John W. Aaron
|Born||1943 (age 78–79)|
Wellington, Texas, U.S.
|Alma mater||Southwestern Oklahoma State University, B.S. 1964|
|Known for||Work on the Apollo 12 and Apollo 13 missions|
John W. Aaron (born 1943) is a former NASA engineer and was a flight controller during the Apollo program. He is widely credited with saving the Apollo 12 mission when it was struck by lightning soon after launch, and also played an important role during the Apollo 13 crisis.
John Aaron was born in Wellington, Texas and grew up in rural Western Oklahoma near Vinson, one of the youngest of a family of seven children. His mother was a minister, and his father was a cattle rancher. After spending a year attending Bethany Nazarene College, he transferred to Southwestern Oklahoma State University, from which he graduated during 1964 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics. Although he had intended to teach and ranch after graduating from college, he applied for a job with NASA on the recommendation of a friend.
When he arrived at NASA, Aaron was trained as an EECOM, a flight controller with specific responsibility for the electrical, environmental and communications systems on board the spacecraft. By January 19, 1965, when the unmanned Gemini 2 was launched, he was already working in Mission Control as Chief EECOM Officer, which he did through 1967.
Aaron pivoted his work as Chief EECOM Officer of the Command & Service Module to the Apollo program in 1967 where he continued through 1969. In 1969 he moved on to serve as Section Head, Electrical Power, Electrical & Instrumentation Systems Section, a position he held for 4 years.
When Apollo 12 launched on November 14, 1969, Aaron was on shift. Thirty-six seconds after liftoff, the spacecraft was struck by lightning, causing a power surge. Instruments began to malfunction and telemetry data became garbled. The flight director, Gerry Griffin, expected that he would have to abort the mission. However, Aaron realized that he had previously seen this odd pattern of telemetry.
A year before the flight, Aaron had been observing a test at Kennedy Space Center when he had noticed some unusual telemetry readings. On his own initiative, he traced this anomaly back to the obscure Signal Conditioning Equipment (SCE) system, and became one of the few flight controllers who was familiar with the system and its operations. For the case that first drew his attention to the system, normal readings could be restored by putting the SCE on its auxiliary setting, which meant that it would operate even with low-voltage conditions.
Aaron surmised that this setting would also return the Apollo 12 telemetry to normal. When he made the recommendation to the Flight Director, "Flight, try SCE to Aux", most of his mission control colleagues had no idea what he was talking about. Both the flight director and the CAPCOM Gerald P. Carr asked him to repeat the recommendation. Aaron repeated himself and Carr responded "What the hell's that?" Yet he relayed the order to the crew: "Apollo 12, Houston. Try SCE to auxiliary." Dick Gordon, a ground expert on the CSM as well as the Apollo 12 command module pilot, was familiar with both the location and the function of the SCE switch, and instructed Alan Bean to flip it to aux. Telemetry was immediately restored, allowing the mission to continue. This earned Aaron the lasting respect of his colleagues, who declared that he was a "steely-eyed missile man".
Aaron was off duty when the Apollo 13 explosion occurred, but was quickly called to Mission Control to assist in the rescue and recovery effort. Flight Director Gene Kranz put Aaron in charge of the power supply budget. He was allowed to veto the ideas of other engineers, particularly when they affected the power usage of the modules. He was in charge of rationing the spacecraft's power during the return flight and devised an innovative power up sequence that allowed the Command Module to re-enter safely while operating on limited battery power.
Contrary to existing procedures, he ordered the instrumentation system, which included telemetry, visibility, and the transmitters for communications, to be turned on last, just before reentry, rather than first. The call was a calculated risk. Without the instrumentation system, the crew and controllers would not know for certain if the cold startup had been successful until the last possible moment before reentry. However without the change, the capsule would have exhausted its battery supply before splashdown. The procedure was a success, and the crew was recovered safely.
After the Apollo Lunar Surface program ended, Aaron remained at NASA in the Spacecraft Software Division rising through the ranks of technical assistant to the chief in 1973 to assistant chief in 1979 before taking on the role of chief 1981-1984.
Beginning in 1984, he worked on Space Station Freedom project becoming manager of Johnson Space Center's space station projects office during 1989. Four years later, however, he was forced to resign from the job after Texas Senator Robert Krueger blamed him for $500 million of overspending on the station project.
Aaron became a manager in Johnson Space Center's Engineering Directorate in 1993, and stayed in the directorate until his retirement from NASA in 2000.
Aaron was portrayed by actor Loren Dean in the 1995 movie Apollo 13. Aaron was also played by John Travis in the 1998 mini-series From the Earth to the Moon. He was interviewed in the PBS documentary Apollo 13: To the Edge and Back, and in two History Channel documentaries about Mission Control, Failure Is Not an Option and Beyond the Moon: Failure Is Not an Option 2.
In 2017, Aaron appeared in David Fairhead's documentary Mission Control: The Unsung Heroes of Apollo.
- Lost Moon by Jeffrey Kluger and James Lovell, Houghton Mifflin (T) (October 1994) ISBN 0-395-67029-2
- "NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT BIOGRAPHICAL DATA SHEET John Aaron" (PDF).
- NASA Johnson Space Center (November 24, 1969). Apollo 12 Spacecraft Commentary (PDF) (Report). NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Transcript History Portal. p. 14. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
- Leary, Warren E. "President is Expected to Request Full Financing for Space Station". New York Times. p. 7.
- Kranz, Gene (2001). Failure Is Not an Option: Mission Control from Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond. New York: Berkeley Trade. ISBN 978-0-425-17987-1.
- Lovell, Jim; Kluger, Jeffrey Bly (1995). Apollo 13. New York: Pocket books (reissue edn). ISBN 978-0-671-53464-6.
- Murray, Charles; Cox, Catherine Bly (1989). Apollo: The Race to the Moon. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-61101-9.
- Apollo 12 lightning strike
- Apollo 13, We Have a Solution, Stephen Cass, IEEE Spectrum, April 2005, accessed 11 Feb 2006. (Now requires a login.)
- "Biographical Data Sheet: John W. Aaron" (PDF). NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Retrieved 2006-07-12.
- "Oral History Transcript: John W. Aaron" (PDF). NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. January 18, 2000. Retrieved 2006-07-12.
- "Oral History Transcript: John W. Aaron" (PDF). NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. January 21, 2000. Retrieved 2006-07-12.
- "Oral History Transcript: John W. Aaron" (PDF). NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. January 26, 2000. Retrieved 2006-07-12.
- "Apollo 12 Spacecraft Commentary" (PDF). NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Transcript History Portal. November 24, 1969. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
- IMBd, Rotten tomatoes