John Babington Macaulay Baxter

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For other people named John Baxter, see John Baxter (disambiguation).
John Babington Macaulay Baxter
John Babington Macaulay Baxter.jpg
John B. M. Baxter as Chief Justice
19th Premier of New Brunswick
In office
September 14, 1925 – May 19, 1931
Monarch George V
Lieutenant Governor William Frederick Todd
Hugh Havelock McLean
Preceded by Peter J. Veniot
Succeeded by Charles D. Richards
MLA for Saint John County
In office
December 7, 1911 – December 6, 1921
Serving with Allister F. Bentley, Thomas B. Carson, L. Murray Curran
Preceded by James Lowell
Succeeded by Allister H. Bentley
In office
August 10, 1925 – May 19, 1931
Serving with B. H. Dougan, Marcus Lorne Jewett, James M. Scott
Preceded by Allister H. Bentley
Succeeded by Robert McAllister
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for St. John—Albert
In office
December 6, 1921 – July 23, 1925
Serving with Murray MacLaren
Preceded by Rupert Wilson Wigmore
Succeeded by Thomas Bell
Personal details
Born (1868-02-16)February 16, 1868
Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada
Died December 27, 1946(1946-12-27) (aged 78)
Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s) Grace W. Coster (m. 1924)
Children John B.M. Jr.; Frederick Coster Noel; Eleanor Crowden; and Mary Faith
Alma mater King's College
Occupation lawyer, jurist
Profession politician

John Babington Macaulay Baxter, KC DCL PC (February 16, 1868 – December 27, 1946) was a New Brunswick lawyer, jurist and the 19th Premier of New Brunswick.

Baxter served in the Canadian Army and was the author of Historical Records of the New Brunswick Regiment, Royal Artillery, the unit he commanded from 1907 to 1912. He also had a keen interest in genealogy and in 1943 the New Brunswick Museum published his book titled Simon Baxter - The first United Empire Loyalist to settle in New Brunswick, (Canada).

Born in Saint John, New Brunswick, John Baxter served on the municipal council for eighteen years from 1892 to 1910. A Conservative Party member, he was elected to the 32nd New Brunswick Legislative Assembly in 1911. He was appointed Attorney-General of the province, holding that office from 1915 to 1917. He entered federal politics and served as Minister of Customs and Excise under Prime Minister Arthur Meighen in 1921 before taking over the leadership of the provincial Conservative party and leading it to victory in 1925.

Baxter was a leader of the Maritime Rights Movement which expressed the discontent felt by the maritime provinces concerning their loss of influence in the Canadian confederation dominated by the provinces of Quebec and Ontario.

He left politics in 1931 and was appointed Chief Justice of the New Brunswick Supreme Court in 1935 serving until his death. His son, John B. M. Baxter, Jr., later served in the cabinet of Richard Hatfield.

He died in West Saint John in 1946 at 78.[1]


  1. ^ "Hon. J. B. M. Baxter Dies at Saint John". The Ottawa Journal. 27 Dec 1946. pp. 1, 12. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via 

Further reading[edit]

  • Arthur T. Doyle, Front Benches and Back Rooms: A story of corruption, muckraking, raw partisanship and political intrigue in New Brunswick, Toronto: Green Tree Publishing, 1976.

External links[edit]

Legal offices
Preceded by
J. Douglas Hazen
Chief Justice of New Brunswick
Succeeded by
Charles D. Richards