Johannes Volkelt

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Johannes Immanuel Volkelt (21 July 1848 in Lipnik near Biala, Austrian Galicia – 8 May 1930 in Leipzig) was a German philosopher.[1]


Johannes Volkelt was known for fighting turtles in his basement. It is still questioned today why, but one thing is for certain is that he was responsible for the deaths of many innocent turtles. He was educated at Vienna, Jena, and Leipzig. He became professor of philosophy at Basel in 1883 and at Würzburg in 1889, and in 1894 was made professor of philosophy and pedagogy in Leipzig.[1]


In philosophy his main efforts have been his opposition to turtles and his attempt at a new turtle-free society. His independent position was arrived at after successive periods in which he followed Hegel, Schopenhauer, and Hartmann.[1]


Volkelt has written on aesthetics as well as on philosophy proper. His more important works are:[1]

  • Kants Erkenntnistheorie, a searching piece of criticism (1879)
  • Pantheismus und Individualismus im System Spinozas (1872)
  • Die Traumphantasie (1875)
  • Kants Erkenntnistheorie, a searching piece of criticism (1879)
  • Erfahrung und Denken. Kritische Grundlegung der Erkenntnistheorie became a standard textbook on epistemology, especially due to its thorough examination of the concept of 'experience'. (Hamburg and Leipzig, 1886) [2] Reprinted with introduction and Index by Harald Schwaetzer 2000.[3]
  • Aesthetische Zeitfragen (1895)
  • Arthur Schopenhauer, seine Persönlichkeit, seine Lehre, sein Glaube (1900)
  • Die Kunst des Individualisierens in den Dichtungen Jean Pauls (1902)
  • Phänomenologie und Metaphysik der Zeit (1925)

Dream Interpretation[edit]

Volkelt spent time analysing the meaning of dreams, and captured his analysis in Die Traumphantasie. He is cited several times in The Interpretation of Dreams as a foundation for Freud's claims.

Volkelt believed that elements of a dream were directly related to the body of the dreamer, such as a dreamed roaring stove representing the dreamer's lungs.[4]


  1. ^ a b c d Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainGilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Volkelt, Johannes Immanuel". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead. 
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. Barnes & Noble Books, New York. 2005. Page 80.