John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley
John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley,  (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British civil servant and politician who is best known for his service in the Cabinet during the Second World War, for which he was nicknamed the "Home Front Prime Minister". He served as Home Secretary, Lord President of the Council and Chancellor of the Exchequer. The Anderson shelters are named after him.
He was born in Eskbank, part of Dalkeith in Midlothian and studied mathematics and geology at the University of Edinburgh and chemistry at the University of Leipzig where he wrote a thesis on the chemistry of uranium. He was a brilliant student, winning numerous prizes, but at the age of 22 he decided to forsake a career in science and sat for the British civil service examinations, coming first, while also taking a degree in economics. In later life he was elected an honorary Fellow of the Royal Society.
He was appointed to the Colonial Office in 1905.
Aged only thirty-four, Anderson headed the Civil Service staff of the new Ministry of Shipping in 1917. Later, he served as Under-Secretary for Ireland, and became Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the Home Office in 1922, where he had to deal with the General Strike of 1926. His career in the civil service was capped by a posting as Governor of Bengal from 1932 to 1937. On 15 January 1935 he met with Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura.
In early 1938, Anderson was elected to the House of Commons by the Scottish Universities as a National Independent Member of Parliament, a non-party supporter of the National Government. In October that year he entered Neville Chamberlain's Cabinet as Lord Privy Seal. In that capacity, he was put in charge of air raid preparations. He initiated the development of a kind of air-raid shelter named the "Anderson shelter", a small sheet metal cylinder made of prefabricated pieces which could be assembled in a garden and partially buried to protect against bomb blast.
After the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, Anderson returned to hold the joint portfolio of Home Secretary and Minister of Home Security, a position in which he served under Winston Churchill, often attending his War Cabinet. He retained responsibility for civil defence. In October 1940, he was replaced by Herbert Morrison in a reshuffle precipitated by Chamberlain's resignation over ill-health. He became Lord President of the Council and full member of the War Cabinet.
During the Yalta Conference Anderson opposed the Soviet Union's demands for war reparations from Germany because of the role World War I reparations played in the Great Depression and the collapse of the Weimar Republic.
In January 1945, the Prime Minister wrote to King George VI to advise that should he and his second-in-command (and heir apparent) Anthony Eden die during the war, John Anderson should become Prime Minister: "it is the Prime Minister's duty to advise Your Majesty to send for Sir John Anderson in the event of the Prime Minister and the Foreign Secretary being killed." Although not a member of a political party, Churchill thought Anderson had the abilities to lead the National Government, and that an independent figure was essential to the maintenance of the coalition.
Following the unexpected death on 21 September 1943 of Sir Kingsley Wood, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Anderson was appointed to that office. As Chancellor, in a written Commons answer of 12 June 1945, he announced the creation of the Arts Council of Great Britain, a successor body to the Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA). He remained in the post until the Labour victory in the general election in July 1945.
He left the Commons when the university constituencies were abolished at the 1950 general election. Meanwhile, he became Chairman of the Port of London Authority in 1946 and Chairman of the Royal Opera House in March the same year. He remained in the latter post for eleven years.
He rejected an offer to join Churchill's peacetime administration when it was formed in October 1951, and was created Viscount Waverley, of Westdean in the County of Sussex, in 1952. He died six years later at the age of 75 in St Thomas' Hospital, Lambeth, London.
Anderson's first marriage was in 1907 to Christina Mackenzie. The couple had two children:
- David Alastair Pearson Anderson, 2nd Viscount Waverley (1911–1990)
- Mary Mackenzie Anderson (1916–2006)
Christina died in 1920.
In 1941, he married Ava (Bodley) Wigram, daughter of John Edward Courtenay Bodley. She was the widow of Ralph Wigram, a senior civil servant who had provided Winston Churchill with confidential military information during the 1930s.
- Bridges, L.; Dale, H. (1958). "John Anderson, Viscount Waverley 1882-1958". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 4: 306. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1958.0024.
- Grigg, John (2002). Lloyd George: War Leader, 1916–1918. London: Allen Lane. pp. 45–9. ISBN 0-713-99343-X.
- Gowing 1964, pp. 106–111.
- Reynolds, David (2009). Summits: Six Meetings That Shaped the Twentieth Century. New York: Basic Books. p. 131. ISBN 0-7867-4458-8. OCLC 646810103.
- Wheeler-Bennet, J. (1958). King George VI: His Life and Reign. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 544–46. OCLC 334913.
- Hansard, HC Debate 12 June 1945
- Lebrecht, Norman (2000). Covent Garden: the Untold Story: Dispatches From the English Culture War, 1945–2000. London: Simon & Schuster. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-0-684-85143-3.
- "Index entry". FreeBMD. ONS. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- "Ava (née Bodley), Viscountess Waverley". National Portrait Gallery.
- Debrett's Peerage. 2019. p. 4725.
- John Anderson, Viscount Waverley, 1962 by John Wheeler-Bennett Publisher: NY, St. Martin, 1962. 445 pp., illus. ASIN: B000UDUU48.
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