|Time zone||UTC+5.30 (Indian Standard Time)|
The find from this site belong to the mature Harappan phase as well as later-era PGW phase (Vedic period). The Painted Grey Ware culture (PGW) probably corresponds to the middle and late Vedic period, i.e., the Kuru-Panchala kingdom, the first large state in South Asia after the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). Painted Grey Ware culture (PGW) chiefdoms in the region were succeeded by Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) from c. 700-500 BCE, associated with the rise of the great mahajanapada states (mahajanapada states Kuru, Panchala, Matsya, Surasena and Vatsa) and later of the Magadha Empire. Towards the end of the late Vedic period, many of the PGW settlements grew into the large towns and cities of the Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) period. B.B. Lal confirms that Mahabharata is associated with PGW sites and gives a date to c. 900 BCE for the War recounted in the Mahabharata.
Saraswati valley has the earlier phase of the PGW culture, such as excavation at Hat (Hathira) in Kurukshetra. Hathira was protected by a V shaped moat. Similar moats were found Jognakhera and Kunal on the Saraswati river. The presence of moat shows these were chiefdom-based cultures. These cultures reach a peak in Ganga-Yamuna Doab before the rise of Mahajanapadas in the Northern Black Polished Ware period.
Damage to site
- Indus Valley Civilization* List of Indus Valley Civilization sites
- List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization
- Hydraulic engineering of the Indus Valley Civilization
- Kunal, Haryana (copper smelting)
- Ghosh, Amalananda (Ed.) (1990). An Encyclopaedia of Indian archaeology. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 187. ISBN 9789004092648.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Suraj Bhan, [file:///C:/Users/Guest/AppData/Local/Temp/16-162-1-PB-1.html "Some Trends in Indian Archaeology."], Ancient Asia Journal.
- Geoffrey Samuel, (2010) The Origins of Yoga and Tantra: Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 45–51
- Michael Witzel (1989), Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, 97–265.
- Sabharwal, Vijay (11 July 2010). "Indus Valley site ravaged by floods". The Times Of India.
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