Joe D'Amato

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Joe D'Amato
Joe D'Amato Cannes 1996.jpg
Born Aristide Massaccesi
(1936-12-15)15 December 1936
Rome, Italy
Died 23 January 1999(1999-01-23) (aged 62)
Rome, Italy
Occupation Film director
Years active 1961–1999

Joe D'Amato (birth name: Aristide Massaccesi; 15 December 1936 in Rome – 23 January 1999 in Rome) was a highly prolific[1] Italian film producer, director and cinematographer[2] who is best known for his horror and adult films.[3][4]

In the horror genre, he is above all remembered for his films Beyond the Darkness, Antropophagus and Absurd.[5] Among his best known erotic films are his entries into the Black Emanuelle series of films starring Laura Gemser[6] and his horror/pornography crossover films Erotic Nights of the Living Dead and Porno Holocaust.[7]

Biography[edit]

Early life and work[edit]

Joe D'Amato was born on December 15, 1936 in Rome, Italy.[3] He was the son of a chief photographic technician.[8] D'Amato began his work in film at the age of 14 assisting in the dubbing of Italian film productions.[8] He worked as a still photographer on the set of the 1952 film production The Golden Coach[8] and eventually moved on to work as a camera operator and cinematographer.[8] His first film as a cinematographer was Silvio Amadio's No Man's Island (Italian: L'Isola delle Svedesi).[8] D'Amato's work for the next few years was devoted to cinematography on Italian productions such as Umberto Lenzi's A Quiet Place to Kill, Massimo Dallamano's What Have You Done to Solange?[8] and some of Demofilo Fidani's low-budget spaghetti westerns[9].

Directing in the 1970s[edit]

D'Amato took on the role of director for the first time in 1972. He started out with a number of small western films and decamerotici which he partly directed, partly co-directed [10] before going on to direct the war film Heroes in Hell and the gothic horror film Death Smiles on a Murderer (1973), both starring Klaus Kinski[11]. D'Amato briefly relinquished directing and reverted to cinematography in films such as Luigi Batzella's The Devil's Wedding Night[12], Steve Carver's The Arena[13] and Alberto De Martino's The Antichrist[12] before he finally returned to directing with the adventure film Red Coats[14], in which he used the name "Joe D'Amato" for the first time.[15] It turned a good profit, and D'Amato later considered it his best film in this period.[16]

Emanuelle's Revenge (1975), which D'Amato co-directed with Bruno Mattei (who remains uncredited because D'Amato was a "rising name"),[17] was one of several films following the successful French erotic film Emmanuelle.[18] In retrospect, it was also a kind of turning point in D'Amato's career, being his first pornographic film - though still softcore.[17]

At this time, producer Bitto Albertini introduced Laura Gemser to D'Amato who would star in a series of six Black Emanuelle films. Although the main character's name alluded to the original French Emmanuelle, it was spelled slightly differently in order to avoid a plagiarism lawsuit.[19] Also, the character itself is different: Black Emanuelle is an international reporter and photographer who travels to exotic locations.[18] Black Emanuelle (1975), the first film of the series, was directed by Albertini [20], while the remaining five films were D'Amato's work,[19] who added some violence and horror to the series such as the fake snuff film footage in Emanuelle in America[21], a gang rape scene in Emanuelle Around the World (1977) [22], and the cannibal film Emanuelle and the Last Cannibals[23].[12]

In 1978, D'Amato went to Santo Domingo for the first time to shoot the erotic horror film Papaya, Love Goddess of the Cannibals[24] and the mercenaries at war film Tough to Kill, which was released in 1979.[25]

1979 proved to be a particularly good year for D'Amato.[26] He directed the violent erotic thriller Il porno shop della settima strada on location in New York,[27] the nunsploitation film Images in a Convent[28] and the horror film Buio Omega, a remake of Mino Guerrini's The Third Eye shot in South Tyrol[29][29][26][30] in June before leaving a second time for Santo Domingo in July.[31]

Early 1980s[edit]

In 1979 and 1980, D'Amato shot a number of films in Santo Domingo, some of which combined hardcore pornography and horror such as Porno Holocaust [32] and Erotic Nights of the Living Dead.[33][19]

After his return from the Caribbean, D'Amato continued to include gore in his films with titles like Antropophagus (1980) and its follow-up, the slasher film Absurd (1982).[34][35][36]

Although D'Amato's early 1980s films were for the most part either horror or adult films, he occasionally made fantasy and science fiction films as well.[37][38] The films were often inspired by other productions of the era. Caligula - The Untold Story built on Tinto Brass's Caligula, the first two films of the Ator series (Ator, the Fighting Eagle and Ator 2 - L'invincibile Orion) on Conan the Barbarian, while Endgame and 2020 Texas Gladiators were shot after the success of the first two Mad Max films.[37][38]

Late 1980s[edit]

In 1985, D'Amato left hardcore pornography behind and exclusively shot horror and softcore films until his return to hardcore in 1993.[39]

At the beginning of this period, D'Amato directed four softcore dramas set during fascism in Italy and starring Lilli Carati and Laura Gemser: The Alcove, The Pleasure, A Lustful Mind, and Midnight Gigolo. The four films all recall the style and themes of Tinto Brass's The Key, while their plots and characters are not interconnected in any way.[40]

After these films, D'Amato's softcore films were mostly shot in the United States and were predominantly takes on popular American films.[38] First, D'Amato went to New Orleans to shoot two films starring Jessica Moore as the novelist Sarah Asproon: 11 Days 11 Nights (1987) and Top Model (1988).[41] The first one was inspired by Adrian Lyne's 9½ Weeks and a huge commercial success.[42] In 1989, D'Amato's main actress was Valentine Demy with whom he made Afternoon and Dirty Love, the latter reminiscent of another of Adrian Lyne's films, Flashdance.[43] After these, D'Amato shot two films with Tara Buckman: Blue Angel Cafe and High Finance Woman.[44]

In between the softcore films, D'Amato produced other directors' films, which included Michele Soavi's Stage Fright and Ghosthouse by Umberto Lenzi.[38][45]. He also partially directed two horror films he produced, Killing Birds and Deep Blood (1989).[46]

1990s and death[edit]

At the beginning of the new decade, D'Amato revisited his Ator series with a concluding entry entitled Quest for the Mighty Sword.[47] Then, he let the character of Sarah Asproon return in 11 Days 11 Nights 2, again set in New Orleans and this time played by Kristine Rose.[48]. With Rose, D'Amato also directed Passion's Flower, a remake of The Postman Always Rings Twice, before shooting two softcore films starring Carmen di Pietro in 1991, both with a more violent angle than the preceding ones: Devil in the Flesh follows a group of mercenaries who encounter a group of nurses at an isolated hospital, and Dangerous Obsession tells of a woman who turns the tables on her assailant.[49][50] After these, D'Amato directed Frankenstein 2000 (1992), his last horror film, which combined a modern take on the traditional Frankenstein story with elements of the rape and revenge film.[51]

In 1993, inspired by the success of the Chinese erotic comedy Sex and Zen (1991), D'Amato then went to the Philippines to shoot a number of Asian themed softcore films, for which he often used Chinese pseudonyms.[52] Among them are such diverse films as Chinese Kamasutra, China and Sex and I racconti della camera rossa, the latter two structurally reminiscent of Italian decamerotici.[52]

Later in 1993, D'Amato went back to predominantly producing and directing hardcore pornography.[53] In order to return to adult filmmaking more easily, D'Amato initially teamed up with Luca Damiano with whom he shot roughly 20 films before continuing on his own.[54] Although VHS had become the standard for adult films, D'Amato continued to shoot on 35mm film for a few years before finally transitioning to VHS for his last productions in 1997 and 1998.[55] D'Amato's adult films are very rarely without a plot. Among his best known from this period are his collaborations with Rocco Siffredi (Tarzan X - Shame of Jane, Marco Polo, Marquis de Sade, Torero) and Kelly Trump (Messalina, Kamasutra, Lolita), his pornographic versions of Shakespearean drama (Juliet & Romeo, Anthony and Cleopatra, Othello 2000), westerns (Outlaws, Calamity Jane), swashbucklers (Raiders, Selen the Girl from Treasure Island), the bible (Sodom & Gamorra), Greco-Roman mythology (Olympus, Amor & Psyche, Ulysses, Hercules - A Sex Adventure), Roman emperors (Nero - Orgy of Fire, Caligula - The Deviant Emperor) and other famous people (Robin Hood, Goya, Amadeus Mozart, Thief of Love - Giacomo Casanova, Rudy - Valentino's story, Scarface).[56] In the midst of shooting adult films, D'Amato directed the erotic thriller The Hyena which received a theatrical release and represents a singular and isolated attempt at returning to genre films.[57]

Joe D'Amato died of a heart attack in Rome on January 23, 1999.[58] According to Luigi Cozzi, his death happened unexpectedly while he was busy preparing a new film.[59] His last films were the pirate film I predatori delle Antille (1998) and the adult film Showgirl (1999).[60][61]

Pseudonyms[edit]

Aristide Massaccesi did not adopt the anglicized pseudonym Joe D'Amato until he directed Giubbe Rosse.[8] In his book Italian Horror Film Directors, Louis Paul observed that Joe D'Amato became the name Massaccessi was most associated with, even more than his birth name.[8]

D'Amato had used several pseudonyms through his career, these included Peter Newton, Kevin Mancuso, David Hills, Michael Wotruba, Peter McCoy, Luca Damiano, Alexandre Borsky, Alexander Borsky, Joan Russell, Dario Donati and Lucky Farr Delly.[58][62] The name Lucky Farr Delly was also used by directors Demofilo Fidani and Franco Lo Cascio.[38]

Legacy[edit]

The Joe D'Amato Horror Festival, with the art direction of Paolo Ruffini, was held in Pietrasanta, in his honor.[63]

Selected filmography[edit]

Title Year Credited as Notes Ref(s)
Director Producer Writer Cinematographer Other
È l'amor che mi rovina 1951 Yes Still photographer [64]
L'inafferrabile 12 Yes Still photographer [64]
The Golden Coach 1952 Yes Still photographer [64]
Gold of Rome 1961 Yes Assistant cameraman [65]
Hercules in the Haunted World Yes Assistant cameraman [64]
Il mare 1962 Yes Assistant cameraman [65]
Canzoni in bikini Yes Assistant cameraman [65]
Contempt 1963 Yes Assistant cameraman [65]
Il mito (La violenza e l'amore) Yes Cameraman [65]
Due mattacchioni al Moulin Rouge 1964 Yes Cameraman [65]
Secret of the Sphinx Yes Cameraman [65]
Soldati e caporali 1965 Yes Cameraman [65]
Il viaggio di nozze all'italiana 1966 Yes Cameraman [65]
Trap for Seven Spies Yes Cameraman [65]
Lo scippo Yes Cameraman [65]
È mezzanotte... butta giù il cadavere Yes Cameraman [65]
Thompson 1880 Yes Cameraman [65]
The Taming of the Shrew Yes Assistant Cameraman [65]
Maigret a Pigalle Yes Cameraman [65]
Cinque della vendetta Yes Cameraman [65]
Due once di piombo (Il mio nome è Pecos) Yes Cameraman [65]
Master Stroke Yes Cameraman [65]
Red Blood, Yellow Gold 1967 Yes Cameraman [65]
Psychopath Yes Cameraman [65]
Pecos Cleans Up Yes Cameraman [65]
Your Turn to Die Yes Cameraman [65]
Straniero ... fatti il segno della croce! Yes Cameraman, assistant director, actor [65][66]
Rose rosse per il führer Yes Cameraman [65]
I'll Sell My Skin Dearly Yes Cameraman [65]
Vietnam, guerra senza fronte Yes Yes Second unit cameraman[64] [67][65]
Shoot Twice 1968 Yes Cameraman [65]
Seven Times Seven Yes Cameraman [65]
A Woman on Fire Yes Cameraman [65]
Bury Them Deep Yes Cameraman [65]
Una storia d'amore 1969 Yes Cameraman [65]
Orgasmo Yes Cameraman [65]
Passa Sartana ... è l'ombra della tua morte Yes Cameraman [65]
Pelle di bandito Yes [65]
No Man's Island (L'isola delle svedesi) Yes [68][65]
Disperatamente l'estate scorsa Yes [65]
Inginocchiati straniero... I cadaveri non fanno ombra! 1970 Yes [65]
Arrivano Django e Sartana... è la fine Yes [65]
A Barrel Full of Dollars 1971 Yes [65]
A Fistful of Death Yes [65]
Armiamoci e partite! Yes [65]
Ben and Charlie 1972 Yes [69][70]
What Have You Done to Solange? Yes [71]
Crime Boss Yes [72]
La gatta in calore Yes [65]
All'ultimo minuto (TV series, episodes Il rapido delle 13,30 and Dramma in alto mare) Yes [73]
Le notti peccaminose di Pietro l'Aretino Yes [74]
The Killer Is on the Phone Yes [65]
Go Away! Trinity Has Arrived in Eldorado ?a Yes [75]
Bounty hunter in Trinity Yesf Yes Yes [76][77]
More Sexy Canterbury Tales Yesg Yes Yes [78]
Fra' Tazio da Velletri 1973 Yesh Directed a third of the film. [79]
The Devil's Wedding Night Yes Yes Only directed some scenes. [80][81]
Death Smiles on a Murderer Yes Yes Yes Yes Camera operator, story author [82]
Novelle licenziose di vergini vogliose Yes Yes Yes Yes Editor [83]
Heroes in Hell Yes Yes Yes [84][85]
Counselor at Crime Yes [86]
Mean Frank and Crazy Tony Yes [87]
Pugni, pirati e karaté Yes Yes Yes [88]
Diary of a Roman Virgin Yes Yes Yes [89]
The Arena 1974 Yes Yes 2nd unit director [90][91]
Brigitte, Laura, Ursula, Monica, Raquel, Liz, Maria, Florinda, Barbara, Claudia e Sofia, le chiamo tutte... anima mia Yes [74]
Professore venga accompagnato dai suoi genitori Yes [74]
Il colonnello Buttiglione diventa generale Yes [74]
The Antichrist Yes [92]
Challenge to White Fang Yes [93][94]
Cormack of the Mounties 1975 Yes Yes Yes [95][96]
Cassiodoro il più duro del Pretorio Yes [97]
Buttiglione diventa capo del servizio segreto Yes [74]
Scandal in the Family Yes [74]
Emanuelle's Revenge Yes Yes Yes Yes [98][17]
Strange Shadows in an Empty Room 1976 Yes [99]
Voto di castità Yes Yes [100]
Black Cobra Woman Yes Yes Yes [101][102][103]
Emanuelle in Bangkok Yes Yes [104]
Emanuelle in America Yes Yes [105][106]
Emanuelle Around the World 1977 Yes Yes [107][108]
Emanuelle and the Last Cannibals Yes Yes Yes [109][106]
Mondo erotico Yesi [110]
Emanuelle and the White Slave Trade 1978 Yes Yes Yes [111][112]
The Pleasure Shop on 7th Avenue Yes Yes [113]
Sexy Night Report n. 2 Yes Yes [114][110]
Follie di notte Yes Yes Yes [115]
Papaya, Love Goddess of the Cannibals Yes Yes [116][117]
Tough to Kill Yes Yes [118][119]
Images in a Convent 1979 Yes Yes [120][121]
Beyond the Darkness Yes Yes [122][123]
L'ogre de barbarie 1980 Yes [124]
Sesso nero Yes [125][126]
Erotic Nights of the Living Dead Yes [127][128]
Porno esotic love Yes Yes [129]
Antropophagus Yes Yes ?j [130][131]
Blue erotic climax Yes Yes [132]
Porno Holocaust Yes Yes [133][134]
Super climax Yes Yes Yes [135]
Hard sensation Yes Yes [136]
Paradiso blu 1981 Yes Yes [137]
Orgasmo nero Yes Yes Yes [138]
Labbra bagnate Yes Yes [139]
Le ereditiere super porno Yes Yes [140]
Porno video Yes [141]
Bocca golosa Yes Yes [142]
La voglia Yes Yes [143]
Labbra vogliose Yes Yes [144]
Sesso acerbo Yes Yes [145]
Voglia di sesso Yes Yes [146]
Le porno investigatrici Yes [147]
Caldo profumo di vergine Yes Yes [142]
Absurd Yes [148]
Stretta e bagnata 1982 Yes Yes [149]
Il succo del sesso Yes [150]
Super hard love Yes Yes [151]
Il mondo perverso di Beatrice Yes Yes [152]
Ator, the Fighting Eagle Yes Yes [153]
Caligula...The Untold Story Yes Yes [154][155][156]
Ator 2 - L'invincibile Orion Yes Yes Yes [157]
2020 Texas Gladiators 1983 Yes Yes Co-directed with George Eastman [158][159]
Endgame Yes Yes Yes Yes Editor [160][161]
Messalina orgasmo imperiale Yes Yes [153]
Cuando calienta el sol... vamos alla playa Yes Yes [124]
The Alcove 1985 Yes Yes [162]

[163]

The Pleasure Yes Yes [164]
A Lustful Mind Yes Yes Yes Editor [165]
Midnight Gigolo 1986 Yes Yes Yes Yes Editor [166]
Convent of Sinners Yes Yes Yes Editor [167][168]
Delizia Yes Yes Yes Editor [169]
Warrior Queen 1987 Yes Associate producer [170]
Stage Fright Yes [171][172]
Killing Birds Yes Yes Co-directed with Claudio Lattanzi [173]
Eleven Days, Eleven Nights Yes Yes [174][175]
Top Model 1988 Yes [174][176]
Ghosthouse (aka La Casa 3) Yes [177][178][179]
Witchery (aka La Casa 4) Yes [180]
Dirty Love 1989 Yes Yes [181]
Blue Angel Cafe Yes Yes [182][183]
Hitcher In The Dark Yes [184][185]
Metamorphosis Yes [186]
Quest for the Mighty Sword 1990 Yes Yes Yes [157]
Deep Blood Yes Yes [187][188]
La Casa 5 Yes [189]
Troll 2 bc Yes [174][190]
Contamination .7 (aka Troll 3) Yescd Yes Yes [174][191]
Eleven Days, Eleven Nights 2 1991 Yes Yes Yes [174][192]
Door to Silence Yes [193][191]
Frankenstein 2000 Yes [194][195]
Chinese Kamasutra 1993 Yes Yes [196]
I racconti della camera rossa Yes [197]
The Labyrinth of Love Yes Yes [198]
The House of Pleasure Yes [199]
Tarzan X 1994 Yes Yes Yes Yes [174][200]
Marco Polo Yes Yes Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano[199] [201]
Hamlet 1995 Yes Co-directed with Luca Damiano [174][202]
Top Girl 1997 e Yes Yes [176]
The Hyena Yes Yes [203]
Sexy Pirates 1998 Yes [204]

Notes[edit]

  • ^ a Both D'Amato and Diego Spataro, who used the alias "Dick Spitfire", stated that D'Amato directed this film.[205][206]
  • ^ b The credited director of Troll 2 was Claudio Fragasso under the pseudonym "Drake Floyd".[190]
  • ^ c In his book on Italian horror directors, Louis Paul makes the unsourced statement that D'Amato "ended up finishing [Troll 2 and Troll 3] as director in an attempt to save the productions that even he deemed poorly filmed and unreleasable".[191] Regarding Troll 3, Lupi also states that D'Amato directed a part of it.[207] For Troll 2, Paul seems to be the only source for D'Amato's directorial involvement.[citation needed]
  • ^ d The film's main director was Fabrizio Laurenti under the pseudonym "Martin Newlin".[208]
  • ^ e The directorial credit of Top Girl varies. In Italian prints, it is credited to "Andrea Massai"; abroad, the credits read "Joe D'Amato".[176]
  • ^ f The credits of Bounty Killer in Trinity list Oscar Santaniello as director under his pseudonym "Oskar Faradine". According to D'Amato himself, he directed the film, but let production manager Santaniello take the credit [205]. Bruckner lists Santaniello as producer and D'Amato as director,[77] and Curti, too, states that the film was "directed by Massaccesi but signed by Santaniello - one of several unsigned directing jobs Massaccesi took on before his official first feature".[82] Lupi, however, considers the movie to be of inferior quality and hence believes that Santaniello was truly the director whereas D'Amato, in his eyes, was only involved as cinematographer and writer.[209]
  • ^ g More Sexy Canterbury Tales was directed by D'Amato, but the directorial credit went to assistant director Romano Scandariato under his pseudonym "Romano Gastaldi"; the English film credits "Ralph Zucker" as the director.[210]
  • ^ h According to an interview given to the Italian magazine Nocturno by Romano Scandariato, who took the directorial credit under his pseudonym "Romano Gastaldi", D'Amato directed about one third of Fra' Tazio da Velletri before leaving production due to differences with the producers; Scandariato then finished directing the remaining two thirds.[79]
  • ^ i As director of Mondo Erotico, only Bruno Mattei was credited; the pseudonym "Jimmy Matheus" was used. D'Amato directed the scenes with Laura Gemser that tie the vignettes together; he remained uncredited.[110]
  • ^ j Both Enrico Biribicchi, who got the credit, and D'Amato claimed that they had acted as cinematographers on set.[211]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Normanton, Peter (2005). The Mammoth Book of Slasher Movies. McFarland. p. 39. Retrieved 23 October 2017. 
  2. ^ Riazzoli, Mirko (2017). A Chronology of the Cinema Volume 1 From the pioneers to 1960. Youcanprint. p. 345. 
  3. ^ a b Lentz III 2000, p. 57.
  4. ^ Lentz III 2000, p. 58.
  5. ^ Lupi, 2005 & page:21-22.
  6. ^ The Mammoth Book of Best New Horror 11, edited by Stephen Jones. Carroll & Graf. 2000. p. 558. 
  7. ^ Mendik, Xavier (2004). Black Sex, Bad Sex: Monstrous Ethnicity in the Black Emanuelle Films; in: Alternative Europe: Eurotrash and Exploitation Cinema Since 1945. Wallflower Press. p. 147. Retrieved 23 October 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Paul 2005, p. 181.
  9. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 31-32.
  10. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 33-38.
  11. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 38-42.
  12. ^ a b c Paul 2005, p. 184.
  13. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 38-39.
  14. ^ Paul 2005, p. 182.
  15. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 42-43.
  16. ^ Palmerini & Mistretta 1996, p. 77.
  17. ^ a b c Giusti 1999, p. 253.
  18. ^ a b Paul 2005, p. 184-185.
  19. ^ a b c Lupi 2004, p. 23.
  20. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 50.
  21. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 56.
  22. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 59-60.
  23. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 58-59.
  24. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 69-71.
  25. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 72-74.
  26. ^ a b Lupi 2004, p. 72.
  27. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 74-76.
  28. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 76-78.
  29. ^ a b Paul 2005, p. 189.
  30. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 91.
  31. ^ Gomarasca & Pulice 2009, p. 29.
  32. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 82-84.
  33. ^ Paul 2005, p. 190.
  34. ^ Paul 2005, p. 191.
  35. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 101-107.
  36. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 122-126.
  37. ^ a b Paul 2005, p. 193.
  38. ^ a b c d e Paul 2005, p. 194.
  39. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 155-187.
  40. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 157-163.
  41. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 169-170.
  42. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 169.
  43. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 170-172.
  44. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 172.
  45. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 168-169.
  46. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 167-168.
  47. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 137.
  48. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 172-174.
  49. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 181.
  50. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 181-183.
  51. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 183-186.
  52. ^ a b Lupi 2004, p. 193-196.
  53. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 191.
  54. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 192.
  55. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 193.
  56. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 199-200.
  57. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 203.
  58. ^ a b Lentz III 2000, p. 56.
  59. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 16.
  60. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 204.
  61. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 236.
  62. ^ Paul 2005, p. 198.
  63. ^ http://www.horrormagazine.it/110/joe-d-amato-horror-festival
  64. ^ a b c d e Lupi 2004, p. 231.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Palmerini & Mistretta 1996, p. 80.
  66. ^ Lupi 2004, p. 232.
  67. ^ "Vietnam, guerra senza fronte" (in Italian). Archivo del Cinema Italiano. Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  68. ^ Howarth 2015, p. 103.
  69. ^ Weisser 2005, p. 29.
  70. ^ Erickson, Hal. "Ben E Charlie". AllMovie. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  71. ^ "Das Geheimnis der grünen Stecknadel". Filmportal.de. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  72. ^ Curti 2013, p. 55.
  73. ^ Palmerini & Mistretta 1996, p. 80 and 105.
  74. ^ a b c d e f Palmerini & Mistretta 1996, p. 105.
  75. ^ Bruckner 2002, p. 462.
  76. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 94.
  77. ^ a b Bruckner 2002, p. 402.
  78. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 716.
  79. ^ a b Giusti 1999, p. 295.
  80. ^ Curti 2017, p. 97.
  81. ^ Curti 2017, p. 98.
  82. ^ a b Curti 2017, p. 90.
  83. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 514.
  84. ^ "Eroi all'inferno" (in Italian). Archivo del cinema italiano. Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  85. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 260.
  86. ^ Curti 2013, p. 79.
  87. ^ Curti 2013, p. 91.
  88. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 608.
  89. ^ Kinnard & Crnkovich 2017, p. 48.
  90. ^ "The Arena". American Film Institute. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  91. ^ Kinnard & Crnkovich 2017, p. 19.
  92. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 38.
  93. ^ "Die Teufelsschlucht der wilden Wölfe". Filmportal.de. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  94. ^ Hassen, Kristie. "Il Ritorno di Zanna Bianca". AllMovie. Archived from the original on August 30, 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  95. ^ "Giubbe rosse" (in Italian). Archivo del cinema italiano. Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  96. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 317.
  97. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 129-130.
  98. ^ Badder, David (1977). "Emanuelle and Francoise "(Emanuelle e Françoise le sorelline)"". Monthly Film Bulletin. Vol. 44 no. 516. British Film Institute. p. 232. 
  99. ^ Curti 2013, p. 196.
  100. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 847.
  101. ^ http://www.allmovie.com/movie/black-cobra-woman-v124027/review
  102. ^ Markham, Peter (1977). "Eva Nera (Erotic Eva)". Monthly Film Bulletin. Vol. 44 no. 516. British Film Institute. p. 122. 
  103. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 267.
  104. ^ Giusti 1999, p. 256.
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External links[edit]