Joe Breeze

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Joe Breeze, 1984

Joe Breeze (born 1953) is a bicycle framebuilder, designer and advocate from Marin County, California. An early participant in the sport of mountain biking, Breeze, along with other pioneers including Gary Fisher, Charlie Kelly, and Tom Ritchey, is known for his central role in developing the mountain bike. Breeze is credited with designing and building the first all-new mountain bikes, which were called Breezers.[1] [2] [3] He built the prototype, known as Breezer #1, in 1977 and completed nine more Series I Breezers by early 1978.[4] [5] Breezer #1 is now in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History.[6]

Breeze, a road bike racer through the 1970s, was among the fastest downhill racers at Repack, mountain biking's seminal race held west of Fairfax, California. He won 10 of the 24 Repack races, which took place between 1976 and 1984.[7] Breeze is a charter member of the Mountain Bike Hall of Fame; he was inducted in 1988.[8]

Breeze developed mountain bike and road-racing bike designs through the 1980s and most of the 1990s, then focused his efforts on advocacy for bicycle transportation.[9] In the early 2000s he devoted his Breezer brand entirely to transportation, introducing in 2002 a line of bikes for everyday use, equipping them for local trips, errands in town and commuting.[10]

In 2008, Breeze sold the Breezer brand to Advanced Sports International[11] and since then has worked for the company as Breezer frame designer, designing transportation bikes, road bikes and mountain bikes under the Breezer name.[12]


Breeze grew up in Mill Valley, California, at the foot of Mount Tamalpais, just north of San Francisco. He graduated from Tamalpais High School, which at the time had extensive technical training facilities.[13] He studied architectural and engineering drafting there for four years. His father, Bill Breeze, was a machinist and owner of the Sports Car Center in Sausalito, California.[14] [15] An avid cyclist at a time when cycling was not a common activity for adults in the US, Bill Breeze sometimes commuted to work by bicycle, and he shared with his son an appreciation for efficient, lightweight vehicles and for the bicycle as king of such vehicles. The two often discussed the properties of metals and technical aspects of bicycle design.[16] In 1974 Joe Breeze took a course in the art of bicycle framebuilding from Albert Eisentraut[17] in Oakland, California, and began to build his own custom-tailored road racing frames, using his father's machine shop at their home in Mill Valley. He also studied Machine and Metals Technology at College of Marin from 1974 to 1976.[8]

Breeze had taken up cycling seriously as a teenager in the late 1960s, sometimes going on rides of a few hundred miles. He so enjoyed cycling and saw such value in the bicycle as a vehicle, he wanted to spread the word. In 1970 he took up road-bike racing, figuring that publicity about races could show people how fast and far a bicycle could go. Breeze also studied bicycle history and while traveling for races he searched for early bicycles. He hoped to promote cycling by restoring and displaying examples from the 1890s, the high point of bicycle technology.[8]

Development of the mountain bike[edit]

Joe Breeze raced road bikes throughout the 1970s, eventually racing in the top category.[18] By 1972 Breeze was also competing in cyclocross races and often rode on the trails of Mount Tamalpais.[19] In 1973, he and Velo Club Tamalpais teammate Marc Vendetti were looking for fine early bikes and found a less elegant relic: a 1941 Schwinn-built balloon-tire bike. Vendetti had a few years earlier ridden similar 1930s-40s “paper boy” bikes on Tamalpais at the periphery of the mountain's seminal group of off-road riders, the Larkspur Canyon Gang. Encouraged by Vendetti, Breeze bought the old fat-tire bike for $5, stripped off its extraneous parts and rode it down Mount Tamalpais. He loved it.[18][20]

Breeze, Vendetti and Velo Club Tamalpais teammate Otis Guy were soon riding Mount Tamalpais trails together regularly. They and other teammates including Gary Fisher, and other enthusiasts from Marin located old fat-tire “ballooner” bikes of many makes, used them off-road and settled on Schwinns built between 1937 and 1944 as the best. They would remove extraneous parts from the bikes, strip them down to their original paint and ride them on Marin's rugged fire roads and trails.[21][22][8] Some, including Gary Fisher, added parts such as gears and derailleurs to their ballooners.[23]

In 1976 Breeze began to compete in Repack races. A downhill time trial on fire roads in the hills west of Fairfax, California, Repack brought together riders from around Mount Tamalpais who stripped down older bikes for off-road use and fitted rugged parts to them. Repack served as a testing ground for off-road bikes.[24]

The heavy old fat-tire bike frames, made of mild steel, were not standing up to the rigors of mountain biking. Breeze was asked by Charlie Kelly to build a mountain bike frame and in early 1977 Breeze agreed to do so.[25][26][27] While working on the design for the mountain bike, Breeze took orders to make mountain bikes for several other Marin County off-road cycling enthusiasts. He completed the prototype (Breezer #1) in Fall 1977 and rode it to victory at Repack.[18] Breeze finished nine more Breezer mountain bikes by June 1978. He built up the bikes with all-new parts, which he sourced from around the world.[28] Those ten Breezer Series 1 bikes, made of chrome-moly alloy steel, are widely considered the first modern mountain bikes.[29][30][31]

The first ten Breezer mountain bikes can be recognized by their twin lateral tubes, which Breeze included to stiffen the long frames for high-speed tracking.[32] Breeze revised his designs shortly after, and shared his ideas for the next generation of mountain bikes with other framebuilders, including Tom Ritchey (of Palo Alto, 50 miles south of Marin) who built his first mountain bike frames in 1979.[33] Ritchey became the frame supplier to the Marin County company MountainBikes, founded in 1979 by Gary Fisher and Charlie Kelly.[34] The mountain bike's progression from local San Francisco Bay Area builders to the larger industry was complete in Fall 1981, when Specialized Bicycle Components introduced a lower-priced production mountain bike, the Specialized Stumpjumper, built in Japan and based on the Ritchey-built bikes sold by Fisher and Kelly.[35]

Early mountain bike racing, events[edit]

Joe Breeze raced in 19 of the 24 Repack races, winning 10 times.[36] Twenty-two of the Repack races, downhill time trials organized and promoted by Charlie Kelly, were held from 1976 to 1979. Repack is known as mountain biking's first recorded competition. The last Repack race in 1979 was filmed by a TV crew for a San Francisco Bay Area news program, KPIX Evening Magazine.[37] That filmed account aired nationally, spreading the word about mountain biking to a larger audience. The Repack race was revived for two more runs, in 1983 and 1984, becoming the first officially sanctioned downhill mountain bike race.[38] [39] A mosaic tribute to Repack was installed in downtown Fairfax in 2013.[40]

In 1978, Joe Breeze was one of five riders from Marin County to travel to Crested Butte, Colorado, to participate in the Pearl Pass Tour, a two-day, off-road ride from Crested Butte to Aspen, over 12,700 foot Pearl Pass. Joe Breeze, Charlie Kelly, and Wende Cragg rode their 1977 and 1978 Breezers, while the other participants, including Gary Fisher and Michael Castelli of Marin County and several Crested Butte residents, rode modified Schwinns from the 1930s to 1950s.[41] [42] [43] Crested Butte became an important destination for mountain biking; the Pearl Pass Tour, founded in 1976, is the sport's longest running annual two-day event.[44]

In 1983, Breeze and several others founded NORBA (National Off-Road Bicycle Association), the first sanctioning organization for off-road bicycle racing. Breeze designed the NORBA logo[45] and championed the rule requiring that racers do their own repairs during races. He maintained that a self-sufficiency rule for racing would ensure that manufacturers would keep their focus on durable bikes for all riders.[46] [47] NORBA is now part of USA Cycling.[48]

Breezer mountain and road bikes in 1980s and 1990s[edit]

In 1980-81 Breeze built a second series of Breezer mountain bikes with oversize tubing in a diamond frame, and in 1982 to 1985 he built a third series. Breeze continued to develop and refine his mountain bike designs in the 1980s and 1990s.[49] In 1986 he designed the American Breezer, an aluminum mountain bike built in St. Cloud, Minnesota.[50] In the 1990s he designed a line of steel and aluminum Breezer bikes sold worldwide. Mountain bike models included the Breezer Lightning, Jet Stream, Thunder, Storm, Beamer, Twister, and Tornado.[49] The 1993 Breezer Venturi, a road bike, featured compact geometry,[51] which later became standard in the industry.[52]

Bicycle transportation[edit]

Breeze's long-term interest has been to see more people using bicycles in everyday life and not only for recreation.[53] [54] [55] [12] On a cycling trip in Europe in 1971 he saw excellent bicycle infrastructure in the Netherlands, and people of all ages using bikes for daily transportation; this suggested possibilities for the United States that continued to inspire him through the mountain bike boom of the 1980s and 1990s.[56]

Breeze has said that the mountain bike, being easy to ride and thus appealing to non-cyclists,[57] "got more Americans onto bikes than any other bike since the 1890s."[12] He observed in the 1990s, however, that as high-end mountain bike design (including his own) was geared increasingly toward race bikes, lower-priced mountain bikes followed suit and thus the bikes became less accessible to the masses. "The mountain bike opened cycling up to a lot of people by being friendlier than road bikes," Breeze wrote in 1997. "Maybe it's time for another bike to do that again."[58] His 1996 Breezer Ignaz X cruiser was the first bike he designed for town use.[59] (The bike's name was a tribute to Ignaz Schwinn, the Schwinn Bicycle Company founder who popularized modern "balloon" tires in the 1930s, and also to the Schwinn Excelsior X bike that was the inspiration for much of Breeze's early off-road riding.[60])

In the late 1990s Breeze devoted himself full-time to advocating for bicycle transportation, working with government agencies to make streets more bicycle-friendly and with grass-roots organizations to promote the bicycle as a practical mode of transportation. Transportation cycling, he said, addresses many issues at once: obesity, oil dependence, traffic congestion, global warming, lack of time for exercise.[61] He and other Marin County bicycle advocates visited Washington, DC to advocate for better cycling infrastructure and a national Safe Routes to School program.[62] For the Marin County Bicycle Coalition, he created in 1998 and periodically revises a detailed map of Marin's current and potential bicycle routes.[63] [64]

Through the latter half of the 1990s, Breeze had been urging the U.S. bicycle industry to start producing bikes that non-athletes could use to get places in daily life.[58] [65] In 2001, still seeing a need in the United States for bikes fully equipped for errands and commutes, Breeze devoted his own Breezer brand to transportation. He introduced in 2002 a line of bikes designed for everyday, practical use that integrated fenders, racks, and generator lights.[10] With model names like Uptown, Villager, Citizen, Liberty and Greenway, these Breezer bikes were similar to European utility bikes in being fully equipped, but Breeze designed them to be lighter and more ergonomically efficient.[66] [67] [68] [69] Since then the bicycle transportation sector, long a staple in other parts of the world, has become an important bicycle market in the United States.[70] [71]

In 2008, Breeze sold his Breezer brand to Advanced Sports International of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,[72] and since then has worked for the company as Breezer frame designer. The arrangement allowed him to concentrate on design and product development and create more bikes for a wide range of purposes.[73] The company introduced Joe Breeze's new line of Breezer mountain bikes in 2010. Breeze's current designs include transportation bikes, road bikes and mountain bikes.[74]

Film; museum collections and exhibits[edit]

Joe Breeze, along with many others involved in the early history of mountain bikes, was featured in the 2007 documentary film Klunkerz: A Film About Mountain Bikes.[75] [76]

Joe at Marin Museum of Bicycling

Breezer #1 (1977) was on display at the Oakland Museum, Cowell Hall of California History,[77]

from 1985 to 2011.[78] In 2012 it became part of the collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History[79] in Washington, DC. Breezer #2 (1978), which Joe Breeze built for MountainBikes co-founder Charlie Kelly, is on display at the Mountain Bike Hall of Fame, part of the Marin Museum of Bicycling in Fairfax, California.[80]

Breezer #9 is on display at Shimano's Bicycle Museum Cycle Center in Sakai City, Japan.[81] [82] Several Breezer bikes from the 1980s and 1990s are in the collection of The Museum of Mountain Bike Art & Technology in Statesville, NC.[83] Breeze's own 1982 (Series 3) Breezer mountain bike is on display at the US Bicycling Hall of Fame in Davis, California.[84]

A major exhibition on the history of the mountain bike in Northern California, at San Francisco International Airport's SFO Museum (July 2012 to February 2013),[85] [86] displayed 27 bikes and many related artifacts. The show was called "From Repack to Rwanda: The Origins, Evolution, and Global Reach of the Mountain Bike." Included were Joe Breeze's 1941 Schwinn-built BF Goodrich[87] modified by Breeze in 1973 for off-road riding, and Breezer #6,[88] built by Joe Breeze in 1977-78 for rider-photographer Wende Cragg.[89]

Joe Breeze, Otis Guy, Marc Vendetti and others are co-founders of the Marin Museum of Bicycling in Fairfax, California, which opened to the public in June 2015.[90] Joe Breeze is Curator of the museum, which displays bicycles from the late 1860s to the present and functions as a cycling cultural center.[91]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ League of American Wheelmen, “Change Agents for Cycling” Archived 2012-09-07 at the Wayback Machine American Bicyclist, Fall 2005, pp. 10-19. (p. 15 "Joe Breeze," by Tim Blumenthal.) Retrieved 1 March 2013
  2. ^ “10 Men Who Changed the Sport,” Mountain Bike Action, December 1991, pp. 99-104
  3. ^ Koeppel, Dan. “Joe Breeze Wants to Change the World. Again.” Bicycling, Vol. 44 Issue 8, September 2003, pp. 32-40.
  4. ^ Frank J. Berto, The Birth of Dirt: Origins of Mountain Biking. San Francisco: Van der Plas Publications, 1999. Pp 43-45. ISBN 1-892495-10-4.
  5. ^ “Joe Breeze /Inducted 1988" Archived 2009-07-17 at the Wayback Machine Mountain Bike Hall of Fame. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  6. ^ “Breezer 1” Smithsonian Institution. Collections Search Center, ID # 2012.0066.01. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  7. ^ Frank J. Berto, The Birth of Dirt: Origins of Mountain Biking. San Francisco: Van der Plas Publications, 1999. Page 41. ISBN 1-892495-10-4.
  8. ^ a b c d “Joe Breeze /Inducted 1988” Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine Mountain Bike Hall of Fame (c.2001-2013)
  9. ^ David Hoffman, “Out of the Woods and Back Into Town” Urban Velo Issue 9, September 2008 (pp. 70-74).
  10. ^ a b John Markoff, “Big Hopes for Commuting by Bike” New York Times, October 10, 2002.
  11. ^ “Breezer: First Name in Mountain Bikes Sold” Archived 2013-04-11 at Mountain Bike Action, October, 2008 (10/1/2008)
  12. ^ a b c “An Interview with Joe Breeze” EcoVelo, August 20, 2010.
  13. ^ “Tamalpais High School, Notable alumni and students." Wikipedia.
  14. ^ “San Francisco Region Hall of Fame 2010.” Archived 2015-02-15 at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Region Sports Car Club of America. (31 July 2012.)
  15. ^ “Joe Breeze’s Photos & Memories,” Tam’s Old Race Car Site. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  16. ^ Matt Weibe, “Joe Breeze Celebrating 20 Years of Innovations,” Bicycle Retailer and Industry News, Volume 5, No 15 (September 1, 1996), page 82.
  17. ^ “Albert Eisentraut” Classic July 3, 2012.
  18. ^ a b c “Joe Breeze /Inducted 1988” Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine Mountain Bike Hall of Fame (c.2001-2013)
  19. ^ “From Whence We Came” Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine Merida Karapoti Classic. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  20. ^ “Larkspur Canyon Gang” Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine Mountain Bike Hall of Fame & Museum. (2009)
  21. ^ Outer Edge Mag, “Origins of mountain biking: Joe Breeze Interview” on YouTube. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  22. ^ Espinoza, Zapata. “Memories of Marin: Taking a Trip Back to Where it All Began.” Mountain Bike Action, May 1991. Pp. 48-56.
  23. ^ Berto, Frank J. (2008). The Birth of Dirt (2nd ed.). Cycle Publishing/Van der Plas Publications. pp. 13, 36–37. ISBN 978-1-892495-61-7. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  24. ^ Kelly, Charlie “Repack Page” Charlie Kelly’s Website. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  25. ^ Berto, Frank J. (2008). The Birth of Dirt (2nd ed.). Cycle Publishing/Van der Plas Publications. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-892495-61-7. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  26. ^ Kelly, Charlie “Charlie Kelly’s Mountain Bike Hubsite” Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  27. ^ Kelly, Charles. “The Dirt Rag Interview with Joe Breeze,” Dirt Rag #27, November 1992, pp 22-24.
  28. ^ Sutton, Rob “Interview: Joe Breeze, Founding Father of Mountain Biking.”, November 19, 2009.
  29. ^ “Breezer Timeline." Museum of Mountain Bike Art & Technology. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  30. ^ Berto, Frank J. (2008). The Birth of Dirt (2nd ed.). Cycle Publishing/Van der Plas Publications. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-892495-61-7. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  31. ^ “Greatest Mountain Bikes of All Time,” Mountain Bike Action, December 1991. Pp. 58-68.
  32. ^ “Exhibitions - International Terminal. From Repack to Rwanda/ Image 3”, SFO Museum. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  33. ^ Brandt,Jobst, “A Brief History of the Mountain Bike”, October 2005.
  34. ^ Kelly, Charlie “MountainBikes History and Advertising” Charlie Kelly’s Website. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  35. ^ Ruibal, Sal “Still Shredding After All These Years.” USA Today, March 22, 2006.
  36. ^ Charlie Kelly, “Repack Results” Charlie Kelly’s Mountain Bike Hubsite. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  37. ^ "Wende Cragg Pictures." Mountain Bike Hall of Fame - Archives – Photos (photos 43-54). Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  38. ^ Charlie Kelly, “Repack Page” Charlie Kelly’s Mountain Bike Hubsite. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  39. ^ Mike Ferrentino, “It Was 20 Years Ago Today: Repack’s Birthday...” Bike, March 1997, pp 61-63.
  40. ^ “Repack Mosaic" Archived 2013-01-22 at the Wayback Machine Fairfax Chamber of Commerce California. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  41. ^ Upslope Brewing, “Crested Butte to Aspen Pearl Pass Klunker Tour, September 1978.” Upslope Brewing Co., April 14, 2010.
  42. ^ Charlie Kelly, “Crested Butte to Aspen” Charlie Kelly’s Website. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  43. ^ Charles Kelly and Nick Crane, Richard’s Mountain Bike Book. Oxford Illustrated Press 1988. Pages 37-46. ISBN 0-946609-78-0
  44. ^ “Pearl Pass Tour Info” Archived 2013-09-23 at the Wayback Machine Mountain Bike Hall of Fame. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  45. ^ Charlie Kelly, “NORBA History” Charlie Kelly’s Website. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  46. ^ Joe Breeze, “Jack Ingram Passes Away.” Archived 2010-12-14 at the Wayback Machine Decline December 19, 2007.
  47. ^ Amici Design, Fat Tire: A Celebration of the Mountain Bike. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1999. (Foreword by Joe Breeze pp. 5-10.) Page 8. ISBN 0-8118-1982-5
  48. ^ “NORBA” USA Cycling. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  49. ^ a b “Breezer Timeline” Museum of Mountain Bike Art & Technology. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  50. ^ “American Bicycle’s Breezer,” Mountain Bike Action, December 1988, pp. 44-47, 83
  51. ^ “Hammering 6 Evolutionary Road Bikes” Road Bike Action, November 1993, pp. 44-57.
  52. ^ Pippin Cvg, “Breezer 2001 Venturi Older Racing Bike”, October 12, 2009.
  53. ^ Ernst Pedlar, “Mountain Bike Profile: Joe Breeze” Mountain Bike, July 1985, pp. 20-22.
  54. ^ Joe Breeze, “More Than a Sport,” Cycle California, Volume 2 Number 4, May 1996, p. 2.
  55. ^ Ulrike Rodrigues, “Breeze’s Passion for City Bikes and Efficiency,” Momentum, August/September 2006.
  56. ^ Dan Koeppel. “Joe Breeze Wants to Change the World. Again.” Bicycling, Vol. 44 Issue 8, September 2003, pp. 32-40. (p.36)
  57. ^ Joe Breeze, “A Bike for the Masses,” Bicycle Guide, May 1997, page 90.
  58. ^ a b Joe Breeze, “A Bike for the Masses” Bicycle Guide, May 1997, page 90.
  59. ^ Don Cuerdon. “The Original Cruise King” Bicycling, Vol. 38 Issue 4, April 1997, p, 125.
  60. ^ David Hoffman, “Out of the Woods and Back Into Town” Urban Velo, Issue 9, September 2008, pp. 71-74.
  61. ^ Winston O’Grady, “When Bikes Rule the Road” Southwest Airlines Spirit Magazine, Volume 16 No. 5, May 2007, pp. 112-121.
  62. ^ “Deb Hubsmith to Present National Safe Routes to Schools Proposal to Congressional Briefing on April 7, 2005” Archived December 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Marin County Bicycle Coalition, April 2005.
  63. ^ “MCBC’s Joe Breeze Named ‘Advocate of the Year’ at Interbike” Marin County Bicycle Coalition Weekly Bulletin , October 23, 2003.
  64. ^ Marin County Bicycle Coalition, “The Marin Bicycle Map” Archived 2013-03-15 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  65. ^ Joe Breeze, “Riding Green: Take the Next Step in the Bicycle’s Evolution” Bicycle Dealer Showcase, Volume 29 Number 1, January 1998, pp 38-40.
  66. ^ Rick Polito, “Transportation Transformation” Marin Independent-Journal, November 3, 2002. Pp. D1 – D2.
  67. ^ Doug Donaldson, "A Better City Bicycle," Organic Style, March–April 2003, p. 25.
  68. ^ John Schubert, "Road Test: The Breezer Liberty; Not just a utility bike—a tour de force in design. Archived 2010-06-13 at the Wayback Machine Adventure Cyclist, January–February 2005, pp 40-42.
  69. ^ Matt Phillips, "Breezer Uptown 8." Bicycling, April 2007, Vol. 48 Issue 3, page 38.
  70. ^ Nancy Keates, “The New Business Cycle; Makers Push Comfy Bikes Aimed at Commuters,” Wall Street Journal, New York, N.Y] 06 Oct 2006: W.1.
  71. ^ Chris Baskind, "12 cool urban bicycles ready to replace your car” Mother Nature Network, March 20, 2010.
  72. ^ “Breezer: First Name in Mountain Bikes Sold” Archived 2013-04-11 at Mountain Bike Action, 1 October 2008.
  73. ^ Jack Sweeney, “An Interview with Joe Breeze of Breezer Bicycles", December 13, 2010.
  74. ^ “Breezer Bikes” Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  75. ^ “Klunkerz: A Film About Mountain Bikes.” Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  76. ^ Jeff, “Klunkerz: THE Film About Mountain Bikes.”, March 13, 2009.
  77. ^ Claudia Jurmain & James Rawls, editors, California: A Place, A People, A Dream. The Oakland Museum/Chronicle Books 1986. Page 33. ISBN 0-87701-386-1.
  78. ^ Aquadog, “Breezer #1 at US Bicycling Hall of Fame Opening”, November 3, 2011.
  79. ^ “Breezer 1” ID # 2012.0066.01. Smithsonian Institution, Collections Search Center.
  80. ^ Staff, WIRED Video. "The Roots of Dirt | The Design Evolution of the Early Mountain Bike". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-05-21.
  81. ^ Andrew in Japan, “Breezer” Dirt Rag Magazine, August 8, 2008.
  82. ^ "Japanese Bike Museum”, January 8, 2009.
  83. ^ Museum of Mountain Bike Arts & Technology, “Click links below to view the Breezer bikes in our collection” Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  84. ^ Repack Rider, “US Bicycling Hall of Fame Induction” The Paceline Forum, November 6, 2012.
  85. ^ San Francisco Airport Commission, “Exhibitions - International Terminal. From Repack to Rwanda: The Origins, Evolution, and Global Reach of the Mountain Bike.” SFO Museum, 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  86. ^ Gary J. Boulanger, “From Repack to Rwanda - Mountain bike history on display”, August 8, 2012.
  87. ^ San Francisco Airport Commission, “From Repack to Rwanda: The Origins, Evolution, and Global Reach of the Mountain Bike.” Image 1. SFO Museum. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  88. ^ San Francisco Airport Commission, “From Repack to Rwanda: The Origins, Evolution, and Global Reach of the Mountain Bike.” Image 3. SFO Museum. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  89. ^ “Wende Cragg / Inducted 1989." Archived 2008-06-24 at the Wayback Machine Mountain Bike Hall of Fame. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  90. ^ "Press Room". Marin Museum of Bicycling. Retrieved 2017-05-21.
  91. ^ "Discoveries: New mountain-biking museum opens in Marin, birthplace of the sport". sacbee. Retrieved 2017-05-21.