João Pessoa

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João Pessoa
João Pessoa skyline as viewed from the sea
João Pessoa skyline as viewed from the sea
Flag of João Pessoa
Flag
Official seal of João Pessoa
Seal
Nickname(s): Green City; The City where the sun rises first
Location of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba
Location of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba
Location of João Pessoa
Coordinates: 7°05′S 34°50′W / 7.083°S 34.833°W / -7.083; -34.833Coordinates: 7°05′S 34°50′W / 7.083°S 34.833°W / -7.083; -34.833
Country  Brazil
State Bandeira da Paraíba.svg Paraíba
Elevation 40 m (130 ft)
Population (2008)IBGE/2012[1]
 • Total 693,082
Time zone BRT[2] (UTC-3)
Postal Code 58000-000
Area code(s) +55 83
Website www.joaopessoa.pb.gov.br

João Pessoa (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒʊˈɐ̃w peˈsoɐ]) is the capital of the state of Paraíba in Brazil. It was founded in 1585 and it is also known as the city where the sun rises first, because it is the easternmost city in the Americas at 34° 47′ 38″ W, 7° 9′ 28″ S. Its easternmost point is known as Ponta do Seixas. The city is considered "the second greenest in the world", with more than 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi) of forested land, second only to Paris, France.[3]

João Pessoa is the capital of Paraíba, a state in the northeast region of Brazil and home to 19th and 20th century Brazilian poets and writers such as Augusto dos Anjos, José Américo de Almeida, José Lins do Rego, and Pedro Américo. It took its current name in 1930 in homage to state president (governor) João Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, who was assassinated on 26 July of that year.[citation needed]

It is the state's largest city, with a population of circa 770,000 (about one sixth of the state's population[4]). Its metropolitan area comprises eight other satellite cities (Bayeux, Cabedelo, Conde, Lucena, Santa Rita, and others), totalling 1,223,000 of inhabitants.

The city is one of the oldest in the northeast of the country. Theatres, auditoriums, and convention centres are part of the available infrastructure in the city.[citation needed]

The new "Estação Ciência, Cultura e Artes" (Science, Culture and Art Station),[5] located at the most eastern point of the Americas (Ponta das Seixas), is both an educational and cultural institution as well as a national landmark. The complex, inaugurated in 2008, was created by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and is one of his last projects.

History[edit]

Map of Frederikstadt by Johannes Vingboons (1665).

João Pessoa is the third oldest city in Brazil.[6]

Geography[edit]

Environment[edit]

João Pessoa, seen from the International Space Station

João Pessoa has a 20 kilometres (12 mi) beachfront.[6]

João Pessoa has many green areas distributed among its avenues, parks, and residential neighborhoods, which support its claim as "the second greenest city in the world" with more than 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi) of forested land, second only to Paris. It was considered thus in 1992 after a survey of urban centres in various countries carried out by the United Nations (source: Embassy of Brazil in the UK).[7]

Ponta do Seixas, the easternmost point of America.

Climate[edit]

Joao Pessoa has a tropical climate with very warm temperatures all year long. The only significant difference between summer and "winter" is the amount of rainfall with no significant change in temperatures as shown in the graph. The "winter" begins in March and ends in August with July usually being the wettest month.

Climate data for João Pessoa (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.8
(91)
33
(91)
33.6
(92.5)
34.8
(94.6)
32
(90)
31.4
(88.5)
30.2
(86.4)
30.7
(87.3)
32
(90)
31.7
(89.1)
32
(90)
32.8
(91)
34.8
(94.6)
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
30.5
(86.9)
30
(86)
29.8
(85.6)
29.6
(85.3)
28.3
(82.9)
27.5
(81.5)
27.8
(82)
28.3
(82.9)
29.3
(84.7)
29.7
(85.5)
30
(86)
29.3
(84.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.1
(80.8)
27.2
(81)
27
(81)
26.7
(80.1)
26
(79)
25.2
(77.4)
24.2
(75.6)
24.3
(75.7)
25.1
(77.2)
26.3
(79.3)
26.7
(80.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79)
Average low °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73)
22.2
(72)
21.4
(70.5)
20.9
(69.6)
20.5
(68.9)
21.5
(70.7)
23
(73)
23.7
(74.7)
23.9
(75)
22.5
(72.5)
Record low °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
19
(66)
20.2
(68.4)
19.6
(67.3)
17
(63)
17
(63)
15
(59)
13.6
(56.5)
18.6
(65.5)
17.8
(64)
19.4
(66.9)
13.6
(56.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 75.8
(2.984)
108.4
(4.268)
252.2
(9.929)
349.8
(13.772)
307.3
(12.098)
346.1
(13.626)
346.2
(13.63)
183.5
(7.224)
87.2
(3.433)
35.4
(1.394)
24.9
(0.98)
28.5
(1.122)
2,145.4
(84.465)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 8 9 15 17 17 18 21 16 11 7 5 5 149
Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 81 79 81 81 87 75 77 73 74 74 77.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.2 219.1 206.9 181.5 193.9 180.7 190.5 230.1 235.1 266.2 272.7 274.2 2,695.1
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Demographics[edit]

According to the IBGE of 2009, there were 702,000 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 45.72% White, 38.72% Pardo (two or more races), 2.77% Black, and 0.25% Asian or Amerindian.[17]

Religion[edit]

Religion Percentage Number
Catholic 74.06% 442,841
Protestant 15.92% 95,191
No religion 7.41% 44,332
Spiritist 1.10% 6,571

Source: IBGE 2000.[18]


One of the buildings of the State University of Paraíba.

Transportation[edit]

International airport[edit]

Joao Pessoa is served by Presidente Castro Pinto International Airport.[19]

Economy[edit]

The GDP for the city was R$ 5,024,604,000 (2005).[20]

The per capita income for the city was R$ 7,604 (2005).[21]

Main sights[edit]

Cabo Branco lighthouse at Ponta do Seixas in southeastern region of the city.
Solon de Lucena Park's lagoon at night in the northwestern region (the downtown zone or district).
João Pessoa's evening skyline (center-eastern region).
Saint Francis Church and Saint Anthony Convent (northern region).

João Pessoa has one publication which highlights its tourist attractions: The Guia Mais Joao Pessoa.[22]

Museums[edit]

Source:[19]

  • Museu Sacro e de Arte Popular, within the São Francisco church.
  • Espaço Cultural José Lins do Rego. A cultural centre including history and science museums.
  • City Museum. The former Casa da Pólvora, an old gunpowder store.
  • Museu Fotográfico Walfredo Rodríguez.

Sports[edit]

João Pessoa provides visitors and residents with various sport activities.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Estimativas da população para 1º de julho de 2008" (PDF). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 29 August 2008. p. 25. Retrieved 5 September 2008. 
  2. ^ "Current local time in João Pessoa". Time and Date. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  3. ^ "Onde o Sol brilha primeiro". Câmara Municipal de João Pessoa. Retrieved March 2010. 
  4. ^ 2010 IBGE
  5. ^ ESTAÇÃO CIÊNCIA, CULTURA e ARTES (PDF) (in Portuguese). joão pessoa, Brazil: E.C.C.A. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  6. ^ a b "Introducing João Pessoa". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  7. ^ Green City (PDF). joão pessoa, Brazil: UK Embassy. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  8. ^ "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Número de Dias com Precipitação Mayor ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014. 
  17. ^ Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2000 (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2000. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  18. ^ Religion in João Pessoa by IBGE
  19. ^ a b "João Pessoa in Brazil". Footprint Travel Guides. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  20. ^ GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  21. ^ per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  22. ^ Guia Mais Joao Pessoa 01.01.2008

External links[edit]