John 19

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John 19
Papyrus 90 (John 19.1-7).jpg
John 19:1-7 on the verso side of Papyrus 90, written AD 150-175.
BookGospel of John
CategoryGospel
Christian Bible partNew Testament
Order in the Christian part4

John 19 is the nineteenth chapter of the Gospel of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book containing this chapter is anonymous, but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that John composed this Gospel.[1] This chapter records the events on the day of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, until his burial.[2]

Text[edit]

John 19:17-18,25-26 on Papyrus 121 (3rd century)

The original text was written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 42 verses.

Textual witnesses[edit]

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are:

Old Testament references[edit]

New Testament references[edit]

Places[edit]

Events recorded in this chapter took place in Jerusalem.

Verse 1[edit]

Pilate took Jesus and scourged [Him].[5]

According to Scottish Free Church minister William Nicoll, the scourging was meant as a compromise by Pilate, undertaken "in the ill-judged hope that this minor punishment might satisfy the Jews".[6] Pilate went on to declare that he found no fault in Jesus (verses 4 and 6).

Verse 3[edit]

Then they said, “Hail, King of the Jews!” And they struck Him with their hands.[7]

Cross reference: Matthew 27:29, Matthew 27:30; Mark 15:18; John 18:22

Verse 5[edit]

Then Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. And Pilate said to them, "Behold the Man!"[8]

"Behold the Man": Ecce homo in Vulgate Latin; in the original Greek: Ἴδε ὁ ἄνθρωπος, (Ide ho anthrōpos).

Verse 6[edit]

Therefore, when the chief priests and officers saw Him, they cried out, saying, "Crucify Him, crucify Him!" Pilate said to them, "You take Him and crucify Him, for I find no fault in Him".[9]
  • "Crucify Him, crucify Him!": The words of the chief priests and officers in the Received Text are Greek: σταύρωσον, σταύρωσον, staurōson, staurōson,[10], meaning "crucify! crucify!", with the word "him" being implied or added in English texts. The Jews did not possess the right of execution, nor was crucifixion a Jewish form of capital punishment.[11]
  • "No fault": or no crime (Revised Standard Version).[12]

Verse 19[edit]

The acronym INRI ("Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" in Latin) written in three languages (as in John 19:20) on the cross, Ellwangen Abbey, Germany.
Now Pilate wrote a title and put it on the cross. And the writing was:
JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS.[13]

Verse 19 in Greek[edit]

Textus Receptus/Majority Text:

ἔγραψεν δὲ καὶ τίτλον ὁ Πιλάτος, καὶ ἔθηκεν ἐπὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ· ἦν δὲ γεγραμμένον,
Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων.

Transliteration:

egrapsen de kai titlon ho Pilatos, kai ethēken epi tou staurou; ēn de gegrammenon,
IĒSOUS O NAZŌRAIOS O BASILEUS TŌN IOUDAIŌN.

Verse 19 in Latin[edit]

Biblia Sacra Vulgata:

scripsit autem et titulum Pilatus et posuit super crucem erat autem scriptum
Iesus Nazarenus rex Iudaeorum

Verse 20[edit]

Then many of the Jews read this title, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.[14]

Verse 21[edit]

Therefore the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, "Do not write, 'The King of the Jews,' but, 'He said, "I am the King of the Jews."'"[15]

Verse 22[edit]

Pilate answered, "What I have written, I have written."[16]

Verse 22 in Greek[edit]

Textus Receptus/Majority Text:

ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Πιλάτος, Ὃ γέγραφα, γέγραφα

Transliteration:

apekrithē o Pilatos o gegrapha gegrapha

Verse 22 in Latin[edit]

Biblia Sacra Vulgata:

respondit Pilatus quod scripsi scripsi

Verse 23[edit]

Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments and made four parts, to each soldier a part, and also the tunic.
Now the tunic was without seam, woven from the top in one piece.[17]

Verse 24[edit]

They said therefore among themselves, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be,"
that the Scripture might be fulfilled which says:
"They divided My garments among them,
And for My clothing they cast lots."
Therefore the soldiers did these things.[18]

Citing: Psalm 22:18

Verse 25[edit]

Now there stood by the cross of Jesus
His mother,
and His mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and
Mary Magdalene.[19]

Verse 26[edit]

When Jesus therefore saw His mother, and the disciple whom He loved standing by,
He said to His mother,
"Woman, behold your son!"[20]

Verse 27[edit]

Then He said to the disciple,
“Behold your mother!”
And from that hour that disciple took her to his own home.[21]

"That hour" may indicate that "they did not wait at the cross to see the end and the disciple took her to his own home"; εἰς τὰ ἴδια, see John 1:11, John 16:32. Mary would live with John and his natural mother, Salome, who is also Mary's sister.[22]

Verse 28[edit]

After this, Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said,
“I thirst!”[23]

Referring to: Psalm 69:21

Verse 29[edit]

Now a vessel full of sour wine was sitting there; and they filled a sponge with sour wine,
put it on hyssop, and put it to His mouth.[24]

Verse 30[edit]

So when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said,
“It is finished!”
And bowing His head, He gave up His spirit.[25]

Verse 30 in Greek[edit]

Textus Receptus/Majority Text:

ὅτε οὖν ἔλαβε τὸ ὄξος ὁ Ἰησοῦς, εἶπε,
Τετέλεσται·
καὶ κλίνας τὴν κεφαλήν, παρέδωκε τὸ πνεῦμα.

Transliteration:

ote oun elaben to oxos o Iēsous eipen
tetelestai
kai klinas tēn kephalēn paredōken to pneuma

Verse 30 in Latin[edit]

Biblia Sacra Vulgata:

cum ergo accepisset Iesus acetum dixit
consummatum est
et inclinato capite tradidit spiritum

Verse 31[edit]

Therefore, because it was the Preparation Day, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.[26]

Preparation Day was the day before the Passover.[27] Verse 42 refers to this day as "the Jews' Preparation Day". Alfred Plummer, in the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, suggests that "the addition of 'the Jews' may point to the time when there was already a Christian ‘preparation-day'".[28]

Verse 40[edit]

Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Holman Illustrated Bible Handbook. Holman Bible Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee. 2012.
  2. ^ Halley, Henry H. Halley's Bible Handbook: an Abbreviated Bible Commentary. 23rd edition. Zondervan Publishing House. 1962.
  3. ^ a b Kirkpatrick 1901, p. 838.
  4. ^ Kirkpatrick 1901, p. 839.
  5. ^ John 19:1 NKJV
  6. ^ Nicoll, W. R. (1897 ff), The Expositor's Greek Testament on John 19, accessed 14 June 2019
  7. ^ John 19:3 NKJV
  8. ^ John 19:5 NKJV
  9. ^ John 19:6: NKJV
  10. ^ John 19:6: Textus Receptus
  11. ^ Meyer, H., Meyer's NT Commentary on John 19, accessed 15 June 2019
  12. ^ John 19:6: RSV
  13. ^ John 19:19 NKJV
  14. ^ John 19:20 NKJV
  15. ^ John 19:21 NKJV
  16. ^ John 19:22 NKJV
  17. ^ John 19:23 NKJV
  18. ^ John 19:24 NKJV
  19. ^ John 19:25 NKJV
  20. ^ John 19:26 NKJV
  21. ^ John 19:27 NKJV
  22. ^ Marcus Rods. II: The Gospel of St. John. In: The Expositor's Greek Testament (Volumes 1). W. Robertson Nicoll (Editor). 1956. ASIN: B002KE6V1Q
  23. ^ John 19:28 NKJV
  24. ^ John 19:29 NKJV
  25. ^ John 19:30 NKJV
  26. ^ John 19:31 NKJV
  27. ^ John 19:42 New Living Translation
  28. ^ Plummer, A. (1902), Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on John 19, accessed 16 June 2019
  29. ^ John 19:40 KJV

Bibliography[edit]

  • Kirkpatrick, A. F. (1901). The Book of Psalms: with Introduction and Notes. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Book IV and V: Psalms XC-CL. Cambridge: At the University Press. Retrieved February 28, 2019.

External links[edit]


Preceded by
John 18
Chapters of the Bible
Gospel of John
Succeeded by
John 20