John Arnold (cinematographer)

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John Arnold
JohnArnold02.jpg
John Arnold in 1922
Born (1889-11-16)November 16, 1889
New York City, New York, United States
Died January 11, 1964(1964-01-11) (aged 74)
Palm Springs, California, United States
Occupation Cinematographer
Years active 1914–1956

John Arnold was an American cinematographer. He began in 1914, and in his 25 years behind the camera, he shot 86 films.[1] In he worked in film administration, directing the cinematography department at MGM. He was also president of the American Society of Cinematographers from 1931 through 1937, and again from 1939 to 1941. By 1938 he was considered as one of the most authoritative experts on cinematography. He invented several pieces of camera equipment and was awarded two Oscars, both Technical Achievement Awards. The first was in 1938 for improvements on the semi-automatic follow focus device used on motion picture cameras, while the second was in 1940 for the development of the MGM mobile camera crane.

Career[edit]

1910s and 1920s[edit]

Arnold started his career with Republic Pictures in New York City (not to be confused with Republic Pictures) in 1910.[2] Arnold's first film was 1914's Springtime, directed by Will S. Davis and starring Florence Nash, Adele Ray, and William H. Tooker. Filming took place on location in New Orleans, Louisiana and in St. Augustine, Florida.[3] In July 1916, he began working for Metro Pictures, his first picture being The Quitter, starring Lionel Barrymore, Marguerite Skirvin, and Paul Everton, and was directed by Charles Horan.[4] While at Metro, he became the personal cameraman for Viola Dana, shooting every film she appeared in for the studio.[5] In November 1919, Arnold began a new fad among cameramen, when he began to wear moleskin pants. He felt that they had the dual purpose of keeping him warm in the winter and cool in the summer.[6] Arnold was one of the charter members of the American Society of Cinematographers in 1919.[7]

He continued at Metro throughout the 1910s and into the 1920s. In April 1922, he went over to Fox Films to shoot Very Truly Yours, directed by Harry Beaumont, before returning back to Metro in May to film Viola Dana's next picture, Seeing's Believing.[8][9][10] By 1922, he had filmed every single one of Viola Dana's pictures for Metro, and had helmed the camera for 47 films for Metro.[11] Arnold, accompanied by his wife, went on location in February 1923 to shoot the film The Fog.[12]

It is very seldom that the photography is praised in a poorly directed picture. The perfect picture results from close co-operation between the cameraman and the director.[13]
Arnold (left), with director Edward Cline on the set of the 1924 film, Along Came Ruth

In 1921, Arnold was elected to the board of governors of the American Society of Cinematographers.[14] With the advent of sound pictures in the late 1920s, Arnold was chosen to sit on a panel of industry experts in the fields of film engineering, projection, and cinematography to discuss and establish screen proportions and other issues which arose with sound pictures. The experts were chosen from four organizations: the Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences technicians, the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, the American Projection Society, and the American Society of Cinematographers.[15] Through 1925 Arnold shot every film Viola Dana was in at Metro.[16] This ended with Dana's departure from Metro in 1925 in order to go freelance. After her departure, Arnold was given a long-term contract by MGM, where he had been since they opened their west coast studios in 1916.[17] That year Arnold filmed The Big Parade, which won the Photoplay Magazine Medal for best film of the year. The medal is considered the first significant annual movie award, prior to the establishment of the Oscars.[18] 1927 saw the development of the "Arnold light", an incandescent light which replaced the arc lights which was used prior.[7] In 1929 Arnold invented a new type of "sound-proof" camera, to reduce the noise in filming sound productions. Its first use was in Lionel Barrymore's The Unholy Night, although Arnold was not the cinematographer on that film.[19] In 1929 Arnold invented the "bungalow", a mobile camera covering which freed cameramen from the restrictive camera booths which were necessitated by sound film photography.[20][21] 1929 would be Arnold's last year behind the camera. In 1930 he joined MGM's administration as head of their sound camera department, later to be called simply the camera department.[22][23]

1930s[edit]

John Anderson (standing) with Lionel Barrymore on the set of the 1929 film, The Unholy Night, the housing around the camera is Arnold's invention, the "bungalow"
Arnold in 1931
Arnold with his Filmo 16mm camera mounted next to his 35mm film camera, which is housed in his "bungalow" invention
John Arnold explaining his new "blimp" to actress Leila Hyams in 1930
Arnold's rotambulator

Arnold was elected to his first term as president of the American Society of Cinematographers in 1931, a position he would hold through 1937. He had previously been the treasurer of the organization.[24][25] During the year he became a major force in campaigning for Cinematographers to receive on-screen credit.[26] In 1932, American Cinematographer, the official magazine of the American Society of Cinematographers, decided to run a contest for the best amateur film, offering a $1000 prize. Arnold was selected to be one of the judges.[27] Late in 1932 Arnold was elected to the Technical Committee of the Motion Picture Academy (MPA).[28] Also in 1932, Arnold oversaw the creation of a standard testing practice by the ASC, whereby they would test all technical moving and still equipment. Equipment which passed the test were eligible to use the "Approved by A.S.C." tag in their advertising.[29][30] In the early 1930s, Arnold developed an attachment for the Mitchell Camera, which reduced the noise created during filming. It was a 48 cycle synchronous motor used to drive the camera, and it greatly reduced the vibration, and completely eradicated the noise of the motor. Along with a new version of the camera which was introduced in 1933, it was hailed as "...the greatest forward step in recent years." The combination of the new camera with the Arnold motor allowed the camera, without a hood (or blimp), to be used as close as a yard from the microphone.[31] Another invention of Arnold's in the early 30s was a rolling tripod, which would be further refined by Mole-Richardson company, which gave it the name, the "Mole-Richardson rolling tripod".[32][33] Arnold also invented the MGM camera crane, which was a substantial improvement over prior versions. it was abbut half the size of earlier versions, and 1/17 as heavy, as well as cutting costs by 90%. It elevated to 26 feet, weighed 3300 pounds, and cost $3,500. The crane could swing through a complete horizontal circle, while the arm could rotate 90 degrees. During this same period Arnold also designed the "rotambulator", a radically new design of camera dolly, which allowed a stable platform to move from about 18 inches off the floor to a height of eight feet. The operator could also rotate the entire assembly through a complete 360 degree circle.[34] Arnold was also an avid 16mm camera fan, and would share his expertise with anyone who showed an interest. One of those he taught was Clark Gable.[35][36] With the passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, the National Recovery Administration was created, and part of its responsibilities included the creation of a motion picture code. At the hearing held in Washington D.C., Arnold was included as one of a long list of speakers who had requested to be heard.[37] His attendance at the hearings in Washington caused him to miss the wedding of his good friend, Lee Garmes, for whom he was supposed to be the best man.[38] By the end of 1933, Arnold's rotambulator was in use at several studios, replacing the tripods, dollies, and light cranes.[39]

In 1935 Arnold invented a new type of camera blimp, decreasing the weight of the old model from 240 to 100 pounds, and including an automatic finder.[40] Also in 1935 Arnold invented a mechanism which allowed film crews to drop "free heads" on large cameras. This lessened the uneven movement which existed on the cameras.[22] In 1935, not only was he re-elected to the MPA's technical committee, but he was also elected to their Board of Governors, representing technicians.[41]

By 1936 Arnold's title at MGM had become "executive director of photography."[42] In 1936 Arnold developed two pieces of camera equipment which made it possible to better film operation on boats. Developed them for the film, Captains Courageous, they were called the "iron egg" and "the self-wiping windshield". The former was a weighted pendulum which hung from the bottom of the camera, acting as a counterweight and giving stability to the camera on a moving deck. The latter was a piece of plate glass which rotated very quickly, and with pressure plates to keep the glass free from water and spray.[43] In 1937, Arnold decided not to run, due to potential conflicts of interest with his position at MGM, and was replaced by Victor Milner, who was elected in October 1937.[44] After stepping down from the presidency, Arnold was awarded a "gold life card" by the ASC.[45]

In 1938 Arnold contributed to the book, How We Make the Movies. The tome was an account of how movies were made, with each aspect of filmmaking covered by an authority in that field. It was "... designed for the general reader and for class room study in schools and colleges. Told in simple, informative and graphic style, the book covers the entire field, from the selection of the story, to the editing of the film." Arnold was asked to write the chapter on cinematography.[46] At the Tenth Academy Awards in 1938 Arnold was awarded an Oscar for technical development for his work on the semi-automatic follow focus device used on motion picture cameras.[47] Following his break in 1938, Arnold was elected once again to the presidency of the ASC in 1939, a post he would hold through 1941.[48] Arnold developed the Ro Crane in 1939, which became the standard crane used at MGM in the 1940s and 1950s.[49]

1940s and 1950s[edit]

Arnold with his 16mm Filmo

Arnold won his second Oscar in 1940 for his development of the mobile camera crane.[50] Also in 1940, he was re-elected as president of the American Society of Cinematographers.[51] By the end of 1940 Arnold had been selected to serve on the MPAA's Production Defense Co-ordination Committee.[52] That same year he was selected to sit on the board of the MPAA's Oscar committee for technical awards.[53] 1940 also saw Arnold invent a new camera boom and dolly, considered a radical improvement at the time. The boom allowed the camera to film from ground level all the way to 16 feet.[54] In 1941, while he remained on their Board of Governers, he was replaced as president by Fred Jackman. Arnold stepped down due to his increasing duties at MGM.[55][56]

In 1941 he was appointed to a committee to discuss and standardize the use of 16mm equipment in the film industry. The committee was set up by the Research Council of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).[57] In 1942 Arnold was again a member of an AMPAS committee, this one recommended changing the film speed from 24 to 18 frames per second. This would result in saving 35,000,000 feet of film each year.[58] That same year, Arnold was selected to be the sole cinematography representative on the industry's War Activities Committee.[59] In 1942 Arnold was one of a handful of cinematographers selected to train servicemen in the Signal Corps on how to take combat footage. By the end of 1943 he had trained over 350 men in the service.[60][61]

In 1946, to help out fellow out cameraman (now working for him at MGM) Paul Vogel, who was working on the film Lady in the Lake, Arnold developed a special camera dolly which had four independent wheels. The film was shot from the POV of the protagonist, and the independent wheels allowed the camera to "walk" through doorways and upstairs, simulating natural movement.[62] Arnold invented the Ro Boom, used by MGM in the 1940s. In 1948 he invented a new controller and motor for the boom. The new device allowed a single operator to move the boom at greater speeds. It had graduated speeds forwards and backwards, as well as dynamic braking through the motor.[63] For the 1949 film Neptune's Daughter, Arnold oversaw the development of a combination camera elevator and crane, which allowed vertical travel shots, mid-air shots, and use of the camera anywhere from floor to ceiling without the need for extra equipment.[64]

Arnold made another improvement to his Ro Crane in 1952, which allowed technicolor cameras to utilize the crane. He replaced the stationary base with a rotating one, which allowed the camera to be have film installed on either side, which was necessary for the 3 negative rolls to occur.[49] Arnold's contributions were not limited to camera equipment as back in the 1920s he had created the "Arnold light", an incandescent light to replace the older arc lights. In 1952 Arnold perfected a new lighting technique which utilized a new reflected type set, first utilized in the production, Scaramouche.[65] For the 1952 film The Wild North, Arnold developed a camera heater which allowed cameras to film in very low temperatures. The heater could be adapted for any type of movie camera.[66] Also in 1952, Arnold developed the jeep-mounted crane. He came up with the design to fill the need of his studio for rugged mobile transport to move cranes quickly from one location to the next.[67] In October 1952 he was given an "Award of Fellow" from the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.[68] For the 1952 film, Julius Caesar, Arnold invented "skylight", an overhead lighting platform which used reflected light to produce shadowless lighting for indoor scenes.[69] In 1953 Arnold invented a horizontal film travel camera, which was ahead of its time. It wasn't used by the studio until 1955, with the advent of 65mm.[70] For the 1955 film Lust for Life, Arnold developed a process which allowed Van Gogh's paintings to be shot with better clarity than simply filming with a camera.[71] Arnold served on the board of governors for the ASC from its inception in 1919 until 1955. In 1956, he was elected an alternate board member.[72]

Arnold retired in 1956, after a career of 32 years with MGM, the last 26 of which were spent as head of MGM's camera department.[73] Over the course of his career he invented hundreds of pieces of camera equipment. He was the only ASC member to serve 7 years as the organization's president.[74] While head of the MGM camera department, Arnold was known for being a company man, requiring the cinematographers he supervised to use the glamorous cinematographic style MGM was known for, and coming down quite hard on those photographers who didn't want to conform to the MGM style.[75]

Filmography[edit]

(as per AFI's database)[76]

Year Title Role Production Co. Distribution Co.
1914 Springtime Cinematographer Life Photo Film Corp. Alco Film Corp.
1916 The Gates of Eden Cinematographer Columbia Pictures Metro Pictures
1916 The Upheaval Cinematographer Rolfe Photoplays Metro Pictures
1916 The Quitter Cinematographer Rolfe Photoplays Metro Pictures
1916 The Cossack Whip Cinematographer Thomas A Edison, Inc K-E-S-E Service
1917 Lady Barnacle Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1917 Blue Jeans Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1917 Aladdin's Other Lamp Cinematographer Rolfe Photoplays Metro Pictures
1917 The Barricade Cinematographer Rolfe Photoplays Metro Pictures
1917 The Girl Without a Soul Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1917 The Mortal Sin Cinematographer Columbia Pictures Metro Pictures
1917 God's Law and Man's Cinematographer Columbia Pictures Metro Pictures
1917 His Father's Son Cinematographer Rolfe Photoplays Metro Pictures
1917 Rosie O'Grady Cinematographer Apollo Pictures Art Dramas, Inc.
1917 Threads of Fate Cinematographer Columbia Pictures Metro Pictures
1918 Riders of the Night Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1918 Opportunity Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1918 Flower of the Dusk Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1918 A Weaver of Dreams Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1918 The Winding Trail Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1918 Breakers Ahead Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1918 The Only Road Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1919 Satan Junior Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1919 The Parisian Tigress Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1919 Some Bride Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1919 The Gold Cure Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1919 Please Get Married Cinematographer Screen Classics Metro Pictures
1919 The Microbe Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1919 False Evidence Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1920 The Chorus Girl's Romance Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1920 Cinderella's Twin Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1920 The Willow Tree Cinematographer Screen Classics Metro Pictures
1920 Blackmail Cinematographer Screen Classics Metro Pictures
1920 Dangerous To Men Cinematographer Screen Classics Metro Pictures
1921 There Are No Villains Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1921 Life's Darn Funny Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1921 The Match-Breaker Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1921 The Off-Shore Pirate Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1921 Puppets of Fate Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1922 Very Truly Yours Director of Photography Fox Films Fox Films
1922 They Like 'Em Rough Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1922 Seeing's Believing Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1922 June Madness Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1922 The Fourteenth Lover Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1922 Love in the Dark Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1922 Glass Houses Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1922 The Five Dollar Baby Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1923 The Social Card Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1923 In Search of a Thrill Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1923 Her Fatal Millions Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1923 The Fog Cinematographer Max Graf Productions Metro Pictures
1923 A Noise in Newboro Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1923 Rouged Lips Director of Photography Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1923 Crinoline and Romance Cinematographer Metro Pictures Metro Pictures
1924 Revelation Cinematographer Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1924 So This Is Marriage Cinematographer Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1924 Wife of the Centaur Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1924 Sinners in Silk Cinematographer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1924 A Heart Bandit Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1924 The Beauty Prize Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1924 Along Came Ruth Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1924 Don't Doubt Your Husband Cinematographer Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1925 The Way of a Girl Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1925 Proud Flesh Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1925 The Big Parade Cinematographer Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Metro-Goldwyn Pictures
1925 Sun-Up Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1925 Sally, Irene and Mary Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1925 Bright Lights Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1926 Paris Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1926 Love's Blindness Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1926 Dance Madness Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1926 The Auction Block Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1926 The Fire Brigade Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1927 The Understanding Heart Director of Photography Cosmopolitan Productions Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1927 The Show Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1927 Mr. Wu Cinematographer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1927 Heaven on Earth Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1927 Becky Director of Photography Cosmopolitan Productions Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1928 Show People Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1928 The Wind Cinematographer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1928 Rose-Marie Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1928 The Garden of Eden Cinematographer Feature Productions United Artists
1928 Detectives Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1928 The Cardboard Lover Director of Photography Cosmopolitan Productions Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1929 The Hollywood Revue of 1929 Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1928 The Broadway Melody Director of Photography Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

Personal life[edit]

In February 1920, Arnold moved to Hollywood, where he purchased a new home.[77] In 1923 his police dog, named Pal Baron Von Matinhoff, won the gold medal at the Los Angeles Kennel Club's annual dog show.[78] On May 12, 1935 he became the father of a son.[79]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "John Arnold". American Film Institute. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  2. ^ "A.S.C. on Parade". American Cinematographer. November 1941. p. 521. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  3. ^ "Springtime". American Film Institute. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  4. ^ "The Quitter". American Film Institute. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  5. ^ "Where to Find People You Know". Camera!. December 20, 1919 [November 15, 1919]. p. 6.open access publication – free to read
  6. ^ "Arnold Sets Fad". Camera!. November 15, 1919. p. 7. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  7. ^ a b "A New Era in Lighting". American Cinematographer. August 1927. p. 22. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  8. ^ "Very Truly Yours". American Film Institute. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  9. ^ "Seeing's Believing". American Film Institute. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  10. ^ "Story By". Camera!. June 17, 1922. p. 18. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  11. ^ "Pickups By the Staff". Camera!. September 23, 1922. p. 8. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  12. ^ "Flashes from Frisco". Camera!. February 10, 1923. p. 6. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  13. ^ "What the Cameramen Think". The Film Daily. April 24, 1921. p. 90. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  14. ^ "Where to Find the Members of the American Society of Cinematographers". American Cinematographer. November 1, 1921. p. 15. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  15. ^ "Theater Screen and Studios Being Surveyed". The Film Daily. July 25, 1929. p. 6. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  16. ^ "25 Years Ago". American Cinematographer. January 1948. p. 33. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  17. ^ "John Arnold". American Cinematographer. July 1925. p. 9. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  18. ^ "Honors for Arnold". American Cinematographer. December 1926. p. 5. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  19. ^ "New and Improved Equipment". Motion Picture News. September 7, 1929. p. 878. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  20. ^ Phil M. Daly (July 21, 1930). "Along the Rialto". The Film Daily. p. 3. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  21. ^ "Solving the "Ice-Box" Problem". American Cinematographer. September 1929. p. 7. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  22. ^ a b "Dropping "Free Heads"". Motion Picture Daily. August 16, 1935. p. 14. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  23. ^ "M-G-M's Newest "Blimp"". American Cinematographer. June 1930. p. 18. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  24. ^ "John Arnold Elected Cinematographers' Head". The Film Daily. April 15, 1931. p. 1. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  25. ^ "Arnold Re-elected". The Film Daily. April 7, 1937. p. 2. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  26. ^ Hal Hall (June 1931). "Hal Hall Says". American Cinematographer. p. 18. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  27. ^ "Camera Contest". The Film Daily. March 14, 1932. p. 2. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  28. ^ "M. P. Academy Officers Will Be Chosen Nov. 1". The Film Daily. October 25, 1932. p. 6. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  29. ^ "Cinematographer Society Will Test All Equipment". The Film Daily. October 12, 1932. p. 4. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  30. ^ "Cinematographer Society Will Test All Equipment". American Cinematographer. February 1933. p. 3. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  31. ^ "Using the Mitchell Noiseless Camera on Production". American Cinematographer. February 1933. pp. 8–9. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  32. ^ "Evolution of Cinema Tripods for Studio Use". American Cinematographer. April 1933. pp. 6–7. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  33. ^ "Evolution of Cinema Tripods for Studio Use". American Cinematographer. April 1933. p. 35. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  34. ^ "Development of Mobile Camera-Carriages and Cranes". American Cinematographer. May 1933. pp. 13–14. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  35. ^ "I Like To Hunt - With a Camera". American Cinematographer. June 1933. p. 59. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  36. ^ "Professional Amateurs". American Cinematographer. July 1930. p. 30. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  37. ^ "More Than 200 to Speak at Film Code Hearing Today". The Film Daily. September 12, 1933. p. 12. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  38. ^ "Lee Garmes, A.S.C. Weds". American Cinematographer. October 1933. p. 238. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  39. ^ "Cinematic Progress During 1933". American Cinematographer. April 1934. p. 491. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  40. ^ "Invents a New Blimp". Motion Picture Daily. April 16, 1935. p. 15. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  41. ^ "Technicians Branch Elections". The Film Daily. October 1, 1935. p. 2. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  42. ^ "Amateur Movie Section". American Cinematographer. May 1936. p. 209. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  43. ^ "New "Iron Egg" Aids Nautical Shooting". The Film Daily. October 14, 1936. p. 14. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  44. ^ "Milner Elected President of ASC". American Cinematographer. October 1937. p. 496. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  45. ^ "Arnold Given Gold Life Card by A.S.C." American Cinematographer. November 1937. p. 464. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  46. ^ "Book Reviews: We Make the Movies". The Film Daily. February 10, 1938. p. 7. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  47. ^ "Thalberg Plaque to Daryl F. Zanuck; Rainer, Tracy Capture Acting Honors". The Film Daily. March 11, 1938. p. 7. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  48. ^ "John Arnold ASC Prexy". The Film Daily. April 12, 1939. p. 2. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  49. ^ a b Arthur Rowan (February 1952). "Technicolor Cameras Now Ride the Ro Crane". American Cinematographer. pp. 65, 82. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  50. ^ "GWTW Wins Eight M. P. Academy Awards". The Film Daily. March 1, 1940. p. 9. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  51. ^ "Cinematographers Re-elect John Arnold President". The Film Daily. April 17, 1940. p. 2. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  52. ^ "Freeman Names Members of Pix Defense Committee". The Film Daily. October 31, 1940. p. 8. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  53. ^ "Academy Committee to Meet on Awards". The Film Daily. December 13, 1940. p. 8. Retrieved September 30, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  54. ^ "Report "Cold" Sound Stage Developed". The Film Daily. October 23, 1940. p. 4. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  55. ^ "Cinematographers Elect Fred Jack Jackman President". The Film Daily. April 16, 1941. p. 2. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  56. ^ "Jackman New A.S.C. President". American Cinematographer. May 1941. p. 218. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  57. ^ "Research Council Names New 16 mm. Committee". The Film Daily. October 17, 1941. p. 5. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  58. ^ "Research Council Names Technical Economies Comm". The Film Daily. June 4, 1942. p. 4. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  59. ^ "The War Activities Committee - Personnel". The Film Daily. August 28, 1942. p. 28. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  60. ^ "Cameramen Teaching Combat Photography". The Film Daily. July 20, 1942. p. 6. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  61. ^ "Coast Cameramen's Local to Keep Open Mind On Post-War Admission of Army's Lensmen". The Film Daily. October 26, 1943. p. 1. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  62. ^ Herb A. Lightman (November 1946). "M-G-M Pioneers With Subjective Feature". American Cinematographer. p. 400. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  63. ^ E. A. Huntman (November 1946). "Speed Boom". American Cinematographer. p. 400. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  64. ^ James Housler (April 1949). "Technicolor Photography Under Water". American Cinematographer. p. 122. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  65. ^ "Cinematography Reviews". American Cinematographer. May 1952. p. 194. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  66. ^ "Camera Heater for Cold-weather Photography". American Cinematographer. June 1952. p. 250. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  67. ^ "Jeep Camera Crane". American Cinematographer. August 1952. p. 344. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  68. ^ "Hollywood Bulleting Board". American Cinematographer. October 1952. p. 422. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  69. ^ "Overhead Lighting for Overall Set Illumination". American Cinematographer. December 1952. p. 528. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
  70. ^ "Industry News: Metro Goldwyn Mayer". American Cinematographer. May 1955. p. 254. Retrieved October 1, 2018.open access publication – free to read
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