Jogendra Nath Mandal

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Jogendranath Mandal
Jogendra Nath Mandal
Jogendra Nath Mondal Portrait
Minister of Law and Justice
In office
15 August 1947 – 8 October 1950
MonarchGeorge VI
Governor-GeneralMuhammad Ali Jinnah
Khawaja Nazimuddin
Prime MinisterLiaquat Ali Khan
Minister of Labour
In office
15 August 1947 – 8 October 1950
MonarchGeorge VI
PresidentLiaquat Ali Khan
Governor-GeneralMuhammad Ali Jinnah
Khawaja Nazimuddin
Minister of Commonwealth and Kashmir Affairs
In office
1 October 1949 – 8 October 1950
MonarchGeorge VI
Governor-GeneralMuhammad Ali Jinnah
Khawaja Nazimuddin
Prime MinisterLiaquat Ali Khan
Personal details
Born(1904-01-29)29 January 1904
Barisal, Bengal, British India
Died5 October 1968(1968-10-05) (aged 64)
Bangaon, West Bengal, India
CitizenshipBritish Indian (1904–1947)
Pakistani (1947–1950)
Indian (1950-1968)
NationalityIndian/Pakistani
Political partyMuslim League
OccupationPolitician

Jogendra Nath Mandal (Bengali: যোগেন্দ্রনাথ মণ্ডল; 29 January 1904 – 5 October 1968), was one of the central and leading Founding Fathers[1] of modern state of Pakistan, and legislator serving as country's first minister of law and labour, and also was second minister of commonwealth and Kashmir affairs. An Indian and later Pakistani statesman who served as the first minister of law and labour in Pakistan. As leader of the Scheduled Castes (Dalits), Jogendranath had made common cause with the Muslim League in their demand[citation needed] for Pakistan, hoping that the Scheduled Castes would be benefited from it and joined the first cabinet in Pakistan as the Minister of Law and Labour. He migrated to India a few years after partition[2] after submitting his resignation to Liaquat Ali Khan, the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, citing the anti-Hindu bias of Pakistani administration.[3][4]

Early life[edit]

Jogendra Nath Mandal was born in Barisal district of what was then Bengal Presidency, British India, present Bangladesh in 1904. Little is known of his early years other than that he was from a family of the Namasudra community. The Namasudras were considered to be outside the Hindu caste system but had begun a movement to claim a status within it.[5]

Political career in India (1937-1947)[edit]

Mandal began his political career as an independent candidate in the Indian provincial assembly elections of 1937. He contested Bakharganj North East Rural constituency for a seat in the Bengal legislative assembly and defeated Saral Kumar Dutta, the president of the district committee of the Indian National Congress (INC) and nephew of the Swadeshi leader, Ashwini Kumar Dutta.[5]

Mandal was considerably influenced around this time by both Subhas Chandra Bose and Sarat Chandra Bose. When the former was expelled from the INC in 1940, Mandal became involved with the Muslim League (ML), which was the only other significant national party, and became a minister in the cabinet of the ML chief minister, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.[5]

It was also around this time that Mandal and B. R. Ambedkar established the Bengal branch of the Scheduled Castes Federation, which itself aspired to political power. While the Namasudra community was being courted by the Hindu Mahasabha, and politics in the province was dominated by the oppressed Dalit and Muslim people, Mandal saw a distinction between communal affairs and political disputes involving the INC and ML. When rioting broke out in 1946, he traveled around East Bengal to urge Dalit people not to participate in violence against Muslims. He argued that the Dalits were being used as pawns by caste Hindus of the INC in their dispute with the ML.[5]

When the Muslim League joined the Interim Government of India in October 1946, Jinnah nominated Mandal as one of the League's five representatives. King George VI duly appointed Mandal to the body, where he took over the law portfolio.[6]

Political career in Pakistan (1947-1950)[edit]

Mandal was one of the 69 founding members of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. At their inaugural session, days before the 15 August 1947 partition of India, they elected him their temporary chairman.[7] He agreed to serve as the new state's first Minister for Law and Labour – becoming the highest-ranking Hindu member of the government.[citation needed] From 1947 to 1950 he lived in the port city of Karachi, the then capital of Pakistan.

Return to India (1950)[edit]

In 1950, Mandal came back to India after submitting his resignation to Liaquat Ali Khan, the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, citing the perceived anti-Hindu bias of Pakistani administration.[2][3][4] He mentioned incidents related to social injustice and biased attitude towards non-Muslim minorities in his resignation letter.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Heyworth-Dunne, James (1952). Pakistan: the birth of a new Muslim state. University of Michigan: Renaissance Bookshop. p. 173. ASIN B000N7G1MG.
  2. ^ a b "Eye on Uttar Pradesh polls, BJP showcases Pakistan Dalit minister who 'came back disillusioned'".
  3. ^ a b "5 noted personalities who left Pakistan for India".
  4. ^ a b "Resignation letter of Jogendra Nath Mandal".
  5. ^ a b c d Sharma, Arnav Das. "Selective Memory". The Caravan. Retrieved 2017-06-10.
  6. ^ Ahmad, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. New Delhi, India: APH Publishing Co. p. 77. ISBN 978-81-7648-469-5.
  7. ^ Tan, Tai Yong; Kugaisya, Gyanes (2000). The Aftermath of Partition in South Asia. Routledge. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-415-17297-4. On 10 August ... the Pakistan Constituent Assembly held its inaugural session where it elected Jogendranath Mandal ... as its temporary chairman ... he came forward to sign the roll as a founder-member ... In all the Assembly had sixty-nine members.
  8. ^ "Forgotten hero". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 13 January 2018.

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