September 18, 1926|
pol.Jezierzany, ukr.Ozeryany, Ternopil Region, Ukraine, then Poland
|Died||August 12, 2012
Morristown, New Jersey
|Awards||Alley Award (1962, 1963, 1969)
National Cartoonists Society Awards (1974, 1980)
Eisner Award (1977)
Harvey Award (1997)
Inkwell Awards Joe Sinnott Hall of Fame (2015).
|Spouse(s)||Muriel Fogelson (1951–2008; five children)|
Joseph "Joe" Kubert (//; September 18, 1926 – August 12, 2012) was an American comic book artist, art teacher and founder of The Kubert School. He is best known for his work on the DC Comics characters Sgt. Rock and Hawkman. He is also known for working on his own creations, such as Tor, Son of Sinbad, and the Viking Prince, and, with writer Robin Moore, the comic strip Tales of the Green Beret. Two of Kubert's sons, Andy Kubert and Adam Kubert, themselves became successful comic book artists, as have many of Kubert's former students, including Stephen R. Bissette, Amanda Conner, Rick Veitch, Eric Shanower, Steve Lieber, and Scott Kolins.
Kubert was born September 18, 1926 to a Jewish family in a shtetl called Yzeran (Jezierzany), in southeast Poland (now Ukraine). He was the son of Etta (née Reisenberg) and Jacob Kubert. He emigrated to Brooklyn, New York City, United States, at age two months with his parents and his two-and-a-half-year-old sister Ida. Raised in the East New York neighborhood, the son of a kosher butcher, Kubert started drawing at an early age, encouraged by his parents.
In his introduction to his graphic novel Yossel, Kubert wrote, "I got my first paying job as a cartoonist for comic books when I was eleven-and-a-half or twelve years old. Five dollars a page. In 1938, that was a lot of money". Another source, utilizing quotes from Kubert, says in 1938, a school friend who was related to Louis Silberkleit, a principal of MLJ Studios (the future Archie Comics), urged Kubert to visit the company, where he began an unofficial apprenticeship and at age 12 "was allowed to ink a rush job, the pencils of Bob Montana's [teen-humor feature] 'Archie'". Author David Hajdu, who interviewed Kubert and other comics professionals for a 2008 book, reported, however, that, "Kubert has told varying versions of the story of his introduction to the comics business at age ten, sometimes setting it at the comics shop run by Harry "A" Chesler, sometimes at MLJ; however, MLJ did not start operation until 1939, when Kubert was thirteen".
Kubert attended Manhattan's High School of Music and Art. During this time he and classmate Norman Maurer, a future collaborator, would sometimes skip school in order to see publishers. Kubert began honing his craft at the Chesler studio, one of the comic-book packagers that had sprung up in the medium's early days to supply outsourced comics to publishers.
Kubert's first known professional job was penciling and inking the six-page story "Black-Out", starring the character Volton, in Holyoke Publishing's Catman Comics #8 (March 1942; also listed as vol. 2, #13). He would continuing drawing the feature for the next three issues, and was soon doing similar work for Fox Comics' Blue Beetle. Branching into additional art skills, he began coloring the Quality Comics reprints of future industry legend Will Eisner's The Spirit, a seven-page comics feature that ran as part of a newspaper Sunday supplement.
1940s and 1950s
Kubert's first work for DC Comics, where he would spend much of his career and produce some of his most notable art, was penciling and inking the 50-page "Seven Soldiers of Victory" superhero-team story in Leading Comics #8 (Fall 1943), published by a DC predecessor company, All-American Publications. Throughout the decade, Kubert's art would appear in comics from Fiction House, Avon, and Harvey Comics, but he otherwise worked exclusively for All-American and DC. Kubert's long association with the Hawkman character began with the story "The Painter and the $100,000" in Flash Comics #62 (Feb. 1945). Kubert drew several Hawkman stories in that title as well as in All Star Comics. He and Irwin Hasen drew the debut of the Injustice Society in All Star Comics #37 (Oct. 1947) in a tale written by Robert Kanigher. The Kanigher/Kubert team created the Thorn in issue Flash Comics #89 (Nov. 1947).
In the 1950s, he became managing editor of St. John Publications, where he, his old classmate Norman Maurer, and Norman's brother Leonard Maurer produced the first 3-D comic books, starting with Three Dimension Comics #1 (Sept. 1953 oversize format, Oct. 1953 standard-size reprint), featuring Mighty Mouse. According to Kubert, it sold a remarkable 1.2 million copies at 25 cents apiece at a time when comics cost a dime.
At St. John, writer Norman Maurer and artist Kubert created the enduring character Tor, a prehistoric-human protagonist who debuted in the comic 1,000,000 Years Ago (Sept. 1953). Tor immediately went on to star in 3-D Comics #2-3 (Oct.-Nov. 1953), followed by a titular, traditionally 2-D comic-book series, written and drawn by Joe Kubert, that premiered with issue #3 (May 1954). The character has since appeared in series from Eclipse Comics, Marvel Comics' Epic imprint, and DC Comics through at least the 1990s. Kubert in the late 1950s unsuccessfully attempted to sell Tor as a newspaper comic strip. The Tor samples consisted of 12 daily strips, reprinted in six pages in Alter Ego vol. 3 #10 and later expanded to 16 pages in DC Comics' Tor #1. He contributed work to Avon Periodicals, where he did science-fiction stories for Strange Worlds and other titles.
DC Comics and Sgt. Rock
Beginning with Our Army at War #32 (March 1955), Kubert began to freelance again for DC Comics, in addition to Lev Gleason Publications and Atlas Comics, the 1950s iteration of Marvel Comics. By the end of the year he was drawing for DC exclusively. DC editor Julius Schwartz assigned Kubert, Robert Kanigher, and Carmine Infantino to the company's first attempt at reviving superheroes: an updated version of the Flash that would appear in Showcase #4 (Oct. 1956). The eventual success of the new, science-fiction oriented Flash heralded the wholesale return of superheroes, and the beginning of what fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books. In the coming years, Kubert would work on such characters as the medieval adventurer Viking Prince and features starring Sgt. Rock and The Haunted Tank in the war comic G.I. Combat. He and writer Gardner Fox created a new version of Hawkman in The Brave and the Bold #34 (Feb.–March 1961) with the character receiving his own title three years later. Kubert's work on Hawkman and in G.I. Combat would become known as his signature efforts. Kubert's main collaborator on the war comics was writer/editor Kanigher. Their work together on Sgt. Rock is considered a memorable contribution to the comics medium. They introduced Enemy Ace in Our Army at War #151 (Feb. 1965).
Kubert served as DC Comics' director of publications from 1967 to 1976. He made the Unknown Soldier the lead feature of Star Spangled War Stories with issue #151 (June–July 1970) and initiated titles based on such Edgar Rice Burroughs properties as Tarzan and Korak. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that Kubert's "scripts and artwork ranked among the most authentic and effective ever seen." DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz stated in 2010 that "Joe Kubert produced an adaptation that Burroughs aficionados could respect." Kubert supervised the production of the comic books Sgt. Rock and Weird Worlds. While performing supervisory duties he continued to draw for some books, notably Tarzan from 1972 to 1975 and drew covers for Rima the Jungle Girl from 1974 to 1975. He edited Limited Collectors' Edition #C-36 which features stories from the Book of Genesis adapted by writer Sheldon Mayer and artist Nestor Redondo. Kubert and Kanigher created Ragman in the first issue (Aug.-Sept. 1976) of that character's short-lived ongoing series.
The Kubert School
The Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art was founded in September 1976 by Kubert and his wife Muriel in Dover, New Jersey's former high school, whose tall windows offered optimal lighting. Its first graduating class of 1978 included Stephen R. Bissette, Thomas Yeates, and Rick Veitch. Kubert taught a number of students who later became notable professionals, including Amanda Conner, Eric Shanower, Steve Lieber, and Scott Kolins.
Kubert provided art for several anniversary issues of key DC titles. He and writer Paul Levitz crafted a Hawkman story in Detective Comics #500 (March 1981). Kubert was one of the artists on the double-sized Justice League of America #200 (March 1982) as well as Batman #400 (Oct. 1986).
He wrote and drew a collection of faith-based comic strips beginning in the late 1980s for Tzivos Hashem, the Lubavitch children's organization, and Moshiach Times magazine. The stories, "The Adventures of Yaakov and Isaac", were based on biblical references but were not Bible stories.
Kubert made a return to writing and drawing in 1991 with the Abraham Stone graphic novel Country Mouse, City Rat for Malibu Comics' Platinum Editions. He returned to the character for two more stories, Radix Malorum and The Revolution published by Epic Comics in 1995.
Also for Epic Comics, he delivered the four-issue Tor miniseries in 1993. Fax from Sarajevo, initially released as a 207-page hardcover book in 1996 and two years later as a 224-page trade paperback was published by Dark Horse Comics. The non-fiction book originated as a series of faxes from European comics agent Ervin Rustemagić during the Serbian siege of Sarajevo. Rustemagić and his family, whose home and possessions in suburban Dobrinja were destroyed, spent two-and-a-half years in a ruined building, communicating with the outside world via fax when they could. Friend and client Kubert was one recipient. Collaborating long-distance, they collected Rustemagić's account of life during wartime, with Kubert and editor Bob Cooper turning the raw faxes into a somber comics tale.
Kubert drew the first issue of Stan Lee's Just Imagine... limited series (2001) and two pencil-illustrated graphic novels, Yossel: April 19, 1943 (2003) and Jew Gangster (2005), for IBooks. In 2003, Kubert returned to the Sgt. Rock character, illustrating Sgt. Rock: Between Hell and a Hard Place, a hardcover graphic novel written by Brian Azzarello. Kubert drew Tex, The Lonesome Rider, written by Claudio Nizzi and published by SAF Comics in 2005, and then wrote and drew Sgt. Rock: The Prophecy, a six-issue miniseries in 2006. In the mid-2000s, he was the artist for PS, The Preventive Maintenance Monthly, a United States Army magazine with comic-book elements that stresses the importance of preventive maintenance of vehicles, arms, and other ordnance. In 2008, Kubert returned to his Tor character with a six-issue limited series published by DC Comics entitled Tor: A Prehistoric Odyssey. In 2009, Kubert contributed a new Sgt. Rock story for Wednesday Comics, published by DC. His son, Adam, wrote the story, his first foray at scripting. In 2011, Joe Kubert wrote the introduction and drew the lenticular 3-D front cover for Craig Yoe's Amazing 3-D Comics! Kubert inked his son Andy's pencils on the first two issues of DC Universe: Legacies, a 10 issue series chronicling the history of the DC Universe. and the Before Watchmen: Nite Owl limited series. The first two issues of Before Watchmen: Nite Owl were released before Kubert's death. The other two were released posthumously. In 2012 Kubert and the Joe Kubert school produced a syndicated comic strip, "Hans Brinker and the Silver Skates", reprinted in Comics Revue. DC Comics published Joe Kubert Presents (Dec. 2012-May 2013) featuring stories by Kubert (Hawkman), Spit Kamandi, Sam Glanzman (U.S.S. Stevens), and Driani Duniak (Angel and the Ape).
Kubert married Muriel Fogelson on July 8, 1951. In the early 1960s, The Kuberts moved to Dover, New Jersey and raised their five children: David, the eldest, followed by Danny, Lisa, and comic-book artists Adam and Andy Kubert. Kubert's granddaughter Katie Kubert works as a comics editor. She worked at DC Comics for five years as an editor on the Batman titles, and left to work on the X-Men titles at Marvel Comics in June 2014. Kubert's grandson and graduate of The Kubert School, Orion Zangara, is also a comic-book artist who is currently working on a graphic novel trilogy for the Lerner Publishing Group.
Awards and recognition
Kubert's several awards and nominations include:
- the 1962 Alley Award for Best Single Comic Book Cover for The Brave and the Bold #42.
- a 1963 write-in Alley Award for "Artist Preferred on Sea Devils.
- a special 1969 Alley Award "for the cinematic storytelling techniques and the exciting and dramatic style he has brought to the field of comic art".
- The 1974 and 1980 National Cartoonists Society Awards in the category "Story Comic Book". plus a 1997 nomination for Best Comic Book.
- The 1977 Inkpot Award
- The 1997 Eisner Award for "Best Graphic Album: New", for Fax from Sarajevo.
- The 1997 Harvey Award for "Best Graphic Album of Original Work," for Fax from Sarajevo.
- September 2011 Inkwell Awards Ambassador (September 2011–August 2012)
Kubert was inducted into the Harvey Awards' Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1997, and Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1998. In 2009, Kubert received the Milton Caniff Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Cartoonists Society.
Kubert was awarded the Inkwell Awards Joe Sinnott Hall of Fame Award in 2015. His acceptance speech was given by Orion Zangara, his grandson and graduate of The Kubert School, on behalf of the Kubert Estate.
- 9-11: The World's Finest Comic Book Writers & Artists Tell Stories to Remember, Volume Two (2002)
- Action Comics #66-69 (inker), 126-127, 136, 138, 141 (1943–1950)
- Action Comics Annual #10 (2007)
- All-American Comics #70 (1946)
- All-American Men of War #20, 22-24, 28-29, 33-34, 36-39, 41-43. 47-50, 52-53, 55-56, 59, 63-65, 69, 71, 73, 103, 114 (1955–1966)
- All-American Western #103-116, 121, 125 (1948–1952)
- All Star Comics #21, 24-30, 33-37, 56-57 (Justice Society of America) (1944–1951)
- Atom and Hawkman #40-41 (1968–1969)
- Batman #400 (1986)
- Batman Black and White #1 (1996)
- Before Watchmen: Nite Owl #1-3 (inker) (2012)
- Big All-American Comic Book #1 (1944)
- The Brave and the Bold #1-24 (Viking Prince); #34-36, 42-44 (Hawkman); #40 (Cave Carson); #52 (Sgt. Rock/Johnny Cloud/Haunted Tank) (1955–1964)
- Captain Storm #3, 6 (1964–1965)
- DC Comics Presents #66 (Superman and the Demon) (1984)
- DC Special #5 (1969)
- DC Universe: Last Will and Testament #1 (inker) (2008)
- DC Universe: Legacies #1-2 (inker), #4 (2010)
- Detective Comics #500 (Hawkman backup story) (1981)
- Dong Xoai, Vietnam 1965 HC (2010)
- Flash Comics #62-76, 85-86, 88-90, 92-104 (Hawkman) (1945–1949)
- Frontier Fighters #1-8 (1955–1956)
- Ghosts vol. 2 #1 (2012)
- G.I. Combat #44-46, 52-54, 56, 59, 62, 64-65, 67-70, 76-77, 79-80, 86, 99-100, 102-113, 133 (1957–1968)
- Heroes Against Hunger #1 (among other artists) (1986)
- House of Mystery #96 (1960)
- House of Secrets #29-30, 39 (1960)
- Jew Gangster SC (2011)
- Jimmy Wakely #3, 12, 14 (1950–1951)
- Joe Kubert Presents #1-6 (2012–2013)
- Just Imagine Stan Lee with Joe Kubert Creating Batman #1 (2001)
- Justice League of America #200 (among other artists) (1982)
- Korak, Son of Tarzan #49, 51, 58-59 (writer) (1972–1975)
- Leading Comics #8 (Seven Soldiers of Victory) (1943)
- More Fun Comics #97 (inker) (1944)
- Mystery in Space #35, 113 (1956–1980)
- Our Army at War #32-33, 38, 43, 46, 51, 54, 57, 59, 61, 64-65, 67-68, 73, 75, 79, 81, 83, 85-87, 90-105, 107, 109-112, 114-117, 119-122, 124, 126-163, 165-171, 174, 176, 179, 184, 188-189, 191-196, 198-202, 206-207, 217, 220-225, 227-228, 230, 233-234, 238, 282, 289, 300 (1955–1977)
- Our Fighting Forces #7, 9, 11-13, 15, 17-19, 22-25, 29, 33, 40, 43, 51-53, 64, 66, 69, 74, 76-77, 90, 104 (1955–1966)
- Ragman #4-5 (1977)
- Sea Devils #13 (1963)
- Sensation Comics #35-36, 56-57, 66, 94 (1944–1949)
- Sgt. Rock #302-304, 306, 328, 368, 422 (1977–1988)
- Sgt. Rock Special #1 (1992)
- Sgt. Rock: Between Hell and a Hard Place HC (2003)
- Sgt. Rock: The Prophecy #1-6 (2006)
- Showcase #2, 4, 25-26, 45, 57-58, 85-87 (1956–1969)
- Star-Spangled Comics #50-51 (1945)
- Star Spangled War Stories #33, 39, 43-46, 53-58, 60, 67, 69, 71, 74, 87, 98, 108, 124, 126, 137-145, 147-152, 154-156, 158-160, 200 (1955–1976)
- Strange Adventures #55 (1955)
- Tarzan #207-225, 227-235 (writer/artist); #236, 239-249 (writer) (1972–1976)
- Tomahawk #124, 131 (cover), 132-134, 135 (cover), 136 (cover and Firehair story), 137 (cover), 140 (cover) (1969–1971)
- Tor vol. 2 #1-6 (1975–1976)
- Tor vol. 4 #1-6 (2008)
- Wednesday Comics #1-12 (Sgt. Rock) (2009)
- Weird War Tales #1-2 (1971)
- World's Finest Comics #40-44, 54 (1949–1951)
- Yossel SC (2011)
- Young All-Stars Annual #1 (1988)
- Abraham Stone #1-2 (1995)
- Apache Kid #13 (1955)
- Battle #37, 41 (1955)
- Best Love #33 (1949)
- Ghost Rider #28-31 (inker) (1992)
- Ghost Rider/Blaze: Spirits of Vengeance #4, 7-8, 13 (1992–1993)
- Girl Comics #2 (inker) (1950)
- Joe Kubert's Tor #1-4 (1993)
- Journey into Mystery #21 (1955)
- Journey into Unknown Worlds #34 (1955)
- Kid Colt Outlaw #48 (1955)
- Loveland #2 (inker) (1950)
- Lovers #25, 30 (1949–1950)
- Marines in Battle #7-8 (1955)
- Marvel Tales #122, 134 (1954–1955)
- My Love #3 (inker) (1950)
- Our Love #2 (inker) (1950)
- The Punisher War Journal #31 (inker) (1991)
- The Punisher War Zone #31-36 (1994-1995)
- Uncanny Tales #28 (1955)
- War Comics #38 (1955)
- Western Outlaws #9 (1955)
- Tarzan: The Joe Kubert Years (Dark Horse Comics)
- Volume 1 collects Tarzan #207-214, 200 pages, November 2005, ISBN 1593074042
- Volume 2 collects Tarzan #215-224, 208 pages, March 2006, ISBN 1593074166
- Volume 3 collects Tarzan #225-235, 216 pages, July 2006, ISBN 1-59307-417-4 (omits one page Kubert story "Tarzan's Animal Encyclopedia").
- Enemy Ace Archives (DC Comics)
- Volume 1 collects Enemy Ace stories from Our Army at War #151, #153, #155; Showcase #57-58; Star Spangled War Stories #138-142, 224 pages, December 2002, ISBN 978-1563898969
- Volume 2 collects Enemy Ace stories from Star-Spangled War Stories #143-145, #147-150, #152, #181-183, #200, 196 pages, September 2006, ISBN 978-1401207762 (Omits two Kubert stories from Star-Spangled War Stories" #146).
- Hawkman Archives (DC Comics)
- Sgt. Rock Archives (DC Comics)
- Volume 1 collects Sgt. Rock stories from G.I. Combat #68; Our Army at War #81-96, 240 pages, May 2002, ISBN 978-1563898419
- Volume 2 collects Sgt. Rock stories from Our Army at War #97-110, 216 pages, December 2003, ISBN 978-1401201463
- Volume 3 collects Sgt. Rock stories from Our Army at War #111-125, 224 pages, August 2005, ISBN 978-1401204105
- Volume 4 collects Sgt. Rock stories from Our Army at War #126-137 and Showcase #45, 248 pages, October 2012, ISBN 978-1401237264
- Tor (DC Comics)
- Wednesday Comics DC Comics, 200 pages, June 2010, ISBN 1-4012-2747-3
- Joe Kubert's Tarzan of the Apes: Artist's Edition IDW Publishing, 156 pages, September 2012, ISBN 1613774494
- Horn, Maurice. Contemporary Graphic Artists: A Biographical, Bibliographical, and Critical Guide to Current Illustrators, Animators, Cartoonists, Designers, and Other Graphic Artists. Gale Research Co., 1986. Archived at Google Books. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- "Joe Kubert". Lambiek Comiclopedia. August 13, 2012. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- Meth, Clifford (June 4, 2005). "Joe Kubert: From Shtetl to Grand Master - Part One". "Meth Addict" (column), ComicsBulletin.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008.
- "Kubert, Joe, 1926-". HighBeam Research. n.d. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Irving, Christopher (March 22, 2009). "Keeping current with Joe Kubert". Graphic NYC. Archived from the original on December 23, 2013.
- Kubert, Joe (2003). "Excerpt from Yossel". JBooks.com. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011.
- Stiles, Steve (n.d.). "The Genesis of Joe Kubert Part 1". Stevestiles.com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- Hajdu, David. The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How it Changed America, page 357. New York, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008. ISBN 0-374-18767-3; ISBN 978-0-374-18767-5.
- Joe Kubert at the Grand Comics Database
- Wallace, Daniel; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1940s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
Artist Joe Kubert began his most memorable work on the gravity-defying superhero Hawkman in this issue..."The Painter and the $100,000" written by Gardner Fox marked the start of a long and fruitful run between illustrator and character.
- Thomas, Roy (2000). "The Men (and One Woman) Behind the JSA: Its Creation and Creative Personnel". All-Star Companion Volume 1. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 1-893905-055.
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 56: "In Robert Kanigher's story, featuring art by Irwin Hasen and Joe Kubert, a cabal of villains united as the Injustice Society of the World and took revenge on the JSA's assembled do-gooders."
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 57: "Writer Robert Kanigher and artist Joe Kubert presented a female twist on Robert Louis Stevenson's Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde with the Thorn."
- "WonderCon Special Guests". Comic-Con Magazine. San Diego Comic-Con International: 20. Winter 2010.
- "Joe Kubert Interview: A Myth in the World of Comics". UniversoHQ.com. c. 2001. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011.
- Levitz, Paul (2010). "The Silver Age 1956-1970". 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. p. 251. ISBN 9783836519816.
Together Schwartz, Kanigher, Infantino, and Kubert would set a tone for the Flash that was both cinematic...and influenced by Schwartz's first love of science fiction.
- Irvine, Alex "1950s" in Dolan, p. 80: "The arrival of the second incarnation of the Flash in [Showcase] issue #4 is considered to be the official start of the Silver Age of comics."
- McAvennie, Michael "1960s" in Dolan, p. 102: "DC's...renaissance soared to new heights with the return of Hawkman and Hawkgirl. Writer Gardner Fox and artist Joe Kubert...ushered in a pair of Winged Wonders that, costumes aside, were radically different from their Golden Age predecessors."
- Daniels, Les (1995). "The Silver Age Applying a Fine Shine". DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. New York, New York: Bulfinch Press. p. 130. ISBN 0821220764.
Hawkman took a little longer to get off the ground. He showed up initially in The Brave and the Bold #34 (February/March 1961), but had to wait three years for Hawkman #1 (April–May 1964).
- Pasko, Martin (2008). The DC Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the DC Universe. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. p. 72. ISBN 0762432578.
It was Bob Kanigher who led the company into the new genre...Kanigher originally worked on these books with many artists, including Jerry Grandenetti, Gene Colan, Russ Heath, and Irv Novick but the Kanigher-[Joe] Kubert work would prove the most memorable.
- Schelly, Bill (2011). The Art of Joe Kubert. Seattle, Washington: Fantagraphics Books. p. 133. ISBN 978-1606994870.
With the cancellation of EC's legendary war titles in the wake of the Comics Code, DC's war comics were the finest being published in the second half of the decade. And this was largely attributable to their editor and chief writer, Robert Kanigher.
- Markstein, Don (2008). "Sgt. Rock". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013.
- Daniels, "Back to the Battlefield", p. 104: "The most famous Kanigher-Kubert collaboration involved Sgt. Rock, who has gone on to become a part of our collective mythology as the archetype of the gruff, cynical, good-hearted noncommissioned officer."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 114: "This landmark issue...presented a very different look at war through the eyes of Enemy Ace Rittmeister Hans von Hammer. Writer/editor Robert Kanigher and artist Joe Kubert based von Hammer on German WWI pilot Manfred von Richtofen a.k.a. the "Red Baron"."
- Fox, Margalit (August 13, 2012). "Joe Kubert Dies at 85; Influential Comic-Book Artist". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014.
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p.140: "This war anthology series found its most recognizable face when Joe Kubert wrote, drew, and edited the first of a slew of...Unknown Soldier [stories]."
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 151 "Tarzan enjoyed a prolific period in comics when DC acquired the rights to novelist Edgar Rice Burroughs' iconic ape-man. Much of that success should be attributed to writer, artist, and editor Joe Kubert, a lifelong Tarzan fan whose gritty, expressive style was perfect for the jungle hero."
- Daniels, "Looking Backward", p. 166
- Levitz, "The Bronze Age 1970-1984", p. 449
- Zeno, Eddy (December 2012). "DC Comics' The Bible". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (61): 17–23.
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 171 "Writer Robert Kanigher's origin of the frayed hero was pieced together into moody, coarse segments by Joe Kubert and Nestor, Frank, and Quico Redondo."
- Schelly, pp. 186-195
- Jennings, Dana (December 14, 2003). "Paper, Pencil And a Dream". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
Mr. Kubert said that Dover, which has 18,000 people and is bisected by the Rockaway River, suits him. He and his wife, Muriel, raised their five children here, and it was here that they opened their school.
- Dahlen, Chris (July 23, 2009). "Steve Bissette". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 22, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
- Weldon, Glen (August 13, 2012). "Comics Legend Joe Kubert, 1926-2012: An Appreciation". NPR. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 23, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
His Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art in New Jersey has produced several generations of comics creators (including his own sons, Andy and Adam Kubert) who have gone on to make their own, widely varied, contributions to the field: Amanda Conner, Rick Veitch, Eric Shanower, Steve Lieber, Scott Kolins, and many more.
- Molnar, Phillip (October 8, 2010). "Comic's Kuberts Teach Art to Next Generation". Associated Press via Newsday. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 193
- Greenberger, Robert (December 2013). "Memories of Detective Comics #500". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (69): 54–57.
- Sanderson, Peter (September–October 1981). "Justice League #200 All-Star Affair". Comics Feature. New Media Publishing (12/13): 17.
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 221: "Batman celebrated the 400th issue of his self-titled comic with a blockbuster featuring dozens of famous comic book creators and nearly as many infamous villains. Written by Doug Moench, with an introduction by novelist Stephen King...[it was] drawn by George Pérez, Bill Sienkiewicz, Arthur Adams, Joe Kubert, Brian Bolland, and others."
- Kubert, Joe (1996). Fax from Sarajevo. Milwaukie, Oregon: Dark Horse Comics. p. 207. ISBN 978-1569711439.
- Kubert, Joe (1998). Fax from Sarajevo. Milwaukie, Oregon: Dark Horse Comics. p. 224. ISBN 978-1569713464.
- Cowsill, Alan "2000s" in Dolan, p. 300: "The series consisted of thirteen prestige format books and started with Batman, drawn by art legend Joe Kubert."
- Azzarello, Brian; Kubert, Joe (2003). Sgt. Rock: Between Hell & a Hard Place. DC Comics. p. 140. ISBN 978-1401200534.
- Cowsill "2000s" in Dolan, p. 338: "The [series] contained fifteen continuous stories, including a new Sgt. Rock saga drawn by the legendary Joe Kubert and written by his son Adam."
- Renaud, Jeffrey (July 22, 2009). "Wednesday Comics: The Kuberts". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014.
- Renaud, Jeffrey (December 11, 2009). "Wein Explores DC's History in Legacies". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
An all-star cast of artists will collaborate on Legacies, which is slated for a launch in May 2010, and kicking things off for the Golden Age arc is the father and son duo of Joe and Andy Kubert.
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