Joe Spinell

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Joe Spinell
Joe Spinell Godfather.png
Spinell on the set of The Godfather
Born
Joseph J. Spagnuolo

(1936-10-28)October 28, 1936
DiedJanuary 13, 1989(1989-01-13) (aged 52)
New York City, U.S.
Resting placeCalvary Cemetery, Queens
OccupationActor, screenwriter
Years active1972–1989
Spouse(s)
Jean Jennings (m. 19771979)
Children1
RelativesSteve Spagnuolo (cousin)

Joe Spinell (born Joseph J. Spagnuolo; October 28, 1936 – January 13, 1989) was an American character actor who appeared in numerous films in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as various stage productions on and off Broadway.[1]

His notable roles included performances in The Godfather (1972) and The Godfather Part II (1974), Rocky (1976) and Rocky II (1979), Taxi Driver (1976), Sorcerer (1977), Cruising (1980), and many more. He was a recurring actor in early Sylvester Stallone films. Most his career consists of him playing bit to major supporting roles, many of them villainous, in major and small American films.

Spinell became a figure in the Cult film genre, due to many appearances them, and his only three leading roles in horror films. Actress Caroline Munro, with whom he shared the screen three times, was his co lead in two of them. The first one was the psychological slasher film Maniac (1980), which he also wrote. The second one was The Last Horror Film a horror comedy film. The third was The Undertaker a slasher film released posthumously.

Early life[edit]

Spinell was born Joseph J. Spagnuolo (Italian pronunciation: [spaɲˈɲwɔːlo]) in Manhattan, New York, of Italian immigrant parents, and the last of six children. His father, Pelegrino Spagnuolo (1892–1950), died from liver and kidney disease. His mother, Filomena Spagnuolo (1903–1987), was a bit-part actress who acted in a few movies, some of them alongside her son.[2] Spinell stood 5 foot and 11 inches. He was born at his family's apartment on Second Avenue in Manhattan's Kips Bay, an area then home to 10,000 Italian Americans.[3] A few years after the death of his father, he moved with his mother and older siblings to Woodside, Queens, New York where he lived off-and-on for the remainder of his life. He was known to abuse drugs and alcohol heavily on and off throughout his career, especially during periods of unemployment. Spinell also suffered most of his life from hemophilia as well as chronic asthma.

Career[edit]

Early 1970s to 1976: Supporting roles in major films[edit]

Because of his large, heavyset frame and imposing looks, Spinell was often cast as criminals, thugs, or corrupt police officers. As a teenager and young adult, Spinell starred in various stage plays, both on and off Broadway.[4]

In 1972, he landed his first film role in a small part as the mafioso hitman Willie Cicci working for the Corleone crime family in the crime film The Godfather, directed by Francis Ford Coppola. It was the highest-grossing film of 1972[5] and was for a time the highest-grossing film ever made.[6] It won the Oscars for Best Picture, Actor and Best Adapted Screenplay, as well as other nominations.

In 1973, he appeared in a small role as another mafioso thug in Cops and Robbers, a crime comedy film directed by Aram Avakian starring Cliff Gorman, and Joseph Bologna.

That same year he appeared in another small role The Seven-Ups, a crime drama thriller film produced and directed by Philip D'Antoni and starring Roy Scheider. Spinell appears as a parking garage manager, named Toredano, whom the Seven-Up vice squad detectives interview during their criminal investigation.

In 1974, Spinell reprised his role as Willie Cicci in The Godfather Part II, where Cicci is still working for the Corleone crime family, but having been promoted from "soldier" (aka: 'button man') to being the personal bodyguard to Frank Pentangeli (Michael V. Gazzo). The film was nominated for eleven Academy Awards, and became the first sequel to win for Best Picture. It was Paramount Pictures' highest-grossing film of 1974 and was the fifth-highest-grossing picture in North America that year.

In 1975, he had a supporting role in as a Native American half-breed cowboy in Rancho Deluxe, a contemporary western film that was directed by Frank Perry and released in 1975, starring Jeff Bridges and Sam Waterston where Spinell appeared in one scene as the father to Waterston's character.[7]

His second supporting role that year was in Strike Force, a television film directed by Barry Shear and starring Richard Gere.

The following film he was in was Farewell, My Lovely, an American neo noir film, directed by Dick Richards and starring Robert Mitchum as private detective Phillip Marlowe. Set in Hollywood in the year 1941, the picture is based on Raymond Chandler's novel by the same name. Spinell appears in a minor role playing Nick, one of three chief henchmen who also include Cowboy (Burton Gilliam) and Jonnie (Sylvester Stallone); all of whom work for brothel madam Frances Amthor (Kate Murtaugh) whom they hound and harass Marlowe during his mystery case investigation.[8]

Finally he was in 92 in the Shade written and directed by Thomas McGuane, based on his 1973 novel of the same name, where Spinell appeared in a minor role late in the film playing a Southern-accented tourist and coal miner and which starred Peter Fonda, Warren Oates, Elizabeth Ashley, Harry Dean Stanton and Margot Kidder.[9]

In 1976, he had a small role as a New York policeman in Next Stop, Greenwich Village, a drama film, set in the early 1950s, written and directed by Paul Mazursky, featuring, among others, Lenny Baker, Shelley Winters, Ellen Greene, Lois Smith, and Christopher Walken.

Following this release, he had another small role in Martin Scorsese' the Palme d'Or winner Taxi Driver starring Robert De Niro. The gritty film tells the story of a lonely veteran (De Niro) working as a taxi driver, who descends into insanity. Spinell appeared in only one scene at the beginning of the film as a personnel officer at a taxi depot who gives De Niro's character his job interview in a cold and moody setting.[10]

His third role that year was in Stay Hungry, a comedy-drama by director Bob Rafelson. The film stars Jeff Bridges, Sally Field, and Arnold Schwarzenegger. Set in Alabama, the story centers on Craig Blake (Bridges), who is a young Birmingham scion who gets involved in a shady real-estate deal by a slick local con artist named Jabo (Spinell). In order to close the deal, he needs to buy a gym building to complete a multi-parcel lot. When he visits the gym, however, Blake finds himself romantically interested in the receptionist (Field) and drawn to the carefree lifestyle of the Austrian body builder Joe Santo (Schwarzenegger) who is training there for the Mr. Universe competition.

Later, Spinell played a supporting role in John G. Avildsen' Rocky. It was Sylvester Stallone's first lead in a studio picture which he also wrote. Other co-stars include Talia Shire, Burt Young, Burgess Meredith and Carl Weathers It tells the rags to riches American Dream story of Rocky Balboa (Stallone), an uneducated but kind-hearted working class Italian-American boxer working as a debt collector for Tony Gazzo (Spinell), a loan shark, in the slums of Philadelphia. In the meantime, the heavyweight champion of the world, Apollo Creed (Weathers) decides to give a local contender a chance to challenge him and settles for Rocky. As the drama unfolds, Gazzo eventually lets go of Rocky so that he can train for the fight. The film, made on a budget of just over $1 million, was a sleeper hit; it earned $225 million in global box office receipts, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1976, and went on to win three Oscars, including Best Picture. The film received many positive reviews and turned Stallone into a major star.[11]

1977 to 1980: Subsequent success and cult film breakthrough[edit]

In 1977, he acted in the Sorcerer. A thriller film directed by William Friedkin and starring Roy Scheider, Bruno Cremer, Francisco Rabal, and Amidou. Spinell has a small role as Spider, an acquaintance of Scanlon (Scheider) who takes part in a truck-driving test but fails.

His first role of 1978 was in Nunzio, a drama film directed by Paul Williams. The film stars David Proval, with Morgana King, and Tovah Feldshuh. The story centers around Nunzio Sabatino (Proval) is a grown man with the demeanor of a young child. He lives at home with his doting mother (King) and has a job as a bicycle delivery man for Angelo (Spinell), the neighborhood grocer, which Angelo provides as a favor for Nunzio's brother.

His second role that year was in Big Wednesday, a coming of age film directed by John Milius. The picture stars Jan-Michael Vincent, William Katt, and Gary Busey as three best friends and California surfers facing life and the Vietnam War against the backdrop of their love of surfing. Spinell appeared in a small role as a US Army psychologist who interviews Leroy "The Masochist" Smith (Busey) who pretends to be mentally insane to avoid being drafted.

Next he played a nightclub owner and wrestling MC known only by his stage name 'Burp' in Sylvester Stallone' directorial debut Paradise Alley, which Stallone wrote and starred in. The sports film tells the story of three brothers in Hell's Kitchen, New York City in the 1940s who become involved in professional wrestling.

His third role that year was in The One Man Jury, a crime film starring Jack Palance.

His final role that year was a major part as the main antagonist in Starcrash, an Italian-produced space opera film directed by Luigi Cozzi.[12] The cast includes Caroline Munro, Marjoe Gortner, Christopher Plummer, and David Hasselhoff.[13][14][15] The film is set in a distant galaxy, where a star ship searches for the evil Count Zarth Arn (Spinell). Closing in on a planet, the ship is attacked by a mysterious weapon. Three escape pods launch during the attack, but the ship crashes into the planet and is destroyed. Shortly after, smugglers Stella Star (Munro) and Akton (Gortner), find the sole survivor of the crash, from which their adventures against Count Zarth Arn start.

He started 1979 with a small role in Last Embrace, a thriller film directed by Jonathan Demme.[16] It stars Roy Scheider, Janet Margolin and Christopher Walken.

Spinell's next role was a small part in Winter Kills a black comedy film directed by William Richert, based on the novel by satirist Richard Condon. Its all-star cast includes Jeff Bridges, John Huston, Anthony Perkins, Eli Wallach, Richard Boone, Toshirō Mifune, Sterling Hayden, Dorothy Malone, Belinda Bauer, Ralph Meeker, Elizabeth Taylor, Berry Berenson and Susan Walden. Spinell appeared in the opening scene as a dying man with bandages covering his face who confesses to the assassination of a fictitious US President.

Spinell reprised his role as Gazzo in Rocky II this time directed by Sylvester Stallone. Rocky II finished in the top three highest-grossing films of 1979, in both the North American market and worldwide. The film grossed $6,390,537 during its opening weekend, $85,182,160 at the U.S. box office, and $200,182,160 overall.[17]

His final release of the decade was in Curtis Hanson' The Little Dragons, a martial arts family comedy film. It stars Charles Lane, Ann Sothern, Chris Petersen, Pat Petersen, Sally Boyden, and John Davis Chandler. The film is about two young brothers (Chris, and Pat Petersen) who use their karate skills to rescue a friend (Boyden) after she is held captive for ransom by the Forbinger family, the tough-talking backwoods mother (Sothern) and her two bumbling sons (Spinell and Chandler).

His first supporting role in films of the 1980s was Cruising a crime film and thriller written and directed by William Friedkin and starring Al Pacino, Paul Sorvino, and Karen Allen. The film is about a serial killer targeting gay men into S&M activities. Officer Steve Burns (Pacino), who resembles the victims' dark-haired, slim figure image, is sent deep undercover by Captain Edelson (Sorvino) in the urban world of leather bars. Edelson eventually meets Patrolman DiSimone (Spinell), a corrupt NYPD officer, who harasses and abuses gay men from these communities.[18]

He followed up with a minor role as one of several US military personal imprisoned in an asylum in The Ninth Configuration, a psychological drama film directed by William Peter Blatty.

His next effort was a small role as a sailor-suited slob in Forbidden Zone, a musical fantasy comedy film directed and produced by Richard Elfman. The cast includes Hervé Villechaize, Susan Tyrrell, Warhol Superstar Viva, and The Kipper Kids.

Although primarily known as a character actor, Spinell co-wrote, co-produced and starred in his first lead role as a serial killer in the 1980 film, Maniac.[19] The psychological slasher film directed by William Lustig and co-starring Caroline Munro. It's about Frank Zito (Spinell), a serial killer residing in New York City who murders and scalps young women.

Afterward he returned to acting in supporting roles starting with the television film Nightside, a 1980 television pilot starring Doug McClure.[20]

Spinell's next film was Brubaker a prison drama film directed by Stuart Rosenberg. It stars Robert Redford. The film features a large supporting cast including Yaphet Kotto, Jane Alexander, Murray Hamilton, David Keith, Tim McIntire, Matt Clark, M. Emmet Walsh, Everett McGill, and Morgan Freeman. Based on a true story set in Arkansas in the late 1960s, Redford stars as newly arrived prison warden Henry Brubaker, who attempts to clean up a corrupt and violent penal system. He first infiltrates the prison as an inmate and discovers rampant abuse and corruption, including open and endemic sexual assault, torture, worm-ridden diseased food, insurance fraud and a doctor charging inmates for medical care. Spinell appeared in a supporting role as Floyd Birdwell, one of the prison guard trustees alongside Kotto, McGill and others as the warden Brubaker's personal staff in which he and the others are reluctant to Brubaker's approach to running the prison.

After, he had an uncredited cameo as a go-go club owner in Jonathan Demme's Melvin and Howard.[21]

His final role of 1980 was Brian G. Hutton' The First Deadly Sin, a crime mystery thriller film produced by and starring Frank Sinatra which Spinell appears in a minor role as a doorman/bouncer at a New York apartment building that Sinatra's character interviews while looking for a serial killer who resides in the building. The film also features Faye Dunaway, David Dukes, Brenda Vaccaro, James Whitmore, and Martin Gabel.

1981 to 1982: Continuous career and second lead[edit]

In 1981, Spinell had a supporting role in the Sylvester Stallone' vehicle Nighthawks. The crime-thriller film also co-stars Rutger Hauer, Billy Dee Williams, Lindsay Wagner, Persis Khambatta and Nigel Davenport.[22] The story is about Sgt. DaSilva (Stallone) and Sgt. Fox (Williams) who serve as high-risk warrant officers in the Bronx. After a terrorist named Wulfgar (Hauer) arrives in New York City, DaSilva and Fox's direct supervisor Lt. Munafo (Spinell) transfers them to an anti-terrorist squad.

In 1982, he started with a small role in National Lampoon's Movie Madness is an American comedy film produced by National Lampoon.

His next film was Night Shift a comedy film, directed by Ron Howard and starring Henry Winkler and Michael Keaton. Spinell appeared in a small role late in the film playing a nightclub/brothel owner.

In his third film of 1982, he appeared in the lead role in David Winters' The Last Horror Film, co-starring Caroline Munro. Filmed guerrilla-style without permits during the 1981 Cannes Film Festival, the movie is about Vinny (Spinell) a New York City taxi driver who is obsessed with the international actress Jana Bates (Munro), known as the "queen of horror films". He goes to attend the Cannes Film Festival in France hoping to meet her and get her to star in his movie to kickstart his career as a film director. Upon his arrival strange things start happening around Jana Bates, until it leads to a mysterious string of murders.[23] It went on to win numerous awards, including the Paris Film Festival Award, the Los Angeles Golden Scroll Award, and the Sitges Film Festival Award.[24][25]

Next, he had a small role in Monsignor directed by Frank Perry in the early scenes playing the father of a bride at a wedding reception. The cast includes Christopher Reeve, Geneviève Bujold, Fernando Rey, Jason Miller, Joseph Cortese, Adolfo Celi, and Leonardo Cimino.

His final film that year was One Down, Two to Go written, directed, and starring Fred Williamson. It also stars Jim Brown, Richard Roundtree and Jim Kelly.

1983 to 1989: Final roles, third lead, and death[edit]

His first supporting role of 1983 was a small role playing a corrupt lawyer in Vigilante. The vigilante film was directed by William Lustig. It stars Robert Forster and Fred Williamson.

Spinell played a small part as a U.S. Border Customs Officer in Curtis Hanson' Losin' It a comedy film directed by Curtis Hanson and starring Tom Cruise, Shelley Long, Jackie Earle Haley, and John Stockwell.

Then came Eureka, a drama film directed by Nicolas Roeg. It stars Gene Hackman, Theresa Russell, Rutger Hauer, Joe Pesci and Mickey Rourke. Spinell had a non-speaking small role as one of several thugs who murder Hackman's character in the middle of the film.

Finally that year, he acted in The Last Fight directed by Fred Williamson playing a corrupt boxing promotor.

In 1985, he co-starred as the main villain in the crime film Walking the Edge, starring Robert Forster, Nancy Kwan and A Martinez. Set in Los Angeles, a criminal gang led by Brusstar (Spinell) enters a home with the intention of killing a former drug dealer. His wife Christine (Kwan), survives the hit that kills her husband and young son. She decides to take revenge on the gang and enlists a hapless taxi driver (Forster) to help her.

His first film role of 1986 was a small part appearing in one scene as a Mafia boss in The Whoopee Boys, a comedy film starring Michael O'Keefe and Paul Rodriguez.

His second film that year was Hollywood Harry, a comedy/mystery film set in Los Angeles starring and directed by Robert Forster where Spinell had a supporting role playing Max Caldwell, the business partner and friend to private detective Harry Petry (Forster) in helping him solve cases.

His third project that year was Maniac 2: Mr. Robbie, a horror short promotional film directed by Buddy Giovinazzo and co-written by Spinell and Joe Cirillo which was loosely based on a 1973 feature film titled An Eye for an Eye (aka: The Psychopath). The short film was produced by Joe Spinell in order to raise financing for a sequel to Spinell's 1980 horror film Maniac.[26] The short was included with the 30th anniversary edition release of Maniac.[27] The feature-length version of the film was never shot after Spinell's death in 1989.[26]

His fourth picture was The Messenger, directed and starring Fred Williamson.

He started 1987 with another small role in The Pick-up Artist, an American romantic comedy film written and directed by James Toback, starring Molly Ringwald and Robert Downey Jr..

His second film appearance was a cameo in Deadly Illusion, an action/crime thriller film. It stars Billy Dee Williams, Vanity and Morgan Fairchild.[28][29]

In 1988, Spinell appeared in a small but significant role in the first of two David A. Prior directed films for AIP (Action International Pictures) Studios which was Operation Warzone, an American Vietnam War film. He plays Brig. Gen. George Delevane, a corrupt military official who is involved in an arms-for-profit deal with a corrupt U.S. Army officer back in Vietnam. Meanwhile, three U.S. Army soldiers survive a Viet Cong ambush and rescue two undercover American agents, named Hawkins and Jensen, whom are seeking out Delevane.

His last lead role was in The Undertaker, a slasher film. The film was completed in 1988, but was never released for the public and existed only in an incomplete form. The Undertaker was later re-edited for a DVD release by Code Red in 2010. The film is considered a cult classic, due in part to Joe Spinell's involvement and its long and troubled production.

Spinell's very last role was a supporting part in playing a U.S. government official, named Hansen, in the low-budget 1989 action-thriller Rapid Fire, his second (and last) film in working with director David A. Prior for AIP, which was filmed in Mobile, Alabama a few weeks before his death.

Death[edit]

Spinell died in his apartment located off of Greenpoint Avenue in Sunnyside, Queens, New York on January 13, 1989 at the age of 52. Sometime during that morning, he cut himself badly on his glass shower stall door after apparently slipping in his bathtub while showering. Soon afterward he fell asleep on his couch instead of calling for help, and his hemophilia caused him to bleed to death. His body was found by his friend Vincent Gabriele. Gabriele had phoned Spinell that evening after a woman who knew Vincent called and said Spinell did not sound well. Gabriele called, and Spinell asked him to stop over and bring some ice cream and other groceries. However, when he got there about 20 minutes after the call, Spinell did not answer the door. Gabriele then called the building superintendent who said he didn't have a key so Gabriele called 911. The ambulance workers entered the apartment through the fire escape where they found Spinell dead sitting on his living room couch. Sitting on a white sheet draped over the couch, Spinell bled to death over part of the couch from an apparent deep cut on the back of his head.

Spinell was buried in Calvary Cemetery, Queens near his home.

Personal life[edit]

Spinell was married to adult film star Jean Jennings (1957-2011) from February 1977 to July 1979. Together they had one daughter, but they eventually divorced (this was referenced for Spinell's role in the 1980 film Cruising, where his brutal, closeted NYPD patrolman talks about how his wife had abandoned him by taking their child and leaving for Florida, which is very similar to what happened to Spinell right before he began filming this role).

He was a distant cousin of New York Giants assistant defensive coach Steve Spagnuolo.

A close friend of Sylvester Stallone, Spinell was the godfather of his late son Sage Stallone.[30] They had a falling out during the shooting of their final collaboration Nighthawks (1982).[31]

Filmography[edit]

Film[edit]

Feature films
Year Title Role Notes
1972 The Godfather Willie Cicci Uncredited; small role
1973 Cops and Robbers Marty minor role
The Seven-Ups Toredano minor role
1974 The Godfather Part II Willie Cicci supporting role
1975 Rancho Deluxe Mr. Coleson small role
Farewell, My Lovely Nick small role
92 in the Shade Ollie Slatt minor role
1976 Next Stop, Greenwich Village Cop small role
Taxi Driver Personnel Officer small role
Stay Hungry Jabo minor role
Rocky Tony Gazzo supporting role
1977 Sorcerer Spider small role
1978 Nunzio Angelo minor role
Big Wednesday Psychologist small role
Paradise Alley Burp minor role
The One Man Jury Mika Abatino supporting role
Starcrash Count Zarth Arn supporting role
1979 Last Embrace Man in Cantina small role
Winter Kills Arthur Fletcher small role
Rocky II Tony Gazzo supporting role
The Little Dragons Yancey small role
1980 Cruising Patrolman DiSimone minor role
The Ninth Configuration Lt. Spinell minor role
Forbidden Zone Squeezeit's Father small role
Maniac Frank Zito lead role
Brubaker Floyd Birdwell supporting role
Melvin and Howard Go-Go Club Owner Uncredited; small role
The First Deadly Sin Charles Lipsky minor role
1981 Nighthawks Lt. Munafo supporting role
1982 National Lampoon Goes to the Movies Talent Agent / Beauty Show M.C. ("Success Wanters"); small role
Night Shift Manetti small role
The Last Horror Film Vinny Durand also known as Fanatic; lead role
Monsignor Bride's Father small role
One Down, Two To Go Joe Spangler small role
1983 Vigilante Eisenberg minor role
Losin' It U.S. Customs Policeman small role
Eureka Pete small role
The Last Fight The Boss minor role
1985 Walking the Edge Brusstar supporting role
1986 The Whoopee Boys Guido Antonucci small role
Hollywood Harry Max Caldwell supporting role
Maniac 2: Mr. Robbie Mr. Robbie Short film; lead role
The Messenger Rico small role
1987 The Pick-up Artist Eddie small role
Deadly Illusion Hit Man small role
1988 Operation Warzone Brig. Gen. George Delevane supporting role
Married to the Mob Leonard 'Tiptoes' Mazzilli (scenes deleted); small role
The Undertaker Roscoe lead role
1989 Rapid Fire Hanson supporting role

Television[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1975 Strike Force Sol Terranova supporting role
1977 The Godfather Saga Willie Cicci Archive footage from the previous two Godfather films
1979 Vampire Captain Desher minor role
1980 Nightside Michael Vincent minor role
1983 Trackdown: Finding the Goodbar Killer Escobar small role
1985 Out of the Darkness Jim Halsey minor role
1986 The Equalizer Mob Boss Episode #1.16 'Wash Up'; minor role
1986 The Children of Times Square Street Vendor small role
1986 Blood Ties Joey minor role
1986-1987 Night Heat Various roles 3 episodes

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Joe Spinell". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  2. ^ "Joe Spinell". NNDB. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  3. ^ "History of The Chapel of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary". Parish of Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  4. ^ David Gregory (2001). The Joe Spinell Story (DVD)|format= requires |url= (help).
  5. ^ "IMDb: Top-US-Grossing Titles Released 1972-01-01 to 1972-12-31". IMDb. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  6. ^ Allan, John H. (April 16, 1972). "Profits of 'The Godfather'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  7. ^ Eder, Richard (November 24, 1975). "Rancho Deluxe (1975) The Screen: 'Rancho':Spoof Western Opens at the D.W. Griffith". The New York Times.
  8. ^ Farewell, My Lovely at the American Film Institute Catalog.
  9. ^ Eder, Richard (January 22, 1976). "92 in the Shade (1975) Self-Indulgence Is Triumphant in '92 in the Shade'". The New York Times.
  10. ^ "Top 10 Films Of Joe Spinell - Top 10 Films". www.top10films.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-09-23.
  11. ^ "Inside the Actors Studio with Sylvester Stallone". Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. Retrieved 28 September 2006.
  12. ^ Ryfle, Steve (1999). Japan's favorite mon-star: the unauthorized biography of "The Big G". ECW Press. p. 207. ISBN 1-55022-348-8.
  13. ^ Wheeler, Jeremy. "Star Crash (1978)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
  14. ^ "Starcrash". American Film Institute. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
  15. ^ Pulleine, Tim (1979). "Starcrash". Monthly Film Bulletin. Vol. 46 no. 540. London: British Film Institute. p. 155.
  16. ^ "Last Embrace". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  17. ^ "Movie Rocky 2 – Box Office Data, News, Cast Information". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
  18. ^ Schoell, William (2016-04-13). Al Pacino: In Films and on Stage, 2d ed. McFarland. ISBN 9780786471966.
  19. ^ Vincent Canby (January 31, 1981). "Maniac". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  20. ^ "Nightside". The New York Times.
  21. ^ "Melvin and Howard". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  22. ^ "AFI|Catalog". catalog.afi.com. Retrieved 2018-09-23.
  23. ^ "[Blu-ray Review] 'The Last Horror Film' is a Good Movie with a Bad Blu-ray - Bloody Disgusting". bloody-disgusting.com. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  24. ^ "The Last Horror Film (1982)". IMDb. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  25. ^ "The Last Horror Film (1982) : Awards". IMDb. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  26. ^ a b Janisse, Kier-La (June 21, 2013). "The Gentle Maniac: Buddy Giovinazzo Remembers Original "MANIAC" Joe Spinell". Fangoria.
  27. ^ Dahlke, Kurt (October 13, 2010). "Maniac - 30th Anniversary Edition". DVD Talk.
  28. ^ "Deadly Illusion". TCM database. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
  29. ^ Canby, Vincent. "Film: 'Deadly Illusion'". Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  30. ^ "Sage Stallone, Son of Sylvester, Found Dead - Cause of Death Still Unknown". WhatCulture.com. 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2018-09-23.
  31. ^ headgeek. "Stallone answers December 9th & 10th Questions in a double round - plus Harry's Seen ROCKY BALBOA..." Aint It Cool News. Retrieved 2018-09-30.

External links[edit]