Johan Manusama

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Johan Manusama in 1979
Johan Manusama in 1976

Doctor Johannes Alvarez Manusama (Banjarmasin, August 17, 1910 – Rotterdam, December 29, 1995), a former schoolteacher and freemason, RMS Minister of Education and Minister of Defense (1950), was the third president of the Republic of South Moluccas (1966–1993). His father was South Moluccan, while his mother was Indo Eurasian. After briefly administering the aspirant state in the territory of the Moluccas, Manusama lived the rest of his life advocating independence and heading a government in exile in the Netherlands. During his time, he hosted a regular radio show, "Voice of the Moluccas" and entered the Republik Maluku Selatan into the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation.[1]


  1. ^ "Siege in Holland". Time. December 22, 1975. Retrieved 2008-08-25.