngshān Qū||173,545||587||307|
|3||Didao District||滴道区||Dīdào Qū||117,735||515||233|
|4||Lishu District||梨树区||Líshù Qū||89,025||396||227|
|5||Chengzihe District||城子河区||Chéngzǐhé Qū||140,885||181||829|
|6||Mashan District||麻山区||Máshān Qū||36,624||411||97|
|7||Hulin City||虎林市||Hǔlín Shì||293,760||9,329||32|
|8||Mishan City||密山市||Mìshān Shì||432,229||7,724||56|
|9||Jidong County||鸡东县||Jīdōng Xiàn||295,415||3,753||80|
The 2000 national survey ethnic composition proportion
Jixi was a nomadic area of the Jurchen and Goguryeo people. During the Tang Dynasty, Jixi was under the control of the Balhae. As the Manchu conquered the territories occupied by the Ming Dynasty in 1644, the basin of the Amur River was blocked in order to protect the Manchu people's place of origin. In this period, the population of the Jixi region experienced a sharp decrease. In 1662, the Kangxi Emperor set Ninguta General to dominate the territory. As a large number of people engaged in reclaiming wasteland and collecting ginseng, Jixi and the whole Ussuri River basin became the base of medicinal materials gradually.
In 1895,the Qing government forsook the policy of blockading on the Northeast region of China.A large number of people migrated into Manchuria. In 1908,the Qing government set up Mishan Prefecture including Jixi territory. Coal resources was discovered constantly in Jixi during this period. In September 1914,a merchant named Yuan Dazhang from Mukden was approved to set up the Mixi Colliery Company,which represents the regular production of coal in Jixi. In January 1924,a Russian merchant named L.S.Skidelsky and the government of Jilin province contracted to set up Muling Colliery. The output of Muling Colliery has reached 1.6 million tons in 1931. In 1933,the Jixi region became a colony of the Japanese. on December 15, 1935,Jixi Railway Station's construction was completed by South Manchuria Railway(SMR). On September 1, 1941,the Manchukuo government set up Jining County in Jixi territory, the first leader of the county was Kubota Toyo. The Japanese settlers totally slaughtered more than 100 thousand miners in Jixi mining area. On August 9, 1945,Tomi Oiichirou,the conductor of Didao Colliery,ordered to destroy the coalpits in Hengshan, Didao and Muling as the Soviet Army closed in.
On August 12, 1945, the Soviet Army captured Jining County, and the Military Headquarter commanded the Jixi mining area to resume production. On October 18, 1947, Jixi Mining Bereau was founded in order to control the collieries and the coal mining machinery in Jixi territory. On July 30, 1949, the Northeast Executive Committee allowed Jining County to change its name to Jixi County, which was administered by Songjiang Province. On June 19, 1954, Jixi County was administered by Heilongjiang Province as the Songjiang Province was discharged.
By 1956, the population of Jixi had reached 234,154, and the output of coal rose to 5 million tons per year. On December 18, 1956, the State Council of China decided to set up Jixi City (Prefectural-Level) instead of Jixi County, administering 5 districts including Jiguan, Didao, Mashan, Hengshan and Lishu. On March 7, Jixi City was formally founded. In 1970, Chengzihe District was founded. In 1983, Jidong County was put under Jixi's administration. The coal-mining industry was developing rapidly during the 1970s and 1980s. By 1991, the total coal output of Jixi ranked second in the Chinese Mainland. In the 1990s, Mishan and Hulin were incorporated into Jixi's administration. Jixi has reached its current domain.
Jixi is located at the southern edge of the Sanjiang or Three Rivers Plain. Much of the prefecture area sits within the conjunction region between Baekdu Mountain and the Wandashan Mountains. The total area of the prefecture is 22,351 square kilometres (8,630 sq mi)。. Within its borders, Khanka Lake is the largest lake with an area of 4,380 square kilometres (1,691 sq mi), while the Muling River and the Ussuri River are the largest rivers in the prefecture.
Jixi is estimated to have about 8 billion tonnes of coal reserves. The graphite reserves of Jixi is about 0.78 billion tonnes, ranking 1st in all of Asia. The reserves of sillimanite and marble are also rich.
Jixi has a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa/Dwb), with bitter but dry winters, and warm, humid summers. However, due to the relative proximity to the Sea of Japan, summer is comparatively cool and refreshing. Monthly averages range from −16.7 °C (1.9 °F) in January to 21.8 °C (71.2 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 4.0 °C (39.2 °F). Sunny weather dominates year-round, even in summer, where most of the year's precipitation occurs.
|Climate data for Jixi (1951−2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||4.5
|Average high °C (°F)||−11.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−16.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−22
|Record low °C (°F)||−34.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||4.7
|Average precipitation days||5.3||5.8||5.9||8.7||13.0||15.8||14.6||13.0||10.9||8.8||6.8||6.9||115.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||64||60||53||52||55||70||76||78||71||60||61||65||63.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||180.9||198.4||244.1||232.4||254.3||238.7||236.0||227.3||221.4||206.9||173.0||151.0||2,564.4|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration Climate Data for Jixi|
In Jixi Railway Station, there are multiple daily departures to other cities in Heilongjiang such as Mudanjiang, Harbin, as well as Beijing.Jixi is also famous for its last remaining working steam locomotive in China，which attracts photographers from all over the world to take photos of steam locomotive. 
Jixi is linked to the national highway network through the G11 Hegang–Dalian Expressway, the Fangzheng-Hulin Highway and the busiest section in the city, the Jixi-Hulin-Jiansanjiang Expressway. This section connects the four major districts in Jixi including Jiguan Distinct,Jidong,Mishan and Hulin.
Jixi Khanka-Lake Airport (simplified Chinese: 鸡西兴凯湖机场; traditional Chinese:雞西興凱湖機場) opened in 2009 and serves as the main civilian airport for Jixi. It takes about 30 minutes to reach downtown from the airport. Domestic flights are available to several cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Harbin and Qingdao.
- GDP and economic data
Statistically, Jixi achieved a GDP of RMB35.3 billion in 2009, having increased twofold over 5 years. Primary industry output increased by 9 percent to RMB9.42 billion. Secondary industry output experienced an increase of 21.4 percent, reaching RMB13.8 billion, while the tertiary industry output increased 10.3 percent to RMB12.1 billion.
- General situation
The economy of Jixi is mainly constructed round rich coal resources. Coal chemical industry, steel-making and machinofacturing are predominant. environmental protection industry, agriculture and tourist industry are also developing rapidly in recent years. However, Coal Economics still accounts for the main part of the entire economy system.
- Cyclic economy
As early as in the “Eighth Five-Year” period, people in Jixi became aware of non-renewable resources, but the coal industry is the main pillar of the economy, so people began to consider the coal resources in deep-processing problems. Coal deep processing has been done to make full use of coal resources, so that any production of waste generated are turning waste into treasure, thus greatly improving the resource utilization, truly resource recycling.
Tourist sites in Jixi City itself include Jixi Museum in the west end of the city and Huayan Temple (华严寺) which almost faces the museum across Wenhua Road. Within roughly an hour's drive is the Qi Lin Shan (麒麟山) scenic area.
A few hours east of the city within the Jixi administrative region is the Russian lake and river border, a number of points along which are popular summer destinations for tourists, in particular:
- Khanka Lake
Xingkai Hu or Khanka Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northeast Asia. In Manchu language, The name "Khanka" means the water flowing down from a higher to a lower place. Located on the border between Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China and Primorsky Krai , Russia, it is composed of one large lake and a small one which are divided by a sandy hill. In 1996, Jiang Zemin , the Secretary General of China and Russian President Boris Yeltsin subscribed the Sino-Russia Agreement on Khanka Lake Environmental Protection and Khanka Lake became a Nature Reserve protected by both Chinese and Russian government.
- Ussuri River
Ussuri River is a largest tributary of Amur River(Heilongjiang River) on its right and an important boundary river between China and Russia. The length of Ussuri River is 905 km, with drainage area of 187,000 km2. The river goes through the valley between the Wandashan Mountains in China and the Sichote-Alin in Russia. Its beauty and natural landscapes are incomparable in China and it is among the few unpolluted rivers in China.
- Zhenbao Island
Zhenbao Island stands for the Island of Treasure in Chinese Language. On March 2, 1969, Sino-Soviet Zhenbao Island took place successively in large-scale armed conflict, which is a contradiction between the long-term friction between the Soviet Union by the Soviet side provoked a collision point. Now it has become a Nature Reserve and a National Forest Park.
Influence of ethnic Koreans
The Jixi region is known for its Korean ethnic minority. Cold Noodle (Naengmyeon in Korean, Leng Mian in Chinese), a traditional Korean dish made from wheat or buckwheat, is particularly associated with Jixi. The contemporary dish is a fusion of Korean and Northeastern Chinese flavors and derives its name from its distinctly cold taste. The noodles are often served with dried bean curd, Campanulaceae, and Pollack, amongst other ingredients. Also consumed by locals is Korean-style dog meat and fish-kettle.
- 许兆君任鸡西市委书记 (in Chinese)
- 2010年鸡西市经济总量生产总值突破400亿 (in Chinese)
- Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633-1644.
- the Last Steam Locomotive Alive 最后的蒸汽机车 (in Chinese)
- Khanka lake-the largest freshwater lake in north east asia，Khanka Lake。
- Ussuri River-TouroChina.au，Ussuri River。
- 陶智,唐克余 (1990). 鸡西矿务局志 (in Chinese). 鸡西市: 鸡西矿务局志编纂委员会.
- The History of Jixi City(Chinese:鸡西市志),1979
- Khanka Lake,Jixi Attraction,Jixi Tourism,www.3dtourchina.com
- Khanka Lake - the Largest Freshwater Lake in Northeast Asia,www.foreignercn.com
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