Joe Kennedy III

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Joe Kennedy III
Official portrait, 2023
United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland
Assumed office
December 19, 2022
PresidentJoe Biden
Preceded byMick Mulvaney
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 4th district
In office
January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2021
Preceded byBarney Frank
Succeeded byJake Auchincloss
Personal details
Joseph Patrick Kennedy III

(1980-10-04) October 4, 1980 (age 43)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Lauren Birchfield
(m. 2012)
RelativesKennedy family
EducationStanford University (BS)
Harvard University (JD)

Joseph Patrick Kennedy III (born October 4, 1980) is an American politician and diplomat who currently serves as United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland since 2022. Prior to this, Kennedy served as the U.S. representative for Massachusetts's 4th congressional district from 2013 to 2021. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented a district that extends from Boston's western suburbs to the state's South Coast. He worked as an assistant district attorney in the Cape and Islands and Middlesex County, Massachusetts, offices before his election to Congress. In January 2021, he became a CNN commentator.[1]

A member of the Kennedy family, he is a son of U.S. Representative Joseph P. Kennedy II, a grandson of U.S. Senator and U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, a grandnephew of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy, and a great-grandson of U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.

Born in Boston, Kennedy was raised in the area with his twin brother, Matthew Rauch Kennedy. After graduating from Stanford University with a bachelor's degree, he spent two years in the Dominican Republic as a member of the Peace Corps, before earning a Juris Doctor at Harvard Law School in 2009. He resigned from his role as assistant district attorney in early 2012 to run for the U.S. House of Representatives seat held by the retiring Barney Frank. Kennedy was sworn into office in January 2013, and sat on the House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

In 2020, rather than run for re-election to his House seat, Kennedy unsuccessfully challenged incumbent Senator Ed Markey for the Democratic nomination in the Massachusetts U.S. Senate election.[2] He was succeeded by fellow Democrat, and distant cousin-in-law,[3][circular reference] Jake Auchincloss.[4] Since leaving office, he has founded Project Groundwork, which focuses on boosting local community organizing efforts throughout the United States.[5] He has also joined several advisory boards and began appearing as a political commentator for CNN.[6] On June 4, 2021, President Joe Biden appointed him to be a member of the President's Commission on White House Fellowships.[7]

In December 2022, Kennedy was named the United States Special Envoy to Northern Ireland for Economic Affairs by President Biden.[8]

Early life and career[edit]

Kennedy was born on October 4, 1980,[9] in Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, to Sheila Brewster (Rauch) (b. 1949) and Joseph P. Kennedy II. He was born eight minutes after his fraternal twin brother, Matthew. The twins are the eldest grandsons of Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Kennedy. Kennedy is also the great-great-grandson of Benjamin Brewster, one of the original trustees of Standard Oil, and a direct descendant of Mayflower Pilgrim William Brewster.[10][11] They were raised in Brighton and the coastal town of Marshfield, Massachusetts, also spending summers on Cape Cod.[12] From birth, Kennedy was surrounded by politics; in 1980, his parents worked on the presidential campaign of U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy, the boys' grand-uncle. Kennedy's father was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1986. His parents divorced in 1991. The twins spent the following years moving between Brighton and Cambridge, Massachusetts.[11]

Kennedy (left) in the Dominican Republic as part of the Peace Corps

After graduating from Buckingham Browne & Nichols School in Cambridge, Kennedy and his brother enrolled at Stanford University, where he majored in management science and engineering. Kennedy's reputation as a teetotaler earned him the college nickname "Milkman", as his teammates on the club lacrosse team would jokingly order him glasses of milk at bars.[11][13] At Stanford, Kennedy roomed with future NBA player Jason Collins[14] and was a member of the Kappa Alpha Order fraternity.

After graduating in 2003, Kennedy joined the Peace Corps; a fluent Spanish speaker, he worked in the Dominican Republic's Puerto Plata province from 2004 to 2006, helping local tour guides in the 27 Charcos reserve in the Río Damajagua Park. He reorganized the group with some outside backing, directing the guides to rebuild parts of the park and develop skills to make the operation more attractive to tourists.[11][13] "We basically created a union," said Kennedy, who reported that the group's efforts won higher wages for employees while increasing the tour companies' revenue.[15] According to a press release, his other activities in the Peace Corps included "stints as an Anti-Poverty Consultant for the Office of the President of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste and a Research Analyst for the United Nations Development Program."[16]

Entry into law and politics[edit]

Kennedy speaking at the 50th Anniversary of the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium (2011)

In April 2006, Kennedy returned to Massachusetts, where he and his brother co-chaired Ted Kennedy's re-election campaign. The same month, Kennedy enrolled in Harvard Law School.[11] There, he worked for the Harvard Legal Aid Bureau, providing legal aid to low-income tenants with foreclosure cases in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, and as a technical editor for the Harvard Human Rights Journal, on a staff with his classmate and future wife, Lauren Anne Birchfield.[11] In 2007, he and Birchfield co-founded Picture This: Justice and Power, an after-school program for youths in Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood.[17][18] He began an internship at the Cape and Islands District Attorney's Office in 2008.[16]

After earning his Juris Doctor in 2009, Kennedy was hired at the Cape and Islands District Attorney's Office as an assistant district attorney (ADA). He considered running for the Cape-based U.S. House seat held by retiring Rep. Bill Delahunt in early 2010 but decided against it.[19] In September 2011, he joined the Middlesex County, Massachusetts District Attorney's Office, also as an ADA.[20] He resigned several months later, in preparation for the announcement that he would seek political office.[21]

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]



Kennedy (left) campaigning with Elizabeth Warren (center), and his predecessor Barney Frank (right), 2012 Boston Pride Parade

In January 2012, Kennedy announced he would form an exploratory committee to run in the newly redrawn 4th congressional district of Massachusetts.[21][22] Kennedy explained, "I will then begin to reach out to the people of the Fourth District, in order to hear directly from them about the challenges they are facing and their ideas on how we can restore fairness to our system. I will make a final decision about entering the race in the weeks thereafter."[23][24]

He officially entered the election in February 2012.[25] In an announcement video, Kennedy declared, "I believe this country was founded on a simple idea: that every person deserves to be treated fairly, by each other and by their government".[26] In the same video, Kennedy vowed to fight for a "fair job plan", a "better educational system", a "fair tax code", and a "fair housing policy".[26]

While several Democratic candidates had prepared to enter the race, the field nearly cleared once Kennedy announced his candidacy. His family roots made him the overwhelming favorite among Massachusetts Democrats.[27][28] In the September 6 primary, he faced Rachel Brown, a Lyndon LaRouche acolyte, and Herb Robinson, an engineer and musician, winning the primary with around 90 percent of the vote.[29] He was elected to the House of Representatives on November 6, 2012, defeating Republican candidate Sean Bielat, winning over 60% of the vote.


In the 2014 election, Kennedy ran unopposed in the primary and general elections. On November 4, 2014, he was re-elected to a second term with 184,158 votes (98%).[30]


In 2016, after running unopposed in the Democratic primary, Kennedy was re-elected to a third term, defeating Republican David Rosa by more than 40 percentage points.[31]


Kennedy was mentioned as a potential candidate for the 2018 Massachusetts gubernatorial election[32] but declined, running for re-election to the House and saying he had no plans to run for any other office.[33] He was re-elected unopposed.

Committee assignments
115th Congress (2017–19)[34]


Joe Kennedy III speaks during a ceremony celebrating the life of his grandfather, Robert F. Kennedy, in 2018.
Kennedy's official portrait during the 116th United States Congress

Kennedy was sworn into the 113th U.S. Congress on January 3, 2013, and assigned to the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. He praised the technology committee assignment as an opportunity to secure federal funding, including National Science Foundation and Small Business Innovation Research grants, for life sciences companies in his district. As a freshman in his party, he was unable to secure a seat he had sought on the Education Committee.[35]

During a February science committee hearing, Kennedy questioned Texas Instruments president Richard Templeton about the company's efforts to compensate cancer-stricken former employees of its Attleboro, Massachusetts, nuclear facility.[36][37] A prolific fundraiser, he launched his political action committee, the 4MA PAC, in April.[38][39] As a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee, he traveled in May with four other legislators to Afghanistan, where they met with President Hamid Karzai and members of the military.[40] That month, he was named chairman of Governor Deval Patrick's STEM Advisory Council.[41]

On July 24, 2013, Kennedy was one of seven members of the Congressional Progressive Caucus[42] (CPC) to vote against the Amash-Conyers amendment to limit Section 215 of the Patriot Act, which tried to restrict NSA surveillance programs. In contrast, a majority of both CPC members and of Democratic members of Congress voted for the amendment, while Kennedy stood out as a supporter of the party leadership. His vote has been criticized as a sign for a lack of commitment to civil liberties.[43]

Kennedy was a member of the U.S.-Japan Caucus.[44]

Response to the 2018 State of the Union[edit]

On January 26, 2018, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer announced that Kennedy would deliver the Democratic response to President Donald Trump's 2018 State of the Union address.[45][46] His selection came after criticism that the Democratic Party had relied too heavily on its oldest leaders since the 2016 presidential election. In choosing Kennedy, the party was seen as trying to bridge the gap with a new face attached to one of the most famous names in American politics.[47] On January 30, he gave the response to television cameras and a live studio audience in the automotive body shop of Diman Regional Vocational Technical High School at Fall River, Massachusetts.[48] The location was meant to emphasize the role immigrants have in American society. He spent the opening minutes of his speech boasting about the economy and industrial history of Fall River, a city in his district. His audience included Diman Regional Technical School students. He praised Black Lives Matter, and spoke in Spanish about children who were brought into the United States illegally when they were minors.[49] He also took numerous swings at Trump, criticizing the Department of Justice for "rolling back civil rights by the day" and attacking the administration for "targeting the very idea that we are all worthy of protection".[50] He accused Trump of turning American life "into a zero-sum game",[50] and said that Democrats intended to aid the middle and lower classes. He closed by characterizing the state of the union as "hopeful, resilient, enduring".[50]

2020 U.S. Senate campaign[edit]

Logo for Kennedy's 2020 Senate Campaign

On August 26, 2019, Kennedy announced he was considering a primary challenge against incumbent Senator Ed Markey, and on September 21, he formally announced his candidacy. He announced that he would not seek re-election, instead challenging Markey in the Democratic primary for the 2020 United States Senate election in Massachusetts.[51][52] On September 1, 2020, Markey defeated him in the Democratic primary. Kennedy became the first member of his family to lose an election in Massachusetts.[53][54][55]

His defeat was widely attributed to his inability to explain his reasons for running. Additionally, Markey had strength among progressives and younger voters, buoyed by active youth involvement. Kennedy was endorsed by House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, while Markey had the support of Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, former Vice-President Al Gore, Senator Elizabeth Warren, Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, the youth-led Sunrise Movement, and The Boston Globe.[56][57] The race was considered a showdown between the Democratic establishment and its new and growing progressive wing, although the lines between the two were blurred, as Kennedy was a member of the Congressional Progressive Caucus, endorsed by many members, and Markey had been in Congress 43 years at the time.[58][59]

Biden administration[edit]

Kennedy with Secretary of State Antony Blinken in 2023

United States Special Envoy to Northern Ireland for Economic Affairs[edit]

On December 19, 2022, President Biden announced Kennedy would replace Mick Mulvaney as U.S. Special Envoy for Northern Ireland. Mulvaney retired in 2021.[60]

Although not strictly a diplomatic role, he is the fifth Kennedy family member to serve as a diplomat/foreign envoy. Cousin Caroline Kennedy was U.S. Ambassador to Japan from 2013 to 2017 and has been U.S. Ambassador to Australia since June 2022. Aunt Victoria Reggie Kennedy has been U.S. Ambassador to Austria since January 2022. Aunt Jean Kennedy Smith was U.S. Ambassador to Ireland from 1993 to 1998. Uncle Sargent Shriver was U.S. Ambassador to France from 1968 to 1970. Great-grandfather Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. was U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1938 to 1940.

Political positions[edit]

Civil rights[edit]

Kennedy has co-sponsored legislation to study reparations for slavery, supports measures to expand the civil rights of Native Americans, opposes discrimination in employment, housing, education, and health care, and supports removing barriers to equal opportunities for people with disabilities, including improving access to public transit, housing, voting, and education. He supports LGBTQIA+ rights, recognition of a national Transgender Day of Remembrance and is a member of the Congressional Transgender Equality Task Force. In the area of gender equity, he is an advocate of legislation to end workplace discrimination and wage discrimination and is a supporter of the Me Too movement.[61][non-primary source needed]

Marijuana legalization[edit]

Kennedy helped raise funds in 2016 for the defeat of Question 4 to legalize cannabis for recreational use in Massachusetts.[62][63] He also voted against the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment in 2015 which limits the enforcement of federal law in states that have legalized medical cannabis.[62][64] In November 2018 he changed his stance towards cannabis and endorsed its legalization at the federal level, however.[65] In January 2020 he co-sponsored a bill to federally legalize cannabis known as the Marijuana Opportunity Reinvestment and Expungement (MORE) Act.[66]

Climate change[edit]

Kennedy co-sponsored the Green New Deal, and supports aggressive action to reduce carbon emissions, enforce pollution control standards, protect public lands from fossil fuel extraction, promote clean energy alternatives to pipelines and compressor stations, and invest in related infrastructure and scientific research. He supports strict fuel efficiency standards and the elimination of exemptions to the Clean Air Act, and opposed the United States' withdrawal from the Paris Agreement under President Donald Trump.[67]

Racial inequality[edit]

Kennedy has helped pass legislation to guarantee access to STEM and vocational education, and co-sponsored legislation to eliminate most student debt. He has also co-sponsored legislation to reduce racial discrimination in housing, favors increasing the portion of federal grants earmarked for minority-owned small businesses, and supports criminal justice reform.[68][non-primary source needed]

Health care[edit]

Kennedy supports strengthening Social Security and Medicare, and favors having Medicare negotiate prescription drug prices directly with drug manufacturers. Kennedy is also a supporter of universal health-care.[69]

Electoral history[edit]

Massachusetts's 4th congressional district, results 2012–2018
Year Democrat Republican 3rd party
Candidate Votes Pct. Candidate Votes Pct. Candidate Party Votes Pct.
2012 Joseph P. Kennedy III 221,303 61.1% Sean D. Bielat 129,936 35.9% David A. Rosa Independent 10,741 3.0%
2014 Joseph P. Kennedy III (incumbent) 184,158 97.9% (no candidate) write-ins 3,940 2.1%
2016 Joseph P. Kennedy III (incumbent) 265,823 70.1% David A. Rosa 113,055 29.8% write-ins 335 0.1%
2018 Joseph P. Kennedy III (incumbent) 245,289 97.7% (no candidate) write-ins 5,727 2.3%
2020 U.S. Senate Democratic primary results[70][53]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Ed Markey (incumbent) 782,694 55.35
Democratic Joseph P. Kennedy III 629,359 44.51
Total votes 100.0%

Personal life[edit]

Elizabeth Warren (left) speaking with Kennedy (center) and his wife Lauren in 2019

Kennedy married health policy lawyer[71] Lauren Anne Birchfield, a graduate of the University of California, Los Angeles and a finalist for the Rhodes Scholarship, in Corona del Mar, California, on December 1, 2012.[72] The couple met in Harvard Law School, where they took a class taught by future U.S. Senator Elizabeth Warren.[73] On December 29, 2015, Birchfield gave birth to their daughter, Eleanor.[74] On December 20, 2017, Kennedy announced the birth of their second child, a son, named James.[75] The family lives in Newton, Massachusetts.[76]

Kennedy's net worth is about $43 million, which made him among the wealthiest members of Congress.[77]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Lisa Kashinsky (January 29, 2021). "Joe Kennedy becomes CNN commentator". Boston Herald. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  2. ^ Murray, Stephanie (September 2020). "Markey defeats Kennedy, Neal wins in Massachusetts". Politico. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  3. ^ Hugh D. Auchincloss
  4. ^ Goodwin, Liz; McGrane, Victoria (February 15, 2021). "Jake Auchincloss swings left in Congress amid lingering progressive skepticism". Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  5. ^ McGrane, Victoria. "After Senate defeat, Joe Kennedy III plots new path in politics". Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  6. ^ Kashinsky, Lisa (January 29, 2021). "Joe Kennedy becomes CNN commentator". Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  7. ^ "President Biden Appoints Members to President's Commission on White House Fellowships". The White House. June 4, 2021.
  8. ^ Blinken, Antony. "Announcement of Joe Kennedy III as U.S. Special Envoy to Northern Ireland for Economic Affairs". State Department. Retrieved December 19, 2022.
  9. ^ "Kennedy, Joseph P. III". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  10. ^ Edith Zimmerman (September 12, 2012). "Keeping Up With the Kennedys". The New York Times.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Jacobs, Sally (March 17, 2012). "For the Kennedy clan, he is Generation Next". The Boston Globe.
  12. ^ Vosk, Stephanie (February 28, 2010). "Not your average Joe (Kennedy)". Cape Cod Times. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013.
  13. ^ a b "Massachusetts, 4th House District". National Journal. November 6, 2012.
  14. ^ "Why NBA center Jason Collins is coming out now". Sports Illustrated. April 29, 2013.
  15. ^ Pollock, Alan (May 7, 2009). "Joseph P. Kennedy III Urges Young People To Act Locally, And Globally". The Cape Cod Chronicle. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013.
  16. ^ a b "Kennedy Joins Middlesex District Attorney's Office". Office of the Middlesex District Attorney. August 24, 2011. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  17. ^ "Joseph Kennedy III joins Middlesex DA's Office". The MetroWest Daily News. August 24, 2011. Archived from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  18. ^ Newburger, Emily (2012). "The Next Generation". Alumni Pursuits. Harvard Law School.
  19. ^ Vosk, Stephanie (March 1, 2010). "Joseph Kennedy III says he won't seek seat". Cape Cod Times. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012.
  20. ^ Jessica Venezia Pastore & Stephanie Chelf Guyotte (August 24, 2011). "Middlesex District Attorney". Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
  21. ^ a b Phillips, Frank (January 5, 2012). "Joseph P. Kennedy III, family scion, explores run for Barney Frank's House seat |". Archived from the original on April 17, 2023. Retrieved August 17, 2020.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  22. ^ Clift, Eleanor (February 17, 2012). "Joe Kennedy III Takes the Torch from Retiring Barney Frank". The Daily Beast. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  23. ^ "Joe Kennedy III Exploring Campaign Run". The Boston Channel. January 5, 2012. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2012. Alt URL Archived January 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Miga, Andrew. "Joseph Kennedy III Takes Steps Toward A Run For Congress". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  25. ^ "Joseph Kennedy III Announcing Mass. Congress Bid". February 15, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  26. ^ a b joekennedy2012 (February 15, 2012). "I'm Running". YouTube. Archived from the original on November 7, 2021. Retrieved February 28, 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  27. ^ Miller, Joshua (January 24, 2012). "4th District Field Clears for Joseph Kennedy III in Massachusetts". Roll Call.
  28. ^ "2012 Primary Endorsement: 4th Congressional District: Joe Kennedy III for Democrats". The Boston Globe. September 2, 2012.
  29. ^ Levenson, Michael (September 7, 2012). "Bielat, Kennedy to vie for open House seat". The Boston Globe.
  30. ^ "House election results". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  31. ^ "Massachusetts 4th District Results". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  32. ^ Salsberg, Bob (November 28, 2016). "Pivoting toward 2018, Massachusetts Dems eye Charlie Baker challenge". Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  33. ^ Metzger, Andy. "Kennedy says he will seek re-election in 2018". The Herald News. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  34. ^ "Rep. Joseph P. Kennedy III (D-Mass)". Roll Call. CQ.
  35. ^ Jan, Tracy (January 5, 2013). "Kennedy named to two House committees". The Boston Globe.
  36. ^ Nichols, Christopher (February 6, 2013). "Kennedy grills Texas Instruments president". Taunton Gazette.[permanent dead link]
  37. ^ Foster, Rick (February 6, 2013). "Kennedy questions TI president about cancer cases". The Sun Chronicle.
  38. ^ Tracy, Jan (April 17, 2013). "Tierney tops state delegation in first quarter fundraising". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
  39. ^ Blake, Aaron (April 12, 2013). "Rep. Joe Kennedy III launches political action committee". Post Politics (The Washington Post).
  40. ^ Bender, Bryan (May 28, 2013). "Kennedy impressed by US efforts to prepare Afghans". The Boston Globe.
  41. ^ Massachusetts Governor's Office (May 29, 2013). "Lieutenant Governor Murray announces Congressman Kennedy to lead the governor's STEM Advisory Council".
  42. ^ "Caucus Members". Congressional Progressive Caucus. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  43. ^ In These Times (July 26, 2013). "Why Did 83 Democrats Vote to Continue NSA Surveillance?". Archived from the original on January 16, 2020. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  44. ^ "Members". U.S. – Japan Caucus. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  45. ^ "Rep. Joe Kennedy III to deliver Democratic response to State of the Union". Retrieved January 26, 2018.
  46. ^ "Can Joe Kennedy Beat the State of the Union Curse?". POLITICO Magazine. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  47. ^ Malone, Scott (January 25, 2018). "In step to national stage, a young Kennedy to rebut Trump address". Reuters. Boston. Archived from the original on January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
  48. ^ "Rep. Kennedy highlighted Fall River's resilience and work ethic in rebuttal to President Trump". Herald News, Massachusetts. February 1, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  49. ^ Seelye, Katharine Q. (January 30, 2018). "Joseph P. Kennedy III Gives Democratic Response to State of the Union". The New York Times – via
  50. ^ a b c "Full Transcript and Video: Joe Kennedy Delivers Democratic Response to the State of the Union". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  51. ^ Dwinell, Joe (August 26, 2019). "Joe Kennedy III confirms he's eyeing run for U.S. Senate". Boston Herald. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  52. ^ LeBlanc, Steve (September 21, 2019). "Rep. Joe Kennedy formally announces US Senate campaign". AP NEWS. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  53. ^ a b Markey Holds Off Joseph Kennedy in Massachusetts Senate Race, New York Times, Jonathan Martin, September 1, 2020. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  54. ^ Martin, Jonathan (September 1, 2020). "Markey Holds Off Joseph Kennedy in Massachusetts Senate Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  55. ^ "Fast Facts about Robert F. Kennedy". Retrieved September 4, 2020. Robert F. Kennedy was not on the ballot in Massachusetts in the 1968 Democratic Party presidential primaries, and finished second to Eugene McCarthy as a write-in candidate.
  56. ^ Buell, Spencer (July 30, 2020). "In the Endorsement Battle with Joe Kennedy, Ed Markey Is Winning". Boston magazine. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  57. ^ Fram, Alan (August 20, 2020). "Pelosi endorses Kennedy over Markey in US Senate primary". Associated Press. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  58. ^ Cohen, Rachel M. (September 1, 2020). "Ed Markey Beats Back Senate Challenge from Joe Kennedy". The Intercept. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  59. ^ Murray, Stephanie (September 1, 2020). "Markey overcomes Kennedy challenge in Massachusetts". Politico. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  60. ^ Tapper, Jake (December 18, 2022). "Biden to name former Rep. Joe Kennedy III as Northern Ireland envoy Monday morning". CNN. Retrieved December 19, 2022.
  61. ^ "Issues: Civil Rights, Kennedy for Congress. Archived June 30, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ a b Angell, Tom (January 28, 2018). "Dems Pick Anti-Marijuana Kennedy For Trump State Of The Union Response". Marijuana Moment. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  63. ^ O'Sullivan, Jim (September 28, 2016). "A bipartisan effort: Block legalization of marijuana". The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
  64. ^ Kopp, Emily (November 20, 2018). "Rep. Joe Kennedy III, Once Staunchly Anti-Marijuana, Changes His Position". Roll Call. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  65. ^ Kennedy, Joe III (November 20, 2018). "Rep. Joe Kennedy III: It's time to legalize marijuana at the federal level". STAT. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  66. ^ Jaeger, Kyle (January 9, 2020). "Formerly Anti-Marijuana Congressman Cosponsors Comprehensive Legalization Bill". Marijuana Moment. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  67. ^ Here's where Joe Kennedy stands on the hottest issues debated during Ed Markey's climate change forum,, Nik DeCosta-Klipa, November 11, 2019. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  68. ^ "Issues: Communities of Color, Kennedy for Congress. Archived June 30, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  69. ^ "Universal Health Care | Joe Kennedy for Massachusetts". September 1, 2020. Archived from the original on September 1, 2020. Retrieved November 20, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  70. ^ "Election Results (Massachusetts Senate)". Decision Desk HQ. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  71. ^ "Lauren Birchfield Kennedy". Archived from the original on March 14, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
  72. ^ Scott Stump (December 3, 2012). "Congressman-elect Joe Kennedy III is married". MSNBC.
  73. ^ Ted Nesi (January 3, 2012). "Joe Kennedy III met his wife in Warren's Harvard Law class". WPRI-TV. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  74. ^ Katie McLeod (December 29, 2015). "Joe Kennedy III announces birth of daughter on Twitter". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
  75. ^ "Meet James Matthew Kennedy. Born early this morning and doing great. First gift he received was (appropriately) a Patriots jersey from Grandpa Joe. Thanks to all for the kind words. We are exhausted, over the moon and deeply grateful!". December 20, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  76. ^ Finucane, Martin (January 30, 2018). "6 things to know about Joseph Kennedy III".
  77. ^ "The Democrat Giving The SOTU Response Is One Of The Richest Lawmakers In Congress". Bustle. January 28, 2018. Retrieved September 2, 2020.

External links[edit]

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 4th congressional district

Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by Response to the State of the Union address
Succeeded by
Diplomatic posts
Title last held by
Mick Mulvaney
United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded byas Former US Representative Order of precedence of the United States
as Former US Representative
Succeeded byas Former US Representative