João Ferreira de Almeida
João Ferreira Annes de Almeida
|Died||1691 (aged 63)|
|Occupation||Dutch Reformed Pastor|
|Known for||Bible translator|
João Ferreira Annes d'Almeida (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃ fɨˈʁɐjɾɐ ˈɐnɨʃ dɨ aɫˈmɐjdɐ]) (1628–1691) was a Portuguese Protestant pastor; the eponymous Bible translation he began also goes by his name.
Ferreira de Almeida, born in Várzea de Tavares, Portugal, is best known for his translation of the Bible into Portuguese, which he began at the age of 14, and continued translating until his death. He translated the New Testament completely and most books of the Old Testament (Hebrew Scripture). The translation was completed by his friend, Jacobus op den Akker. Almeida also wrote several other works, most of them against Roman Catholicism.
He was a Dutch Reformed pastor and worked with churches in Java (at the time a Dutch colony; modern-day Indonesia), and also preached in Goa on the Indian subcontinent (at the time a Portuguese colony, now part of India). Ferreira de Almeida died in Batavia, Java. Little is known about his life; the majority of facts come from the preface of his Portuguese translation of a Spanish booklet entitled "Differença d'a Christandade".
Ferreira de Almeida's translation of the Bible is most closely associated with Portuguese-speaking Protestants and is the most commonly used translation by Portuguese-speaking Protestant Evangelicals, particularly in Brazil. His work is the source of many Bible versions, like the Edição Revista e Corrigida (Revised and Corrected Edition, published in 1948, is an update of other editions), the Edição Revista e Atualizada (Revised and Updated Edition, most based in newer manuscripts), published by Brazilian Bible Society and Portuguese Bible Society, Almeida Corrigida e Fiel (Almeida Corrected and Faithful), by Trinitarian Bible Society of Brazil, and Edição Contemporânea de Almeida (Almeida's Contemporary Edition), by Editora Vida. In 2015, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints published an edition of the Bible in Portuguese based on Ferreira de Almeida's work.
The main principle of translation used by Ferreira de Almeida was that of formal equivalence (following the syntax of the original text in the target language), and he utilized the Textus Receptus as a textual basis. His Portuguese style is described as "classical and erudite"; the Brazilian Bible Society states that Ferreira de Almedia sought to reflect both the form, style, and language register of the original texts in his translation.
- First edition of the New Testament, in 1681.
- Second edition of the New Testament, in 1693.
- Third edition of the New Testament, in 1711.
- A Biblia Sagrada. contendo o Velho e o Novo Testamento (The Holy Bible with the Old and New Testament) - 1821, 1848, 1850
- Ferreira de Almeida Atualizada (1948)
- "Novas descobertas documentais sobre os conflitos religiosos subjacentes à elaboração da primeira tradução da Bíblia em língua portuguesa (1642‑1694)". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-03-07.
- "Differença d'a Christandade: João Ferreira de Almeida e a controvérsia católico-protestante nas Índias Orientais seiscentistas". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-18.
- "Church Portuguese Bible Available Online". 15 September 2015.
- "Sociedade Bíblica do Brasil - SBB". Archived from the original on 6 February 2010.
- The Book of Genesis, de Almeida translation, at bible.com
- (in Portuguese) Biography at the Brazilian Bible Society
- (in Portuguese) Differences between the Edição Revista e Corrigida and Edição Revista e Atualizada
- (in Portuguese) Bible João Ferreira de Almeida
- Works by or about João Ferreira de Almeida at Internet Archive
- Works by João Ferreira de Almeida at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)