|His Excellency The Honourable
Hockey in 2016
|Ambassador of Australia to
the United States
29 January 2016
|Nominated by||Malcolm Turnbull|
|Preceded by||Kim Beazley|
|Treasurer of Australia|
18 September 2013 – 21 September 2015
|Prime Minister||Tony Abbott
|Preceded by||Chris Bowen|
|Succeeded by||Scott Morrison|
|Manager of Opposition Business in the House|
2 December 2007 – 16 February 2009
|Preceded by||Anthony Albanese|
|Succeeded by||Christopher Pyne|
|Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations|
30 January 2007 – 3 December 2007
|Prime Minister||John Howard|
|Preceded by||Kevin Andrews|
|Succeeded by||Julia Gillard|
|Minister for Human Services|
26 October 2004 – 30 January 2007
|Prime Minister||John Howard|
|Preceded by||Jocelyn Newman|
|Succeeded by||Ian Campbell|
|Minister for Small Business and Tourism|
26 November 2001 – 26 October 2004
|Prime Minister||John Howard|
|Preceded by||Ian Macfarlane|
|Succeeded by||Fran Bailey|
|Member of the Australian Parliament
for North Sydney
2 March 1996 – 23 October 2015
|Preceded by||Ted Mack|
|Succeeded by||Trent Zimmerman|
|Born||Joseph Benedict Hockey
2 August 1965
North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
|Political party||Liberal Party (Coalition; 1987-present)|
|Alma mater||University of Sydney|
Joseph Benedict "Joe" Hockey (born 2 August 1965) is the current Ambassador of Australia to the United States. He is a former Australian politician, the Member of Parliament for North Sydney from 1996 until 2015. He was the Treasurer of Australia in the Abbott Government from 18 September 2013 until September 2015 when he resigned from Cabinet, having refused an alternative offer from the incoming Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull. He previously served as the Minister for Human Services and Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations in the Howard Government.
Hockey's parliamentary resignation triggered a 2015 North Sydney by-election where he was succeeded by Trent Zimmerman who had previously worked for Hockey as a staffer. His appointment as Ambassador of Australia to the United States was announced on 8 December 2015 to replace Kim Beazley, whose term ended in early 2016, and he assumed that position on 29 January 2016.
Early life and career
Hockey was born in North Sydney to an Armenian father, Richard (born in Bethlehem, Mandatory Palestine), and an Australian mother, Beverley. He has three elder siblings. His father's original surname, Hokeidonian, was anglicised to "Hockey" in 1948 after arriving in Australia.
Hockey attended St Aloysius' College, Milsons Point and the University of Sydney, residing at St John's College, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Laws. While at university he was President of the University of Sydney Students' Representative Council, and assisted in inviting Pope John Paul II to visit the University of Sydney during the 1986 Australian papal visit. In 1987, Hockey protested at Bob Hawke's introduction of university fees. Hockey's term as SRC president, besides the protests, included the renovation of the club's headquarters, a cutback on the expenses of Honi Soit, the closure of the SRC Women's Room, but the opening of a free legal advice service. Towards the end of his term as SRC President, the Australian Labor Party's Deputy Prime Minister Lionel Bowen phoned Hockey and invited him to join the ALP. Hockey researched the philosophies of John Stuart Mill and decided to join the Liberal Party. Upon graduating, Hockey worked as a banking and finance lawyer at Corrs Chambers Westgarth and subsequently as the Director of Policy to the Premier of New South Wales, before entering politics.
Hockey worked as a policy advisor to Premier John Fahey before the New South Wales state election, 1995. Hockey became the president of the NSW Young Liberals and had a position in Nick Greiner's state government, reforming the financial and business structure of the state.
Hockey was preselected as a Liberal Party of Australia candidate for the 1996 election in the Division of North Sydney when aged just 29. He faced little preselection competition, since the seat's incumbent independent, Ted Mack, was thought to be unbeatable. However, Mack did not renominate; had his intentions been known earlier, it is widely believed Hockey would have faced a more rigorous preselection contest for what has traditionally been a "blue ribbon" Liberal seat. As it was, Hockey all but assured himself of becoming the seat's next member with his preselection victory. "Traditional" two-party matchups had always shown North Sydney to be a comfortably safe Liberal seat, and it had been a foregone conclusion that the seat would revert to the Liberals once Mack retired. On paper, the Liberals would have held the seat on a traditional two-party margin of nine percent. As expected, Hockey regained the seat for the Liberals on 65.6 percent of the two-party preferred vote. He actually won 57.8 percent of the primary vote, more than enough to win the seat outright without the need for preferences.
When contesting the 1996 election, Hockey bought a bus which he painted in the colours of the North Sydney Bears, which had the effect of positioning Hockey as an Independent and showed Hockey's local ties. Hockey would park the bus everywhere in his electorate to raise awareness. Robert Orrell, Hockey's campaign manager in 1995, states that Hockey presented himself as a Liberal in "John Howard" areas like Lane Cove, but as an Independent in North Sydney and McMahons Point. Hockey's parents and business connections were also key to his success - his parents were well-liked locals who knew the area well, and his business connections allowed him to give umbrellas and other souvenirs to supporters and volunteers. A key issue in the 1996 election was the issue of aircraft noise: Laurie Brereton, the ALP transport minister, had closed east-west runways and opened north-south runways at Sydney airport, diverting aircraft noise from Labor seats to Liberal seats.
Soon after his election in 1996, He was appointed the chair of the Sydney Airport Community Forum. During this time, Hockey formed a friendship with Anthony Albanese, and Albanese took Hockey to his electorate to see the inequalities of the airport routing. Following this, Hockey worked to address inconsistencies in the airport noise amelioration program. Hockey and fellow "small-l liberals" Chris Gallus and Susan Jeanes founded the short-lived John Stuart Mill Society to combat the conservative Lyons Forum. Hockey made his maiden speech in September 1996, highlighting modern liberalism, composed of recognition of the rights of the individual, parliamentary democracy, and committing to improve society through reform. Hockey highlighted his father's heritage, and highlighted barriers against women achieving success. In the lead-up to the 1998 election, which Hockey characterised as "the GST election", despite being the minister in charge of the GST, Hockey stopped campaigning shortly before the election because he felt that talking about the GST was losing him votes. 
In January 2000, Hockey had done an interview with the John Laws program about the GST, confirming the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC)'s position of businesses being able to round up or down the price of goods and services when needed. This caused controversy, and The Daily Telegraph printed a story that declared that voters could be charged more than the 10% GST promised.
When HIH Insurance went bankrupt in March 2001, Joe Hockey was the minister responsible for the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA), which oversaw HIH. Although Hockey's office had sought written assurances from HIH that everything was fine, the public felt that Hockey was to blame. Upon learning that the estimated damages were between $4-$8 billion, Hockey took this to the Cabinet and sought a bail out. Peter Costello advised that APRA should sort out HIH. After the collapse of HIH Insurance, Hockey became concerned about NRMA Insurance, and called Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), the ACCC, APRA and the Australian Taxation Office and instructed them to investigate NRMA Insurance thoroughly.
Hockey regularly appeared on the Seven Network's morning program Sunrise in the "Big Guns of Politics" section debating the Opposition Leader, Kevin Rudd, drawing 20,000-30,000 additional viewers who would tune in specifically for that segment, until the arrangement was mutually terminated on 16 April 2007 following controversy over plans to stage a pre-dawn Anzac Day service in Vietnam. Hockey credits this show for introducing him to an audience who had no interest in politics.
In December 2007, Hockey was made Shadow Minister for Health and Ageing and Manager of Opposition Business in the House. In September 2008 he became Shadow Minister for Finance, Competition Policy and Deregulation. He became Shadow Treasurer in February 2009 when Julie Bishop stepped down from the portfolio.
Prior to his appointment as Shadow Treasurer there had been a move to get Hockey to transfer to New South Wales State politics to replace Barry O'Farrell as state Liberal leader and lead the New South Wales Coalition to victory at the 2011 state election, which would make Hockey the Premier of New South Wales. Hockey, however, denied any interest to move into New South Wales state politics.
The push to get Hockey into New South Wales state politics came to an end when he was promoted to Shadow Treasurer as that placed him within striking distance of becoming federal leader.
Hockey's popularity among voters grew under the leadership of Malcolm Turnbull and, in October 2009, polls showed him as the preferred Liberal leader. However, Hockey announced that he had no intention to challenge for the leadership.
On 9 November 2009, Hockey gave a speech, "In Defence of God", at the Sydney Institute.
Australia has embraced religious diversity. It must always remain so, and as a member of parliament I am a custodian of that principle of tolerance. That is why it is disturbing to hear people rail against Muslims and Jews, or Pentecostals and Catholics. Australia must continue, without fear, to embrace diversity of faith provided that those gods are loving, compassionate and just."
A Newspoll released on 30 November 2009 placed Hockey at 33%, Turnbull at 30% and Abbott at 19%, when voters were asked who would be the "best person to lead" the Liberal Party. Speculation flourished that Hockey would challenge Turnbull for the leadership of the Liberal Party, and Hockey consulted senior party dignitaries such as Howard and Costello about whether he should run.
Hockey faced a dilemma. He had been a consistent supporter of the ETS. Running against Turnbull, a fellow moderate in the Liberal Party, would mean taking the leadership with the support of the party's right wing and climate change sceptics.
On 1 December 2009, Hockey chose to include his candidacy in a party room ballot to determine the leadership of the Liberal Party. The ballot was between Hockey, Malcolm Turnbull and Tony Abbott. Hockey was eliminated in the first round of the ballot, with the eventual winner being Abbott. Following the change of leadership, Hockey remained Shadow Treasurer.
He told ABC TV's Q&A audience on 7 March 2011 that corporate Australia had fallen behind in female boardroom representation and if companies failed to meet a reasonable target within a period of time then "more punitive measures" needed to be taken by parliament. He later said that "quotas must be a last resort".
Hockey gave a speech to the Grattan Institute on 11 March 2010 called "In Defence of Liberty". The speech defended anti-terrorism laws and rejected a hypothetical bill of rights, while criticising increased police powers.
Hockey gave a speech to the EIDOS Institute on 14 April 2010 called "In Defence of Enterprise".
This series of speeches were seen as Hockey's bid for the Liberal leadership.
Biographer Madonna King points out "Australia’s Future Engagement in the Asian Century" (25 October 2011) and "The Future of Free Markets, Global Trade and Commerce" (7 December 2011) as other key speeches from this three-year period of Joe Hockey trying to show what he stood for.
On 17 April 2012, Hockey gave a speech at the Institute of Economic Affairs in London. He warned Australians that the time to become self-sufficient was at hand and that the government could not afford to give "universal payments" to Australians. The speech was controversial in Australia, sparking discussion on the ABC Lateline program and an article in The Australian. The speech was said to change the public's perception of Hockey from "avuncular" to "hard-head". and foreshadowing Hockey's first budget.
On 26 April 2012, Hockey gave a speech, "The Future of Australian Diversity", at the Islamic Council of Victoria. "To judge Islam based on the actions of extremists and terrorists would be no different than judging Christianity on the actions of those who have over the centuries committed atrocities in the name of Christianity."
In 2014, the "end of the age of entitlement" was used to justify the government refusing financial assistance to Holden in South Australia and SPC Ardmona in Victoria and explaining why they could not participate in Barnaby Joyce's proposal for a bail out of farmers. Hockey's approach has been described by sociology lecturer Verity Archer as being like Nixon's, "using claims of a budget emergency" to cut welfare.
In May 2014, Fairfax media published a story stating that donors to the North Sydney Forum were able to have "VIP" meetings with Hockey, under the title "Treasurer for Sale".
Hockey delivered the 2014 budget on 13 May 2014. The austere budget faced widespread criticism and was overwhelmingly rejected by the Australian public as reflected in all opinion polls after its release. Michael Pascoe, writing for the Sydney Morning Herald, regards Hockey as being saddled with policies that were fiscally irresponsible, but designed to win support, giving as an example the scrapping of the price on carbon. Hockey was considered by his colleagues to have made a poor case for the economic reforms in the 2014 budget. The Guardian writes that criticism of the budget as "unfair" harmed Hockey's public image.
After the February 2015 Liberal party leadership spill motion, there were calls for Hockey to be replaced as Treasurer.
In the leadup to the 2015 budget, Abbott stated that no matter how the budget was received, Hockey would continue as Treasurer. Hockey delivered the 2015 budget. This was considered a vast contrast to the 2014 budget.
In August 2015, Peter FitzSimons, chair of the Australian Republican Movement, announced that Joe Hockey would help lead a parliamentary friendship group aimed at a referendum on an Australian republic before 2020. This led to criticism of Hockey by members of the Coalition, who regarded the renewed push for a republic to be a distraction from the government's priorities. Later in August, a leak stated that two cabinet ministers were urging Abbott to reassign Hockey as treasurer.
After Malcolm Turnbull ousted Abbott at the 2015 Liberal leadership spill, there was growing speculation that Turnbull would not retain Hockey as Treasurer in his new government, even though as mentioned above they are both members of the Liberal Party's moderate wing. Although Turnbull offered Hockey a different role in his government, Hockey declined and on 20 September 2015 announced his intention to leave Parliament. Hockey gave his final speech to parliament on 21 October 2015.
Parliamentary resignation and US Ambassador role
Hockey resigned from parliament on 23 October 2015 which triggered the 2015 North Sydney by-election which was won by Trent Zimmerman. It was announced on 8 December 2015 that Hockey would become the next Ambassador of Australia to the United States when Kim Beazley's term ended in early 2016. In his new role as Ambassador, Hockey wrote a response to a New York Times editorial about cuts to climate change research at CSIRO.
Hockey met Melissa Babbage, his future wife, in 1991 at a Young Liberals state convention. In 1994, Hockey married Babbage, an investment banker, later head of foreign exchange and global finance at Deutsche Bank. The couple has three children and they lived in Hunters Hill, New South Wales. Upon the birth of his youngest child, Hockey became the first federal Minister to take paternity leave. He has walked the Kokoda Track and has climbed Mount Kilimanjaro to raise funds for medical equipment. Hockey and his wife own a 200 hectare cattle farm in Malanda, near Cairns, Queensland. In 2012 he lost more than 20 kg following gastric sleeve surgery.
In 2014 Hockey launched defamation proceedings against Fairfax Media over an article published in its newspapers, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Age and The Canberra Times, titled Treasurer for sale, which he said falsely implied that he accepted bribes paid to influence his decisions and that he corruptly sold privileged access to a select group of Liberal Party donors. A trial was held to determine whether the allegations were defensible in March 2015 in the NSW Supreme Court before Justice Richard White, where Hockey argued that false allegations of the nature contained in the article, and the conduct of Fairfax during the proceedings, evidenced a malicious intent to smear his otherwise good reputation and consequently would justify the award of aggravated damages. In June 2015, the judge partially ruled in favour of Hockey, ruling that where the headline had been seen without the article, it was defamatory, and awarded Hockey $200,000 in damages. Fairfax was ordered to pay 15% of Hockey's court costs.
Upon taking up the role of Ambassador to the United States, the home of the Hockeys was rented out.
- Abbott Government
- Howard Government
- WorkChoices – part of Hockey's portfolio as Workplace Relations Minister.
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- Joe Hockey expected to be appointed to US ambassador post; Opposition questions Malcolm Turnbull's confidence in former treasurer: ABC 8 December 2015
- Trent Zimmerman preselected for Joe Hockey's safe Liberal seat of North Sydney: SMH 26 October 2015
- 2015 North Sydney by-election: Antony Green ABC
- Joe Hockey announced as Australia's next ambassador to the United States: SMH 8 December 2015
- Joe Hockey sworn in as US ambassador by Barack Obama
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- Madonna King (2014). Hockey: Not Your Average Joe. University of Queensland Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 9780702252617.
- Hockey, Joe. "About Joe Hockey".
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- "Maiden Speech | Media | The Hon. Joe Hockey MP". Joehockey.com. 1996-09-10. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
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- "ParlInfo - Plotting the future. Keynote address to Australian Tourism Research Institute Conference, Sydney". Parlinfo.aph.gov.au. 2002-10-16. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- "PM - Tourism Green Paper". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- Tourism White Paper: A Medium to Long Term Strategy for Tourism (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia. 2003. OCLC 223716418.
- Joe Hockey quits: how the man who could have been prime minister crashed and burned
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- "Lateline – 16/04/2007: Rudd, Hockey quit Sunrise gig". Abc.net.au. 16 April 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Christian Kerr; Dennis Shanahan (16 February 2009). "Joe Hockey steps up to take on Wayne Swan". The Australian. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
- "Hockey won't replace O'Farrell: Nelson - National". smh.com.au. 2008-03-10. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- "Joe Hockey and Malcolm Turnbull | Liberal Party and leadership battle | Poll of voting intentions". Brisbanetimes.com.au. 12 October 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Hockey speech 'not linked to leadership'" News Limited, 10 November 2009
- "God is good, but just be sure not to take Him too literally", Fairfax Digital, 10 November 2009
- "Newspoll" (PDF). 30 November 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- Shanahan, Dennis (30 November 2009). "Malcolm Turnbull pays the price for mayhem". The Australian. News Limited. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- Franklin, Matthew (30 November 2009). "Joe Hockey set to take on Malcolm Turnbull". The Australian. News Limited. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- Milne, Glenn (30 November 2009). "Joe Hockey's political hot potato". The Australian. News Limited. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- "Joe Hockey's call for female boardroom quotas is opposed by peak shareholders' body". The Australian. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "The Gender Divide". Abc.net.au. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "In defence of liberty | Grattan Institute". Grattan.edu.au. 2010-03-11. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- "Hockey stands up for your rights and liberty". The Australian. 11 March 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "'In Defence of Enterprise' address to the EIDOS Institute 12:30pm Wednesday 14 April 2010 | Media | The Hon. Joe Hockey MP". Joehockey.com. 2010-04-14. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- "In Defence of Opportunity - The Sydney Institute | Media | The Hon. Joe Hockey MP". Joehockey.com. 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- "'In Defence of Youth' - University of New England | Media | The Hon. Joe Hockey MP". Joehockey.com. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- Paul Daley (4 April 2010). "It only took a few Joyce words". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- "Australia's Future Engagement in the Asian Century | Media | The Hon. Joe Hockey MP". Joehockey.com. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- "The Future of Free Markets, Global Trade and Commerce | Media | The Hon. Joe Hockey MP". Joehockey.com. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- Madonna King (2014). Hockey: Not Your Average Joe. University of Queensland Press. pp. 241–243. ISBN 9780702252617.
- Joe Hockey (19 April 2012). "Hockey - "the end of the age of entitlement"". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
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- Tony Jones (2012-04-18). "Lateline - 18/04/2012: We have bred entitlement: Hockey". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
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- Hockey, Joe (26 April 2012) "Address to the Islamic Council of Victoria", Islamic Council of Victoria website.
- Farr, Malcolm (2014-02-03). "Joe Hockey warns Australians the age of entitlement is over". News.com.au. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- Mark Kenny (4 February 2014). "Hockey calls end to 'age of entitlement'". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- Verity Archer (2014-07-06). "How crusade to end 'age of entitlement' replaced 'war on poverty'". The Conversation Australia. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
- "Hockey says poorest people 'don't drive very far' - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. 2014-08-13. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- "Political profile: The rise and fall of Joe Hockey - Liberal Leadership turmoil - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
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- "Australians think Federal Budget 2014 is the worst in a very, very long time, according to this graphic". news.com.au. News Limited. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Michael Gordon (2014-05-19). "John Howard 'took a big hit in the polls too' after first budget? Er, no Mr Abbott: SMH 19 May 2014". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- Daniel Piotrowski (19 May 2014). "Australians think Federal Budget 2014 is the worst in a very, very long time, according to this graphic". Herald Sun. News Ltd. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- Michael Pascoe. "Farewell Joe Hockey, champion of cheap politics". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- Melissa Davey; Daniel Hurst (21 September 2015). "Joe Hockey's high ambition wounded by blunders, destroyed by horror budget". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Matthew Knott (2015-05-07). "Federal Budget 2015: Tony Abbott backs Joe Hockey amid reshuffle speculation". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- "'Get a good job': Joe Hockey accused of insensitivity over advice to first-home buyers - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. 2015-06-09. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
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- "Treasurer Joe Hockey raises ire of colleagues over push to make Australia republic - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- James Massola. "Tony Abbott being urged to consider dumping Joe Hockey and calling a March election: cabinet ministers". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- "Joe Hockey set for plum US role: The Advertiser 20 September 2015". Adelaidenow.com.au. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
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- "Hockey resigns, by-election date to come". news.com.au. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
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- Snow, Deborah; Davies, Anne (24 May 2014). "Meet the real Joe Hockey". The Age. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Eriksson, Boel. "A baby boy for Joe Hockey". North-shore-times.whereilive.com.au. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Writer, Larry. "HEY, DAD!." Australian Women's Weekly 79, no. 12 (December 2009): 63-66. Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost (accessed November 7, 2015).
- Kokoda deaths: Trekkers warned of 'punitive' conditions Fairfax Digital, 24 April 2009
- The Ultimate Burn – Mount Kilimanjaro Trek Humpty Dumpty Foundation Archived 4 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- Maiden, Samantha (27 January 2013). "Hockey a stick, not a ball now". dailytelegraph.com.au. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- Trute, Peter (17 March 2015). "'Smeared' Hockey seeks vindication". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- "Fairfax 'Treasurer for Sale' headline wins Joe Hockey $200k in defamation case". 9news.com.au. 2015-06-30. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
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- Joe Hockey holds house despite ambassador gig in Washington DC
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joe Hockey.|
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|Parliament of Australia|
|Member for North Sydney
as Minister for Social Security
|Minister for Human Services
|Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations
|Shadow Minister for Health and Ageing
|Shadow Minister for Finance and Deregulation
|Shadow Treasurer of Australia
|Treasurer of Australia
|Australian Ambassador to the United States