Job (biblical figure)
Job (// johb; Hebrew: אִיּוֹב, Modern Iyyov, Tiberian ʾIyyôḇ) is the central figure of the Book of Job in the Bible. Job (Arabic: أيّوب, Ayyūb) is a prophet in the Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In rabbinical literature, Iyov (אִיּוֹב) is called one of the prophets of the Gentiles.
Job is presented as a good and prosperous family man who is beset with horrendous disasters that take away all that he holds dear, including his offspring, his health, and his property. He struggles to understand his situation and begins a search for the answers to his difficulties.
Book of Job
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The Book of Job begins with an introduction to Job's character—he is described as a blessed man who lived righteously in the Land of Uz. The Lord's praise of Job prompted Satan to challenge Job's integrity, suggesting that Job served God simply because God protected him. God removed Job's protection, allowing Satan to take his wealth, his children, and his physical health (but not his life) in order to test Job's character. Despite his difficult circumstances, he did not curse God, but rather cursed the day of his birth. And although he anguished over his plight, he stopped short of accusing God of injustice.
Most of the book consists of a debate between Job and his three friends concerning Job's condition; they argue whether it was justified, and they debate solutions to his problems. Job ultimately condemns all their counsel, beliefs, and critiques of him as false. The Lord then appears to Job and his friends out of a whirlwind, saying, among many other things, "Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up now thy loins like a man; for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me" Job 38:2-3. After the Lord's command, Job was overwhelmed and said: "Behold, I am vile; what shall I answer thee? I will lay mine hand upon my mouth. Once have I spoken; but I will not answer: yea, twice; but I will proceed no further" Job 40:4.
Many interpretations read this as Job's realizing how little he knew when he says to the Lord: "My ears had heard of you, but now my eyes have seen you."Job 42:5 Other scholars and readers, however, find this explanation unsatisfactory and rather limited, as Job seems to have a competent understanding of why he has been afflicted by God (God's Will) and has spent much of the book attempting to explain to his friends that their counsel is wrong and fruitless because it contains no real knowledge or wisdom. The core concept of "knowledge and or wisdom" being as quoted from Job 28:28 "And unto man he said, Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding". Thus, Job's response to God's demand—Job falling silent before God—falls in line with his prior positional arguments he made against his friends in earlier passages. Job's argument was simply thus: that you don't argue with God or assume you know His Will by placing mankind's concepts of righteousness and wickedness on the balancing scale with earthly gains or losses. God will handle all righteousness and wickedness in His time, whether that be on Earth or in Judgment. Job's present earthly condition was God's Will under Satan's test and non-negotiable. By staying silent before God, Job stresses the point that he understood that his affliction was (God's Will) even though he despaired at not knowing why (Satan's test). Despite his confusion and grief to the mental breaking point, Job remained wise enough to understand that silence was the limit to any man's knowledge with respect to God, be he poor, rich, righteous, old, wise, powerful or wicked. All should "fear the Lord and depart from evil" no matter their current station or changes throughout life. When Job said "My ears had heard of you, but now my eyes have seen you", he was not talking about his ignorance of God; rather, he was talking about his relationship to God. Job was faithful without direct knowledge of God and without demands for special attention from God, even for a cause that all others would declare to be just. Upon Job's relief, he sees God and plays witness to his own faith in action.
God, acknowledging these virtues in Job, then rebuked the three friends and gave them instruction for remission of sin, followed by Job being restored to an even better condition than his former wealthy state. Job 42:10-17 Job was also blessed to have seven sons, and three daughters named Jemimah (which means "dove"), Keziah ("cinnamon"), and Keren-happuch ("horn of eye-makeup"). His daughters were said to be the most beautiful women in the land. "After this, Job lived another hundred and forty years, and saw his sons, and his sons' sons, even four generations." Job 42:16
The characters in the Book of Job consist of Job, his wife, his three friends, a man named Elihu, God, Satan and the sons of God. Neither the patriarchs nor any other biblical characters make an appearance.
Though not much is known about Job based on the Masoretic text, the Septuagint has a longer final verse that gives his genealogy, claiming him to be a grandson of Esau and a ruler of Edom. The longer verse reads: "And Job died, an old man and full of days: and it is written that he will rise again with those whom the Lord raises up."
See also: Jobab ben Zerah
|Books of the Ketuvim|
|Three poetic books|
|Five Megillot (Scrolls)|
"This man is described in the Syriac book as living in the land of Ausis, on the borders of Idumea and Arabia: and his name before was Jobab; and having taken an Arabian wife, he begot a son whose name was Ennon. And he himself was the son of his father Zare, one of the sons of Esau, and of his mother Bosorrha, so that he was the fifth from Abraam. And these were the kings who reigned in Edom, which country he also ruled over: first, Balac, the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dennaba: but after Balac, Jobab, who is called Job, and after him Asom, who was governor out of the country of Thaeman: and after him Adad, the son of Barad, who destroyed Madiam in the plain of Moab; and the name of his city was Gethaim. And his friends who came to him were Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Thaemanites, Baldad sovereign the Sauchaeans, Sophar king of the Minaeans."
In other religious texts
In addition to the Book of Job, Job is mentioned in several religious texts:
- He is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel.
- He is cited as someone "who held fast to all the ways of justice" in the deuterocanonical Sirach.
- He is praised for his perseverance in the Christian Epistle of James.
- He is discussed as a prophet in the Quran.
- He is the protagonist of a pseudepigraphal book called the Testament of Job.
- He is also mentioned in the Doctrine and Covenants, one of the four sacred texts of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
- In the Bahá'í writings: A lengthy tablet was written by Bahá'u'lláh, the first part of which is focused on Job. The Tablet is often referred to as the Tablet of Patience or the Tablet of Job.
Job in Judaism
A clear majority of Rabbinical Torah scholars saw Job as having in fact existed as a powerful and historically factual figure. Some Rabbinic scholars maintain that Job was in fact one of three advisors that Pharaoh consulted, prior to taking action against the increasingly multiplying "Children of Israel" mentioned in the Book of Exodus during the time of Moses' birth. The episode is mentioned in the Talmud (Tractate Sotah): Balaam gives evil advice urging Pharaoh to kill the Hebrew male new-born babies; Jethro opposes Pharaoh and tells him not to harm the Hebrews at all, and Job keeps silent and does not reveal his mind even though he was personally opposed to Pharaoh's destructive plans. It is for his silence that God subsequently punishes him with his bitter afflictions. However, the Book of Job itself contains no indication of this, and to the prophet Ezekiel, Yahweh refers to Job as a righteous man of the same calibre as Noah and Daniel.
There is a minority view among Rabbinical scholars, for instance that of Rabbi Simeon ben Laqish, that says Job never existed (Midrash Genesis Rabbah LXVII). In this view, Job was a literary creation by a prophet who used this form of writing to convey a divine message. On the other hand, the Talmud (in Tractate Baba Batra 15a–16b) goes to great lengths trying to ascertain when Job actually lived, citing many opinions and interpretations by the leading sages. Job is further mentioned in the Talmud as follows:
- Job's resignation to his fate (in Tractate Pesachim 2b).
- When Job was prosperous, anyone who associated with him even to buy from him or sell to him, was blessed (in Tractate Pesachim 112a).
- Job's reward for being generous (in Tractate Megillah 28a).
- King David, Job and Ezekiel described the Torah's length without putting a number to it (in Tractate Eruvin 21a).
Christianity accepts the genesis of Job as canon in the Old Testament and thus contains the same information regarding Job as discussed above in the Hebrew Bible. In addition, Job is mentioned in the New Testament: the Epistle of James James 5:11 cites Job as an example of patience in suffering.
Job's declaration, "I know that my redeemer liveth", Job 19:25 is considered by some Christians to be a proto-Christian statement of belief, and is the basis of several Christian hymns, as well as the opening scene of Part III of Handel's Messiah.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also confirms the existence of Job: "Thou art not yet as Job; thy friends do not contend against thee, neither charge thee with transgression, as they did Job" (D&C 121:10). Latter-day Saints hold in high esteem the life, example and righteousness of Job, and consider him a model of perseverance and endurance to the end.
Islamic views and Quranic account
In the Qur'an, Job (Arabic: أيّوب, Ayyūb) is considered a prophet in Islam. The narrative frame of Job's story in Islam is similar to the Hebrew Bible story but, in Islam, the emphasis is paid to Job remaining steadfast to God and there is no record of his bitterness or defiance, or mention of lengthy discussions with friends. However, later Muslim literature states that Job had brothers, who argued with the man about the cause of his affliction. Some Muslim commentators also spoke of Job as being the ancestor of the Romans. Muslim literature also comments on Job's time and place of prophecy, saying that he came after Joseph in the prophetic series and that he preached to his own people rather than being sent to a specified community. Tradition further recounts that Job will be the leader of the group of "those who patiently endured" in Heaven.
The Qur'an mentions Job's narrative in a concise manner. Historical literature, however, fleshes out Job's story and describes him as being a late descendant of the patriarch Noah. Similar to the Hebrew Bible narrative, Islamic tradition mentions that Satan heard the angels of God speak of Job as being the most faithful man of his generation. Job, being a chosen prophet of God, would remain committed in daily prayer and would frequently call to God, thanking God for blessing him with abundant wealth and a large family. But Satan planned to turn the God-fearing Job away from God and wanted Job to fall into disbelief and corruption. Therefore, God allowed Satan to afflict Job with distress and intense illness and suffering, as God knew that Job would never turn away from his Lord.
The Qur'an describes Job as a righteous servant of Allah (God), who was afflicted by suffering for a lengthy period of time. However, it clearly states that Job never lost faith in God and forever called to God in prayer, asking him to remove his affliction:
And Job, when he cried unto his Lord, (saying): Lo! Adversity afflicteth me, and Thou art Most Merciful of all who show mercy.
The narrative goes on to state that after many years of suffering, God ordered Job to "Strike with thy foot!". At once, Job struck the ground with his foot and God caused a cool spring of water to gush forth from the Earth, from which Job could replenish himself. The Qur'an says that it was then that God removed his pain and suffering and He returned Job's family to him, blessed him with many generations of children and granted him great wealth. In addition to the brief descriptions of Job's narrative, the Qur'an further mentions Job twice in the lists of those whom God had given special guidance, wisdom and inspiration (IV: 163) and as one of the men who received authority, the Book and the gift of prophethood (VI:84).
Local traditions regarding Job
There is at least two locations that claim to be the place of Job's ordeal, and at least three that claim to have his tomb.
In Palestinian folk tradition, Job's place of trial is Al-Jura, a village outside the town of Al Majdal—also called Ashkelon. It was there God rewarded him with a fountain of youth that removed whatever illnesses he had, and gave him back his youth. The town of Al-Joura was a place of annual festivities (4 days in all) when people of many faiths gathered and bathed in a natural spring.
The town of al-Shaykh Saad in the Hauran region in Syria has been associated with St. Job since at least the 4th-century AD. Karnein was mentioned in Eusebius' Onomasticon as a town of Bashan that was said to be the location of the house of St. Job. Egeria the pilgrim relates that a church was built over the place in March or February 384 AD, and that the place was known as the "town of Job", or "civitas Job." According to Egeria's account the body of St. Job was laid in a stone coffin below the altar. According to tradition, Hammam Ayyub is a fountain in the town where Job washed himself when he had leprosy, and is reputed to have healing powers. Another holy artifact in the town is the "Rock of Job," known in local folklore as the place where he sat when he was afflicted with the disease.
The city of Urfa (ancient Edessa) in the Harran region of southeastern Turkey also claims to be the location at which Job underwent his ordeal in a cave. The location boasts an Ottoman-style mosque and madrasa that runs as shops today. A well exists within the complex, said to be the one formed when he struck the ground with his foot as described in the Quran. The water is considered to be miraculously curing. The whole complex underwent recent restoration. The tomb of Job is located outside the city of Urfa.
The Eyüp Sultan Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey, holds the tomb of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, a companion of Prophet Muhammad, not the Biblical/Qur'anic Job (Ayyub in Arabic, Eyüp in Turkish), though some locals tend to conflate the two.
- Biblical and Quranic narratives
- Book of Job in Byzantine illuminated manuscripts
- Jobab ben Zerah
- Prophets of Islam
- Stories of The Prophets
- Testament of Job
- "JOB - In Rabbinical Literature". The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Job 42
- Coogan, Michael B. Job's Wife and Daughters, Page 388. (Oxford University Press, 2009)
- http://ecmarsh.com/lxx-kjv/job/job_042.htm Last chapter of the Greek version of the Book of Job
- Ezekiel 14:14-18
- Sirach 49:9
- James 5:11
- "Rabbi Yehudah Prero "The Passover Hagadah Maggid – Relating the Chain of Events Part 2"". Torah.org. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
- Ezekiel 14:14
- "Iyyov – Job WEBSHAS Index to the Talmud". Aishdas.org. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
- Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, note 2739: "Job (Ayub) was a prosperous man, with faith in Allah, living somewhere in the north-east corner of Arabia. He suffers from a number of calamities: his cattle are destroyed, his servants slain by the sword, and his family crushed under his roof. But he holds fast to his faith in Allah. As a further calamity he is covered with loathsome sores from head to foot. He loses his peace of mind, and he curses the day he was born. His false friends come and attribute his afflictions to sin. These "Job's comforters" are no comforters at all, and he further loses his balance of mind, but Allah recalls to him all His mercies, and he resumes his humility and gives up self-justification. He is restored to prosperity, with twice as much as he had before; his brethren and friends come back to him; he had a new family of seven sons and three fair daughters. He lived to a good old age, and saw four generations of descendants. All this is recorded in the Book of Job in the Old Testament. Of all the Hebrew writings, the Hebrew of this Book comes nearest to Arabic."
- Brandon M. Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Job, pg. 171
- Encyclopedia of Islam, A. Jefferey, Ayyub
- Qur'an 6:84
- Ibn Kathir, Stories of the Prophets, The Story of the Prophet Job
- Quran 21:83
- Quran 38:41
- W. Khalidi, 1992, "All that remains", p. 376
- Pringle, 1998, p. 239.
- Schumacher; Oliphant; le Strange, 1886, p. 194.
- Schumacher; Oliphant; le Strange, 1886, p.191.
- Eyyüb Nebi Çevre Düzenleme Projesi(Turkish)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Job.|
- Book of Job with Hebrew and English
- Themes of Job
- Summary of Job's life.
- Aristeas identifies Job with the Jobab mentioned in Genesis 36:33, a great-grandson of Esau
- An international fraternal organization for young women based on the teachings of the book of Job.
- The Story of Ayyub (Job). The same page is also available here
- "Job", Forest Park Monuments, NYC Dept of Parks & Recreation
- 360 Degree Tour of Prophet Job's Tomb in Urfa, Turkey