João Pessoa, Paraíba

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João Pessoa
Municipality
Município de João Pessoa
From the top, clockwise: Centro Cultural São Francisco; Altiplano district; Tambau Beach; Historic Center of João Pessoa; Santa Rosa Theater and Cabo Branco Station.
From the top, clockwise: Centro Cultural São Francisco; Altiplano district; Tambau Beach; Historic Center of João Pessoa; Santa Rosa Theater and Cabo Branco Station.
Flag of João Pessoa
Official seal of João Pessoa
Nickname(s): 
Sun Gate
Green City
California of Brazil
Motto(s): 
INTREPIDA AB ORIGINE
Location of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba
Location of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba
João Pessoa is located in Brazil
João Pessoa
João Pessoa
Location of João Pessoa in Brazil
Coordinates: 07°07′12″S 34°52′48″W / 7.12000°S 34.88000°W / -7.12000; -34.88000Coordinates: 07°07′12″S 34°52′48″W / 7.12000°S 34.88000°W / -7.12000; -34.88000
Country Brazil
RegionNortheast
StateBandeira da Paraíba.svg Paraíba
FoundedAugust 5, 1585
Government
 • PrefeitoCícero Lucena (PP)
Area
 • Total211.475 km2 (81.651 sq mi)
Elevation
40 m (130 ft)
Population
 (2020 [1])
 • Total817,511
 • Density3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−3 (UTC−3)
Postal code
58000-001 to 58099-999
Area code+55 83
Websitewww.joaopessoa.pb.gov.br
Ponta do Seixas, the easternmost point of America

João Pessoa (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃w peˈso.ɐ]), a port city in northeastern Brazil, is the state of Paraíba's capital and largest city, with an estimated population of 817,511 (as of 2020). It is located on the right bank of the Paraiba do Norte river.[2]

The new "Estação Ciência, Cultura e Artes" (Science, Culture and Art Station),[3] located at the most eastern point of the Americas (Ponta das Seixas), is an educational and cultural institution as well as a national landmark. The complex, inaugurated in 2008, was created by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and is one of his final projects.

The capital of Paraíba received the title of Creative City by UNESCO in 2017,[4] appointing João Pessoa as "Brazilian city of handicrafts".

History[edit]

João Pessoa was founded on August 5, 1585, by Portuguese settlers. Called "Royal City of Our Lady of the Snows", in honor of the saint of the day it was founded,[5] its first structures were on the banks of the Sanhauá River, a tributary of the Paraíba River, now known as Porto do Varadouro, in the neighborhood of the same name. In 1588, the city was renamed "Philipeia of Our Lady of the Snows", in honor of King Philip II, who at the time accumulated the thrones of Spain and Portugal.[6]

In 1634, attracted by the sugar wealth of the then-capital of the Paraíba, the Dutch invaded and named it Fredrikstad (Frederick City), in honor of the prince of Orange, Frederick of Orange. After the decline of New Holland and with the departure of the Dutch, the city was again dominated by the Portuguese and acquired the name "Parahyba do Norte" in 1654.[7]

The city was renamed João Pessoa in September 1930 in memory of the former governor of Paraíba, João Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, who had been murdered on July 26 that year.

João Pessoa is the third oldest city in Brazil.[8]

Geography[edit]

Environment[edit]

João Pessoa has 20 kilometres (12 mi) of beachfront.[8]

João Pessoa has many green areas distributed among its avenues, parks, and residential neighborhoods, supporting its claim as "the second greenest city in the world" with more than 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi) of forested land, second only to Paris. This claim is a matter of conjecture, however, originating from a publicity stunt carried out by the city's mayor during an Earth Summit.[9]

Climate[edit]

João Pessoa has a dry-summer tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) with very warm temperatures all year long and strong rainfall in most of the months; however, October to December have rather low rainfall.

Climate data for João Pessoa (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.8
(91.0)
33.0
(91.4)
33.6
(92.5)
34.8
(94.6)
32.0
(89.6)
31.4
(88.5)
30.2
(86.4)
30.7
(87.3)
32.0
(89.6)
31.7
(89.1)
32.0
(89.6)
32.8
(91.0)
34.8
(94.6)
Average high °C (°F) 30.2
(86.4)
30.5
(86.9)
30.0
(86.0)
29.8
(85.6)
29.6
(85.3)
28.3
(82.9)
27.5
(81.5)
27.8
(82.0)
28.3
(82.9)
29.3
(84.7)
29.7
(85.5)
30.0
(86.0)
29.3
(84.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.1
(80.8)
27.2
(81.0)
27.0
(80.6)
26.7
(80.1)
26.0
(78.8)
25.2
(77.4)
24.2
(75.6)
24.3
(75.7)
25.1
(77.2)
26.3
(79.3)
26.7
(80.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79.0)
Average low °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73.0)
22.2
(72.0)
21.4
(70.5)
20.9
(69.6)
20.5
(68.9)
21.5
(70.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.7
(74.7)
23.9
(75.0)
22.5
(72.5)
Record low °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
19.0
(66.2)
20.2
(68.4)
19.6
(67.3)
17.0
(62.6)
17.0
(62.6)
15.0
(59.0)
13.6
(56.5)
18.6
(65.5)
17.8
(64.0)
19.4
(66.9)
13.6
(56.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 75.8
(2.98)
108.4
(4.27)
252.2
(9.93)
349.8
(13.77)
307.3
(12.10)
346.1
(13.63)
346.2
(13.63)
183.5
(7.22)
87.2
(3.43)
35.4
(1.39)
24.9
(0.98)
28.5
(1.12)
2,145.4
(84.46)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 8 9 15 17 17 18 21 16 11 7 5 5 149
Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 81 79 81 81 87 75 77 73 74 74 77.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.2 219.1 206.9 181.5 193.9 180.7 190.5 230.1 235.1 266.2 272.7 274.2 2,695.1
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

Demographics[edit]

According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, or IBGE) report of 2009, João Pessoa had a population of 801,718. Its racial makeup was 45.72% White, 38.72% Pardo (two or more races), 2.77% Black, and 0.25% Asian or Amerindian.[19]

Religion[edit]

Religion Percentage Number
Catholic 74.06% 442,841
Protestant 15.92% 95,191
No religion 7.41% 44,332
Spiritist 1.10% 6,571

Source: IBGE 2000.[20]

International Airport.

Transportation[edit]

International airport[edit]

Joao Pessoa is served by Presidente Castro Pinto International Airport.[21]

Rail system[edit]

The João Pessoa Urban Trains System is operated by diesel components on one railway line with a 30 km extension spanning four municipalities, João Pessoa, Cabedelo, Bayeux and Santa Rita, constituted by the Cabedelo stretch, with 10 stations in operation, carrying around 10,100 passengers a day. Composed of three locomotives and 17 passenger cars, the trains form two compositions that conduct 28 trips a day.[22]

Economy[edit]

João Pessoa's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was R$ 14,841,805 as of 2010.[23]

The city's per capita income was R$ 19,284 as of 2010.[24]

Historic center of João Pessoa.
Solon de Lucena Park's lagoon at night in the northwestern region (the downtown zone or district).
João Pessoa's evening skyline (center-eastern region).

Sister cities[edit]

Tourism[edit]

Picãozinho
Reef fish found on the Picãozinho reef.
  • Picãozinho:[27] One of the city's most significant sights is the São Reef Formation, located about 1,500 meters from Tambaú Beach on the coast of João Pessoa.
  • Natural Pools of Seixas Beach:[28] The Seixas Natural Pools, where hundreds of species of fish, seaweed, reptiles (sea turtles), mollusks, crustaceans and other marine organisms are found.
penha of beach
  • Penha Beach:[29] This traditional beach's name derives from the symbol of one of the great religious events in Brazil: the Chapel of Our Lady of Penha. For more than 250 years, thousands of faithful have been accompanying the Penha Procession through the streets of João Pessoa.
  • Manaira Beach:[30] Joao Pessoa's most economically developed neighborhood. Its sidewalks are commonly used for physical activities and are well frequented by tourists and locals.
  • Beach Tambaú:[31] The sands of Praia de Tambaú are one of the busiest in Joao Pessoa.
cabo branco beach
  • Bessa Beach:[32] At the extreme north of João Pessoa, with 5.3 km of white sand beach beside calm green waters, reefs and coconut trees, Bessa Beach is among the most sought after by tourists.
Seixas beach
  • Seixas Beach:[33] This beach is situated on the easternmost end of the Americas. Nationally known as the land area closest to the African continent, Praia do Seixas.
  • Convention Center Poet Ronaldo Cunha Lima:[34] The convention center of João Pessoa has four main buildings, the Lookout Tower, the Congress and Convention Hall, and the Pedra do Reino Theater.
  • Espaço Cultural José Lins do Rego: Built through a project developed by architect Sérgio Bernardes, it includes the Archidy Picado Gallery, Lutheria, Planetarium, José Lins do Rêgo Museum, Anthenor Navarro Music School, Arena Theater, Paulo Pontes Theater.[35]

Museums[edit]

Sunset Hotel Globe

Source:[21]

  • Museu Sacro e de Arte Popular, within the São Francisco church.
  • Espaço Cultural José Lins do Rego. A cultural centre including history and science museums.
  • City Museum. The former Casa da Pólvora, an old gunpowder store.
  • Museu Fotográfico Walfredo Rodríguez.
  • Bica Natural History Museum[36].
  • Museum Foundation house of Jose Américo.[37]
  • Hotel Globo Museum:[38] Formerly a luxury hotel in the city, it consists of two buildings of eclectic style, with its lines influenced by Neo-classical, Art Nouveau and Art Deco styles. Today it functions as a museum, where it houses the permanent exhibition of part of the Hotel's furniture in addition to a collection of popular art. It is frequently visited for its view of the Sanhauá River and the sunset seen from its garden.[citation needed]
View from Hotel Globo to the Rio Sanhauá

Sports[edit]

Stadiums[edit]

Football[edit]

The city is home to Auto Esporte, CSP and Botafogo.

American football[edit]

João Pessoa Espectros:[39] This football team is regarded as the best football team in the northeastern region of Brazil, having earned a national title, seven regional titles and three state titles.[40]

Kayaking[edit]

Bessa Beach offers kayaking, popular among tourists, to reach four beautiful kilometers of coral and marine life in the blue sea of the "Caribessa".[41]

Surfing[edit]

The Paraíba nurtures great surfers, with athletes winning in many nationally prominent contests in the sport.[42]

Diving[edit]

The coastline of João Pessoa includes the Alvarenga shipwreck, an artificial reef for developing marine life.[43]

  • Alvarenga Shipwreck : The Alvarenga was a vessel used to transport supplies to ships. It wrecked about 9.6 km from the tip of Bessa's Beach and is submerged 20 meters deep. It remains whole, 20 meters in length by 5 meters in beam. It is possible for divers to penetrate the small bow and stern compartments safely. On the prow the winch to hoist the anchor remains in view. It is also common to find large stingrays and shoals of fish, such as the top cock and the hook.[44]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IBGE 2020
  2. ^ "Joao Pessoa: Brazil". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
  3. ^ ESTAÇÃO CIÊNCIA, CULTURA e ARTES (in Portuguese). joão pessoa, Brazil: E.C.C.A. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 24, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2008.
  4. ^ "Unesco Creative City title puts João Pessoa on the world tourist route through folk art". City Hall of João Pessoa. November 3, 2017. Archived from the original on January 12, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  5. ^ "História de João Pessoa". UFPB(Federal University of Paraiba). Archived from the original on March 12, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  6. ^ "Quatro séculos de história". PREFEITURA MUNICIPAL DE JOÃO PESSOA. Archived from the original on June 7, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  7. ^ "Um pouco da sua história". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipal Government of João Pessoa. Archived from the original on May 6, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Introducing João Pessoa". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  9. ^ "Cidade mais verde? Extremo oriental? Saiba o que é verdade sobre João Pessoa" (in Portuguese). G1.
  10. ^ "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  11. ^ "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  12. ^ "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  13. ^ "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  14. ^ "Número de Dias com Precipitação Mayor ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  15. ^ "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  16. ^ "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  17. ^ "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Retrieved August 5, 2014.[dead link]
  18. ^ "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Retrieved August 5, 2014.[dead link]
  19. ^ Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2000 (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2000. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2009.
  20. ^ "Religion in João Pessoa by IBGE". Archived from the original on March 23, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
  21. ^ a b "João Pessoa in Brazil". Footprint Travel Guides. Archived from the original on August 29, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
  22. ^ "João Pessa". CBTU-Brazilian company of urban trains. Archived from the original on August 30, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  23. ^ GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  24. ^ per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). João Pessoa, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  25. ^ "MUNICIPALITY OF JOÃO PESSOA". cidade-brasil. Archived from the original on August 27, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  26. ^ "Cities-Sisters – João Pessoa and Pompano Beach". Gazeta News. March 24, 2014. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  27. ^ "PICÃOZINHO". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Archived from the original on February 4, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  28. ^ "SEIXAS NATURAL SWIMMING POOLS". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Archived from the original on January 9, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  29. ^ "Penha Beach". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  30. ^ "MANAIR BEACH". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  31. ^ "Beach Tambaú". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  32. ^ "Beach Bessa". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  33. ^ "Seixas Beach". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  34. ^ "ABOUT THE CENTER". Government of Paraiba. Archived from the original on October 31, 2018. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  35. ^ Prefeitura de Joao Pessoa. "Espaço Cultural José Lins do Rego". Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  36. ^ "Bica Natural History Museum". Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  37. ^ "Museum Foundation house of Jose Américo". Archived from the original on August 29, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  38. ^ "Hotel Globo". Paraiba Criativa. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  39. ^ Hévilla Wanderley (January 2, 2017). "10 years of Espectros: review in photos the decade of the best team in the Northeast". Globo Esporte. Archived from the original on September 6, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  40. ^ Hévilla Wanderley (January 4, 2017). "10 anos de Espectros: passeie pela história do time a partir de seus vultos". Globo Esporte. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  41. ^ "Caiaque". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  42. ^ "SURF". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  43. ^ "mergulho". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  44. ^ "Naufrágio Alvarenga". Secretary of Tourism of the Municipality of João Pessoa. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 2, 2018.

External links[edit]