Joe Heck

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Joe Heck
Joe Heck, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Nevada's 3rd district
In office
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2017
Preceded byDina Titus
Succeeded byJacky Rosen
Member of the Nevada Senate
from the 5th district
In office
November 2, 2004 – November 4, 2008
Preceded byAnn O'Connell
Succeeded byShirley Breeden
Personal details
Joseph John Heck

(1961-10-30) October 30, 1961 (age 60)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Lisa Mattiello
(m. 1995)
EducationPennsylvania State University, University Park (BS)
Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (DO)
United States Army War College (MS)
Military service
AllegianceUnited States
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
Years of service1991–present
RankMajor general
Unit325th Combat Support Hospital[1]
Battles/warsOperation Joint Endeavor
Operation Noble Eagle
Iraq War

Joseph John Heck (born October 30, 1961) is an American physician and politician who served as the United States representative for Nevada's 3rd congressional district from 2011 to 2017. Heck is a United States Army major general and a board-certified physician who previously served as a Nevada state senator from 2004 to 2008. He ran for the United States Senate in 2016, losing to Catherine Cortez Masto.

Early life, education, and military service[edit]

Heck was born in Jamaica, Queens, a neighborhood of New York City, and was raised in Pennsylvania, where he graduated from Wallenpaupack Area High School in 1979. He graduated from the Pennsylvania State University in 1984 with a degree in health education. He is a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. He received his Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine in 1988 from the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine and obtained a residency in emergency medicine in 1992 at the Albert Einstein Medical Center. In 1992, he moved to Clark County, Nevada. He earned a Master of Strategic Studies degree from the U.S. Army War College in 2006.[2]

Heck served in the United States Army Reserve since 1991 and was promoted to brigadier general in 2014.[3] He has commanded a Medical Readiness Support Group overseeing more than 2,000 soldiers in six western states, and continues to serve in this capacity while in Congress. He has served in Operation Joint Endeavor, Operation Noble Eagle, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. His last deployment was in January 2008 when he commanded an emergency room in a combat hospital outside Baghdad.[4][5] He was promoted to the rank of major general in a ceremony at Fort Douglas, Utah, November 7, 2020.[6][7]

Medical career[edit]

Heck was the president, owner, and medical director of Specialized Medical Operations until 2011. The company provided medical training, consulting, and operational support to law enforcement agencies, EMS, and military special operations. Heck has lectured and is published on special operations medical support, the medical response to acts of terrorism, and emergency preparedness and response.[8]

From 1998 to 2003, Heck served as the medical director of the Casualty Care Research Center of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland, where he provided medical support for several federal law enforcement agencies and oversight for the medical response to acts of terrorism. Heck started his medical career as a volunteer firefighter and ambulance attendant in rural Pennsylvania. He volunteered as a medical team manager with the Nevada Urban Search & Rescue Team – Task Force 1 and as a member of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department Search & Rescue team. He served as a tactical physician with the LVMPD SWAT team.[5]

Heck served as a member of the Nevada State Homeland Security Commission Sub-committee on Health, the American Osteopathic Association's Task Force on Bioterrorism, and as the medical director for the Nevada Hospital Association's Hospital Preparedness program. He also served as the medical director for the Southern Nevada Health District's Office of Public Health Preparedness.[9]

Nevada Senate[edit]

Heck served one four-year term in the Nevada Senate, representing Clark County's 5th district.[9]


Heck was first elected to the Nevada Senate to represent Clark County's 5th district in 2004, after defeating Senator Ann O'Connell in the Republican primary. Heck narrowly lost re-election in 2008 to Democrat Shirley Breeden by a margin of 47% to 46% and a plurality of 765 votes. Libertarian T. Rex Hagan received 4,754 votes (8%).[10]

Committee assignments[edit]

He served on the Natural Resources, Human Resources and Education, the Commerce and Labor Committees. He was also the vice-chair of the Transportation and Homeland Security Committee.[11]

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]



Although Heck had earlier announced he would challenge incumbent Republican Jim Gibbons for governor, he decided against it in favor of a run for Nevada's 3rd congressional district. He defeated incumbent Democratic U.S. Congresswoman Dina Titus, 48%–47%, a difference of 1,748 votes. Titus only held the position for one term after she defeated incumbent Republican Jon C. Porter in 2008.[12]


After redistricting, Heck decided to run in the newly redrawn 3rd district, which Obama won in 2008 with 54% of the vote. On November 6, he defeated Speaker of the Nevada Assembly John Oceguera 50%–43%.[13]


Heck won reelection easily, beating Democrat Erin Bilbray by a margin of 61 percent to 36 percent.[14]


Heck was one of three freshmen named to the House Republican Steering Committee in the 112th Congress.[15] He was re-elected to the Republican Steering Committee in both 2012 and 2014.[16] Heck was ranked as the 74th most bipartisan member of the U.S. House of Representatives during the 114th United States Congress (and the most bipartisan member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Nevada) in the Bipartisan Index created by The Lugar Center and the McCourt School of Public Policy that ranks members of the United States Congress by their degree of bipartisanship (by measuring the frequency each member's bills attract co-sponsors from the opposite party and each member's co-sponsorship of bills by members of the opposite party).[17]

Energy and environmental policy[edit]

In 2010, he signed the Americans for Prosperity's No Climate Tax pledge.[18] He supports an "all of the above" energy policy which includes natural gas, domestic oil production, and alternative energy sources such as wind, solar, hydropower, geothermal and nuclear.[19]

In 2011, as a representative, Heck voted to prevent the EPA from regulating greenhouse gases.[20][21]

In 2012, when asked about climate change and regulating carbon dioxide, he stated: "When you start looking at trying to regulate something like carbon dioxide, which is a natural, biological process, you start running into areas of confusion" and "I think certainly over the millennia, we've seen changes in our climate both ways, and I think throughout the future millennia we will continue to see climate change that goes both ways. But the issue for this election is not what's going to be happening in the next 200 years, it's going to be what's happening in the next 12 months."[22]

He is in favor of the Keystone XL Pipeline.[23][24]

Heck voted to ease the exploration and extraction of minerals and energy resources from Native American lands, and restrict the ability of non-resident tribal members to vote on these issues.[25][26]

Economic policy[edit]

Heck supports an audit of the Federal Reserve and a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution.[27] Heck voted against increasing the debt limit in 2011, stating "Raising the debt ceiling without significant spending cuts will only prolong the uncertainty preventing an economic recovery".[28]

In 2011, Heck called Social Security a "pyramid scheme".[29][30] The remark aroused a political controversy in Nevada, and Heck clarified that he meant to refer to it as an "inverted pyramid".[31][32] He has suggested that today's young people may need to retire later to keep the program fiscally viable.[33]

In 2015, Heck voted to eliminate the estate tax.[34] In 2010, he signed the Taxpayer Protection Pledge by Americans for Tax Reform.[35] He has been critical of Governor Brian Sandoval's Commerce Tax.[33] He is opposed to raising the federal minimum wage in favor of leaving the decision to local governments.[36][37]

Education policy[edit]

Heck supports the use of education vouchers for use in private or public schools.[38] He voted for a budget bill which called for a 10-year freeze to the maximum Pell Grant award to college students.[36][39][40] He favors expanding refinancing options for student loans, enhancing income-based repayment plans, and providing loan forgiveness for civil service.[41]

Foreign policy and veterans affairs[edit]

In 2011, Heck voted for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012.[42] In 2011, Heck voted not to withdraw American troops from the war in Afghanistan.[43]

Heck opposed United States involvement in Libya, saying, "We are already engaged in military operations on two fronts, and Libya opened a third. We cannot afford the troops or taxpayer dollars—especially without a national security objective."[44]

Heck opposes the Iran nuclear deal framework, calling it unenforceable,[45] and has voted to censure and block President Obama's nuclear treaty with Iran.[46]

Heck has voted for the Patriot Act and has endorsed the indefinite military incarceration of alleged terrorists.[47] He voted to end the bulk collection of metadata from phone calls by the NSA.[41]

In 2015, Heck cosponsored a bill with Democrat Tulsi Gabbard that would award a Congressional Gold Medal to Filipinos who fought in World War II, who now live in the Philippines and the United States.[48]

Heck authored the Vulnerable Veterans Housing Reform Act which prevents disabled veterans who receive in-home care from the VA from having their housing benefits reduced. The bill became law in 2016.[41]

Gun policy[edit]

Heck opposes most laws which restrict the sale of firearms. He is in favor of expanded and perhaps universal background checks.[49][50][51]

Following the Isla Vista massacre, Heck co-sponsored an amendment to increase funding for criminal background checks.[52] He voted against restricting gun sales to those on terror watch lists.[53] He voted to prevent Washington D.C. from implementing many provisions of gun control.[54]

Health policy[edit]

Heck was an original co-sponsor of the attempt to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[55] His stated priorities include protecting the patient-physician relationship, reducing health care costs, and working to protect Medicare for Nevada's seniors and preserving it for future generations;[56] by training more physicians and increasing the use of health savings accounts.[57]

Immigration policy[edit]

In August 2014, Heck broke ranks with the Republican Party and voted against a bill that would have dismantled the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals.[58]

In 2015, he voted to more strenuously police immigration from Syria and Iraq.[59][60]

Social policy[edit]

In 2011, he voted to prohibit federal funding of National Public Radio, and to support the continuing use of federal funds for NASCAR sponsorships.[61][62]

In 2012, he voted to reauthorize the expiring Violence Against Women Act.[63]

During his time in the House, Heck has voted in favor of prohibiting federal funding of abortion, and prohibiting the use of federal funds for health services at Planned Parenthood.[64][65]

Campaign finance policy[edit]

Heck is opposed to the DISCLOSE Act, which would require funders of political ads to put their names on advertisements. He is a supporter of the Citizens United v. FEC U.S. Supreme Court decision.[36]


The following is a partial list of legislation that was directly sponsored by Heck.

Committee assignments[edit]

2016 U.S. Senate campaign[edit]

In July 2015, Heck announced that he would run for the U.S. Senate seat left open due to Harry Reid's retirement.[73] The Republican and Democratic primaries, which were both contested, took place on June 14, 2016.[74][75]

Heck easily defeated primary opponent Sharron Angle, who had narrowly lost to Harry Reid in 2010. Heck's campaign received millions of dollars of indirect support from the Koch brothers, according to the New York Times. The Kochs paid for ads on his behalf and for millions of dollars of ads against his rival,[76][77][78][79] and whose organizations have 30 paid staff members working in Nevada.[80][81] Heck was, in the 3rd quarter of 2016, the House member receiving the largest amount of political donations.[82] His opponents, including organized labor and environmental groups, spent significant sums on advertising against him.[78][83]

Heck supported Donald Trump's candidacy for president until the Donald Trump and Billy Bush recording controversy of October 2016. Heck then withdrew his support.[84][85]

In a recording of Heck at a private event in October 2016, he said he believed Trump may hurt other Republicans' electoral bids.[86] Prior to the election, he did not say whether or not he would vote for Trump.[87][88]

Heck lost to Catherine Cortez Masto in the 2016 general election, held on November 8, 2016.[89] He carried 16 of Nevada's 17 counties and county equivalents. However, he could not overcome an 82,000-vote deficit in Clark County.

Personal life[edit]

Heck resides in Henderson, Nevada, with his wife, Lisa Heck (née Mattiello). They have three children. Lisa is a registered nurse. Heck is a Roman Catholic. He believes that employers have the right to deny health coverage for contraception if they have moral objections to it.[36] He is active with the American Legion Paradise Post 149, the Knights of Columbus Council 13456, and Catholic War Veterans Post 1947.[90] He is also a member of the ReFormers Caucus of Issue One.[91]

Electoral history[edit]

United States House of Representatives elections, 2010 3rd Congressional District of Nevada[92]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Joe Heck 128,916 48
Democratic Dina Titus (incumbent) 127,168 47
Independent Barry Michaels 6,473 2
Libertarian Joseph P. Silvestri 4,026 2
Independent American Scott David Narter 1,291 <1
Total votes 267,874 100
Republican gain from Democratic
United States House of Representatives elections, 2012 3rd Congressional District of Nevada[93]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Joe Heck (Incumbent) 137,244 50
Democratic John Oceguera 116,823 43
Independent American Jim Murphy 12,856 5
Independent American Tom Jones 5,600 2
Total votes 272,523 100
Republican hold
Nevada United States Senate election, 2016
Republican primary
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Joe Heck 74,517 65
Republican Sharron Angle 26,142 23
Republican None of these candidates 3,902 3
Republican Thomas Heck 3,570 3
Republican Eddie Hamilton 2,507 2
Republican D'Nese Davis 1,937 2
Republican Bill Tarbell 1,179 1
Republican Robert Leeds 662 0.6
Republican Justin Preble 582 0.5
Republican Carlo Poliak 279 0.2
Total 114,827 100
Nevada United States Senate election, 2016
General election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Catherine Cortez Masto 520,658 47
Republican Joe Heck 494,427 45
Independent American Tom Jones 17,104 2
Independent Tom Sawyer 14,163 1
Independent Tony Gumina 10,719 1
Socialist Jarrod M. Williams 6,864 0.7
Total 1,108,294 100

Awards and decorations[edit]

Heck has received the following awards:[94]

Defense Meritorious Service Medal
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Width-44 myrtle green ribbon with width-3 white stripes at the edges and five width-1 stripes down the center; the central white stripes are width-2 apart
Army Commendation Medal with one bronze oak leaf cluster
Joint Services Achievement Medal
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Width-44 ribbon with two width-9 ultramarine blue stripes surrounded by two pairs of two width-4 green stripes; all these stripes are separated by width-2 white borders
Army Achievement Medal with one bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Army Reserve Components Achievement Medal with four bronze oak leaf clusters
Military Outstanding Volunteer Service Medal
Bronze star
Width=44 scarlet ribbon with a central width-4 golden yellow stripe, flanked by pairs of width-1 scarlet, white, Old Glory blue, and white stripes
National Defense Service Medal with one Service star
Iraq Campaign Medal
Global War on Terrorism Service Medal
Armed Forces Service Medal
Armed Forces Reserve Medal
Width-44 ribbon with width-6 central ultramarine blue stripe, flanked by pairs of stripes that are respectively width-4 emerald, width-3 golden yellow, width-5 orange, and width-7 scarlet Army Service Ribbon
ArmyFltSurg.gif Army Flight Surgeon Badge
Joint Meritorious Unit Award

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Congressman Joe Heck". Combat Veterans For Congress Political Action Committee. 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  2. ^ Corasaniti, Nick; Martin, Jonathan (July 24, 2014). "Army War College Starts Plagiarism Inquiry of Senator John Walsh's Thesis". The New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  3. ^ "Senate OKs Rep. Joe Heck's promotion to 1-star general". Las Vegas Sun. Associated Press. September 18, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
  4. ^ O'Toole, Molly (May 31, 2015). "Meet Joe Heck, the GOP One-Star General Who Could Take Reid's Senate Seat". Defense One. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  5. ^ a b Tetreault, Steve (July 6, 2015). "Rep. Joe Heck says he's running for US Senate". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  6. ^ "807th Medical Command (Deployment Support)". GovServ. November 10, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  7. ^ "Nominees: PN2254 — 116th Congress (2019–2020)". October 26, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  8. ^ "Joe Heck (R)". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  9. ^ a b "Senator Joseph (Joe) J. Heck".
  10. ^ "Races for the November 4, 2008 general election". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  11. ^ "Joe Heck". House Republicans. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns – NV – District 3 Race". November 2, 2010.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns – NV – District 03 Race". November 6, 2012.
  14. ^ Myers, Laura (November 8, 2014). "Nevada winners, losers in Tuesday's election". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
  15. ^ "Joe Heck Lands Plum Post on House GOP Steering Committee". Las Vegas Sun. November 17, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
  16. ^ "Heck Elected to Steering Committee for Third Straight Term". United States Congressman Joe Heck. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
  17. ^ The Lugar Center – McCourt School Bipartisan Index (PDF), The Lugar Center, March 7, 2016, retrieved April 30, 2017
  18. ^ Kerpen, Phil (March 9, 2010). "Americans for Prosperity Applauds U.S. House Candidate Joe Heck" (PDF). Americans for Prosperity. Retrieved February 5, 2016.[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ "Issue Position: Energy". Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  20. ^ "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 249". Retrieved November 11, 2016.
  21. ^ "House Vote 249 – Prevents E.P.A. From Regulating Greenhouse Gases". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  22. ^ Jason Margolis, “Politicians Talking Green Energy, But Not Climate Change”,, October 17, 2012.
  23. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System".
  24. ^ Steve Tetreault (November 23, 2014). "Keystone XL pipeline shelved in Senate vote".
  25. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System".
  26. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System".
  27. ^ "The U.S. Congress Votes Database: Joe Heck (R)". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  28. ^ "Heck Votes Against Debt Limit Increase". Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  29. ^ Americans United For Change (June 2, 2011). "Rep. Joe Heck: Social Security is a 'Pyramid Scheme'". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021.
  30. ^ "Joe Heck Says Social Security is Inverted Pyramid". June 10, 2011.
  31. ^ "Joe Heck Vows to Preserve Social Security". June 9, 2011.
  32. ^ Pearce, Ed. "Heck Campaigns in Reno, Answers Social Security Charge".
  33. ^ a b Nelson, Paul. "Rep. Joe Heck Campaigns in Reno". Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  34. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System".
  35. ^ "Current List of Taxpayer Protection Pledge Signers for the 112th Congress".
  36. ^ a b c d Project, Campus Election Engagement Project Campus Election Engagement; colleges, www campuselect org is a national nonpartisan project that helps America's; Register, Universities Motivate Their 20 Million Students to; Campaigns, Volunteer in; Themselves, Educate; Polls, Turn Out at the (October 11, 2016). "Joe Heck vs. Catherine Cortez Masto: Nonpartisan Candidate Guide For 2016 Nevada Senate Race". HuffPost.
  37. ^ "U.S. Senate: Roll Call Vote". Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  38. ^ "Joe Heck on the Issues". Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  39. ^ Cahn, Emily (March 30, 2015). "DCCC to Hit Republicans on College Campuses". Roll Call. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  40. ^ Demirjian, Karoun (October 15, 2012). "Heck and Oceguera make a play for the center in Nevada's split CD3". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  41. ^ a b c Theobald, William (October 20, 2016). "Who's Joe Heck?: A reliable GOP vote who sometimes bucked the party line". Reno-Gazette Journal. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
  42. ^ Connor Adams Sheets (December 16, 2011). "NDAA Bill: How Did Your Congress Member Vote?". International Business Times.
  43. ^ "Joe Heck on War & Peace". Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  44. ^ "Heck Votes Against Libya Measures". Archived from the original on February 18, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  45. ^ Botkin, Ben (January 26, 2016). "Cortez Masto supports Iran deal while Heck calls it unenforceable". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  46. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System".
  47. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System".
  48. ^ Rueda, Nimfa. "US solons introduce bill recognizing Filipino, Fil-Am war vets". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
  49. ^ Walker, Patrick (June 17, 2016). "Gun control: Universal background checks at forefront nationally, statewide".
  50. ^ Laura Myers (February 19, 2013). "Heck favors universal background checks for gun buyers". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
  51. ^ "GOP rep implies Gabby Giffords is a 'prop' in gun debate". February 20, 2013.
  52. ^ "House approves gun control bill to boost background check funding". MSNBC. May 30, 2014.
  53. ^ "Gun Control Groups Divide Their Loyalties in Senate Races". The New York Times. September 5, 2016.
  54. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System".
  55. ^ Meyer, Theodoric (January 7, 2016). "Planned Parenthood will play in Senate". Politico. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  56. ^ Ritter, Ken; Snyder, Riley (July 6, 2015). "Nevada GOP Rep. Joe Heck running for Reid's US Senate seat". Associated Press. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  57. ^ "Joe Heck For U.S. Senate". Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  58. ^ Foley, Elise (August 1, 2014). "House Votes To Strip Deportation Relief From Dreamers". Huffington Post. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
  59. ^ "H.R. 4038: American SAFE Act of 2015 – House Vote #643 – Nov 19, 2015".
  60. ^ Peter Urban (November 18, 2015). "Nevada congressmen want Syrian refugee program stopped". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
  61. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System".
  62. ^ "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 192". Retrieved November 11, 2016.
  63. ^ Jennifer Bendery (December 11, 2012). "Violence Against Women Act: John Boehner, Eric Cantor Pressured By Republicans To Act". Huffington Post.
  64. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System".
  65. ^ Snyder, Riley (September 29, 2016). "PolitiFact: New ads mostly accurate in highlighting Joe Heck's record on abortion".
  66. ^ "H.R. 697 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  67. ^ "CBO – H.R. 697". Congressional Budget Office. June 20, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  68. ^ "Bills to Address Housing Needs of Veterans Introduced". National Low Income Housing Coalition. May 3, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  69. ^ "H.R. 1742". United States Congress. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  70. ^ "H.R. 2166 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
  71. ^ Kasperowicz, Pete (January 24, 2014). "House to lift government hurdles to missing person searches". The Hill. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
  72. ^ Tetreault, Steve; Brean, Henry (May 7, 2013). "Heck seeks to cut red tape on desert, lake searches". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  73. ^ Tetreault, Steve; Botkin, Ben (July 6, 2015). "Rep. Joe Heck says he's running for US Senate". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
  74. ^ Messerly, Megan (February 2, 2016). "Heck, Cortez Masto each top $1M for quarter in bid to succeed Reid in Senate". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  75. ^ Staff. "Nevada Primary Results 2016". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  76. ^ "Harry Reid and Koch Brothers Wage Proxy War for a Nevada Senate Seat". The New York Times. August 31, 2016.
  77. ^ "Harry Reid's retiring? Enter piles of dark money". opensecrets/org. August 19, 2016.
  78. ^ a b "New ad takes aim at Joe Heck's record in state Senate". May 6, 2016.
  79. ^ "Koch brothers-backed ad trumpets Joe Heck for Senate". Las Vegas Sun. March 1, 2016.
  80. ^ Rindels, Michelle (October 11, 2016). "Heavy-hitters, cash flow to Nevada in fight to replace Reid". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 17, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  81. ^ "Outside groups are the biggest influencers in this year's Nevada Senate race". October 11, 2016.
  82. ^ "Joe Heck leads the pack in campaign contributions". Las Vegas Sun. July 16, 2013.
  83. ^ "Environmental group runs ad attacking GOP Senate candidate". September 6, 2016.
  84. ^ "Dr. Heck remarks on Donald Trump – Joe Heck for U.S. Senate". October 8, 2016.
  85. ^ Kimber Laux (October 8, 2016). "Republican Heck, Hardy say they no longer support Trump". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
  86. ^ "Recording shows Heck fears Trump will hurt Senate race". October 17, 2016.
  87. ^ "Joe Heck struggles to answer on vote for Donald Trump". Las Vegas Sun News. Associated Press. November 2, 2016. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  88. ^ "Critics say Heck making misstep on Trump stance". January 1, 1970. Retrieved November 3, 2016.[permanent dead link]
  89. ^ "Cortez Masto defeats Heck in Nevada". Politico.
  90. ^ "Full Biography". United States Congressman Joe Heck. Archived from the original on February 8, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  91. ^ "Issue One – ReFormers Caucus".
  92. ^ "Congressional results".
  93. ^ "Nevada General Election 2012 – U.S. Congress". Nevada Secretary of State. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  94. ^ Staff (2011). "Once a Soldier... Always a Soldier" (PDF). Legislative Agenda. Association of the United States Army. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2013.

External links[edit]

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Nevada's 3rd congressional district

Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Nevada
(Class 3)

Succeeded by
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded byas Former US Representative Order of precedence of the United States
as Former US Representative
Succeeded byas Former US Representative