Jo Cals

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Jo Cals
Jo Cals 1966.jpg
33rd Prime Minister of the Netherlands
In office
14 April 1965 – 22 November 1966
Monarch Juliana
Preceded by Victor Marijnen
Succeeded by Jelle Zijlstra
Member of the House of Representatives
In office
2 July 1963 – 14 April 1965
Minister of Education, Arts and Sciences
In office
2 September 1952 – 24 July 1963
Prime Minister Willem Drees (1952–1958)
Louis Beel (1958–1959)
Jan de Quay (1959–1963)
Preceded by Theo Rutten
Succeeded by Theo Bot
Member of the House of Representatives
In office
20 March 1959 – 19 May 1959
Member of the House of Representatives
In office
3 July 1956 – 3 October 1956
State Secretary for Education, Arts and Sciences
In office
15 March 1950 – 2 September 1952
Prime Minister Willem Drees
Succeeded by Anna de Waal
Member of the House of Representatives
In office
19 August 1948 – 15 March 1950
Personal details
Born Jozef Maria Laurens Theo Cals
(1914-07-18)18 July 1914
Roermond, Netherlands
Died 30 December 1971(1971-12-30) (aged 57)
The Hague, Netherlands
Nationality Dutch
Political party Catholic People's Party (from 1945)
Other political
affiliations
Roman-Catholic State Party (until 1945)
Spouse(s) Truus van der Heijden (1915–1982)
Children 5
Alma mater Radboud University Nijmegen (LL.M.)
Occupation Politician
Civil Servant
Corporate director
Jurist
Lawyer
Teacher
Religion Roman Catholic

Jozef Maria Laurens Theo "Jo" Cals (18 July 1914 – 30 December 1971) was a Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic People's Party (KVP), now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 14 April 1965 until 22 November 1966.

He previously served as a Member of the House of Representatives from 19 August 1948 until 15 March 1950, when he became State Secretary for Education, Arts and Sciences serving from 15 March 1950 until 2 September 1952 in the Drees-Van Schaik and Drees I cabinets. He became Minister of Education, Arts and Sciences serving from 2 September 1952 until 24 July 1963 in the Drees II and III, Beel II and De Quay cabinets. He again returned to the House of Representatives for two short periods, after the 1956 and 1959 general elections. Serving from 3 July 1956 until 3 October 1956 and from 20 March 1959 until 19 May 1959. And again a Member of the House of Representatives from 2 July 1963 until 14 April 1965. After the fall of the Marijnen cabinet, Cals became Prime Minister of the Netherlands, leading the Cals cabinet.[1]

After his premiership, Cals semi-retired from active politics and served as a civil servant leading several governmental commissions.[2] On 5 December 1966 he was granted the honorary title of Minister of State, which he held until his death.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Jo Cals as Minister of Education, Arts and Sciences during a meeting of the House of Representatives in 1961.
Jo Cals at the inauguration of his cabinet in 1965.

Jozef Maria Laurens Theo Cals was born in Roermond on 18 July 1914. After completing his secondary education in his home town, he studied for the priesthood in Rolduc. In 1935, however, he interrupted his theological training to study law at the Radboud University Nijmegen, after graduating in 1940 he practised law in that same city up until 1950, in the meantime also teaching economics at his old secondary school in Roermond.

Politics[edit]

In 1945 Cals became leader of the Catholic People's Party in the municipal council of Nijmegen until 1946. He was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives in 1948. From 15 March 1950 to 2 September 1952 he was State Secretary for Education, Arts and Sciences, serving from 15 March 1950 until 2 September 1952 in the Drees-Van Schaik and Drees I cabinets. He became Minister of Education, Arts and Sciences serving from 2 September 1952 until 24 July 1963 in the cabinets Drees II and III, Beel II and De Quay, he helped pass the Mammoetwet, a law that transformed secondary education. In the debate, he spoke for 6 hours and 50 minutes, setting a record. In 1963, however, he returned to the House of Representatives. Alongside his duties there, he was a member of the board of governors of the University of Groningen, chairman of the Arts Council and a member of the Press Council.

In the aftermath of the collapse of the Marijnen cabinet, Cals became Prime Minister of the Netherlands on 14 April 1965, a premiership lasting until 22 November 1966, when his Cals cabinet was suddenly brought down in an attack on its budget, known as the "Night of Schmelzer".

Scouting[edit]

Cals was in 1930, just after the foundation as a separate Scouting organisation, one of the first members of De Katholieke Verkenners (The Catholic Scouts). He went to the 4th World Scout Jamboree in Gödöllo, Hungary in 1933. After the liberation of the southern part of the Netherlands in 1944 he was one of the main forces in rebuilding Catholic Scouting as a separate Scouting movement in the Netherlands. During his second term as Minister of Education, Arts and Sciences, the State Secretary for Education, Arts and Sciences was his former Scout Master René Höppener.

Trivia[edit]

Between 1968 and 1970, Cals was in charge of the Dutch entry to the Expo '70 in Japan. From 1967 he was chairman of the National Advisory Committee on the amendment of the Constitution.

Cals was a hard worker but this was at the expense of his health, he died from an unspecified neurological disease in the MCH Westeinde hospital in The Hague on 30 December 1971 at the age of 57.[3]

Decorations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Dutch) Jo Cals Political Heroes
  2. ^ (Dutch) Jo Cals De Volkskrant
  3. ^ (Dutch) Mr. J. M. L. Th. (Jo) Cals Geschiedenis24

External links[edit]

Political offices
New title State Secretary for Education, Arts and Sciences
1950–1952
Succeeded by
Anna de Waal
Preceded by
Theo Rutten
Minister of Education, Arts and Sciences
1952–1963
Succeeded by
Theo Bot
Preceded by
Victor Marijnen
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
1965–1966
Succeeded by
Jelle Zijlstra
Minister of General Affairs
1965–1966