Johan Ludvig Runeberg
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|Johan Ludvig Runeberg|
Johan Ludvig Runeberg (portrait by C. P. Mazer)
5 February 1804|
Jakobstad, Kingdom of Sweden
|Died||6 May 1877
Porvoo, Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire
Runeberg studied first in the cities of Vaasa and Oulu, later on at the Imperial Academy of Turku, where he befriended Johan Vilhelm Snellman and Zacharias Topelius. His studies concentrated mainly on the classical languages of Latin and Greek. From 1837 onwards he lived in Porvoo, where he served as professor of Latin literature in the Gymnasium of Porvoo. He was married to his second cousin Fredrika Runeberg, née Tengström, with whom he had eight children and who wrote poems and novels, too. His eldest son was the sculptor Walter Runeberg.
Many of his poems deal with life in rural Finland. The best known of these is Bonden Paavo, (Farmer Paavo, Saarijärven Paavo in Finnish), about a smallholding peasant farmer in the poor parish of Saarijärvi and his determination, "sisu" (guts) and unwavering faith in providence in the face of a harsh climate and years of bad harvests. Three times, a frosty night destroys his crops. Every time, he mixes double the amount of bark into his bark bread to stave off starvation and works ever harder to dry off marsh into dryer land that would not be as exposed to the night frost. After the fourth year, Paavo finally gets a rich crop. As his wife exults, thanks God and tells Paavo to enjoy full bread made entirely out of grain, Paavo instructs his wife to mix bark into grain once more, because their neighbour's crop has been lost in a frost and he gives half of his crop to the needy neighbour.
Runeberg's most famous work is Fänrik Ståls sägner (The Tales of Ensign Stål, Vänrikki Stoolin tarinat in Finnish) written between 1848 and 1860. It is considered the greatest Finnish epic poem outside the native Kalevala tradition and contains tales of the Finnish War of 1808–09 with Russia. In the war, Sweden ignominiously lost Finland, which became a Grand Duchy in the Russian empire. The poem, which is composed episodically, emphasizes the common humanity of all sides in the conflict, while principally lauding the heroism of the Finns. The first poem "Vårt land" (Our Land, Maamme in Finnish) became the Finnish National Anthem.
Runeberg Day (Runebergin päivä) is celebrated on 5 February each year with a delicacy called Runeberg Torte (Finnish: Runebergintorttu; Swedish: Runebergstårta).
Runeberg was selected as the main motif in a recent Finnish commemorative coin, celebrating the 200th anniversary of his birth, the €10 Johan Ludvig Runeberg and Finnish Poetry commemorative coin, minted in 2004. The obverse of the coin features an interestingly stylized portrait of Runeberg's face. The reverse features an 1831 font sample from Helsingfors Tidningar - a Swedish-language newspaper - since Runeberg wrote most of his work in Swedish, representing his versatile literary talent.
Finnish band Ensiferum wrote a song "Old Man" that contains two verses from Johan Ludvig Runeberg's work "The Cloud’s Brother", where a dead hero’s girl shows her loss and pride by saying:
- "Sweeter far than life I found that love was"
- "Sweeter far than love to die as he did"
- Works written by or about Johan Ludvig Runeberg at Wikisource
- Media related to Johan Ludvig Runeberg at Wikimedia Commons
- Vårt land (Maamme)
- Works by Runeberg at Project Runeberg
- Johan Ludvig Runeberg at Swedish Wikisource
- Works by Johan Ludvig Runeberg at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Johan Ludvig Runeberg at Internet Archive
- Works by Johan Ludvig Runeberg at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Recipe for Runeberg Torte (Finnish: Runebergintorttu; Swedish: Runebergstårta)
- Runeberg translations by Charles Wharton Stork: pp. 56–80
- Anthology of Swedish lyrics from 1750 to 1915 at the Internet Archive