John Bagot Glubb
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|Sir John Bagot Glubb
Glubb Pasha (1953)
16 April 1897|
Preston, Lancashire, England
|Died||17 March 1986
Mayfield, Sussex, England
|Allegiance|| United Kingdom
|Years of service||1915 – 1956|
|Commands held||Royal Engineers
|Battles/wars||World War I
World War II:
1948 Arab-Israeli War
|Awards||Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George
Distinguished Service Order
Officer of the Order of the British Empire
Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb, KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC (16 April 1897, Preston, Lancashire – 17 March 1986), known as Glubb Pasha, was a British soldier, scholar and author, who led and trained Transjordan's Arab Legion between 1939 and 1956 as its commanding general. During the First World War, he served in France.
Born in Preston, Lancashire, and educated at Cheltenham College, Glubb gained a commission in the Royal Engineers in 1915. On the Western Front of World War I he received a serious wound – a shattered jaw. In later years this would lead to his Arab nickname of abu Hunaik, meaning "the one with the little jaw". He was then transferred to Iraq in 1920, which Britain had started governing under a League of Nations Mandate following war, and was posted to Ramadi in 1922 "to maintain a rickety floating bridge over the river [Euphrates], carried on boats made of reeds daubed with bitumen", as he later put it. He became an officer of the Arab Legion in 1930. The next year he formed the Desert Patrol — a force consisting exclusively of Bedouin — to curb the raiding problem that plagued the southern part of the country. Within a few years he had persuaded the Bedouin to abandon their habit of raiding neighbouring tribes.
In 1939 Glubb succeeded Frederick G. Peake as the commander of the Arab Legion (subsequently known as the Jordan Royal Army). During this period, he transformed the Legion into the best-trained force in the Arab world.
According to the Encyclopædia of the Orient:
- Glubb served his home country all through his years in the Middle East, making him immensely unpopular in the end. Arab nationalists believed that he had been the force behind pressure that made King Hussein I of Jordan join the Baghdad Pact. Glubb served different high positions in the Arab Legion, the army of Transjordan. During World War II he led attacks on Arab leaders in Iraq, as well as the Vichy regime which was present in Lebanon and Syria. 
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War the Arab Legion was considered the strongest Arab army involved in the war. Glubb led the Arab Legion across the River Jordan to occupy the West Bank (May 1948). Despite some negotiation and understanding between the Jewish Agency and King Abdullah, severe fighting took place in Kfar Etzion (May 1948), Jerusalem and Latrun (May-July 1948). According to Avi Shlaim,
- Rumours that Abdullah was once again in contact with the Jewish leaders further damaged his standing in the Arab world. His many critics suggested that he was prepared to compromise the Arab claim to the whole of Palestine as long as he could acquire part of Palestine for himself. 'The internecine struggles of the Arabs,' reported Glubb, 'are more in the minds of Arab politicians than the struggle against the Jews. Azzam Pasha, the mufti and the Syrian government would sooner see the Jews get the whole of Palestine than that King Abdullah should benefit.' (p. 96)
Glubb remained in charge of the defence of the West Bank following the armistice in March 1949. He retained the command of the Arab Legion until 1 March 1956, when King Hussein dismissed him. Hussein wanted to distance himself from the British and to disprove the contention of Arab nationalists that Glubb was the actual ruler of Jordan. Differences between Glubb and Hussein had been apparent since 1952, especially over defence arrangements, the promotion of Arab officers and the funding of the Arab Legion. Despite his decommission, which was forced upon him by public opinion, Glubb remained a close friend of the king. He spent the remainder of his life writing books and articles, mostly on the Middle East and on his experiences with the Arabs.
In 1938, Glubb married Muriel Rosemary Forbes, the daughter of physician James Graham Forbes. The couple had a son, Godfrey (named after the Crusader King Godfrey of Bouillon) born in Jerusalem in 1939, and another son was born in May 1940 but lived only a few days. In 1944, they adopted Naomi, a Bedouin girl who was then three months old, and in 1948 they adopted two Palestinian refugee children called Atalla, renamed John, and Mary. John became an English solicitor, while Godfrey converted to Islam and was renamed Faris.
Glubb's father was Major-General Sir Frederic Manley Glubb, of Lancashire, who had been chief engineer in the British Second Army during the First World War; his mother was Letitia Bagot from County Roscommon. He was a brother of the racing driver Gwenda Hawkes.
Glubb died in 1986 at his home in Mayfield, East Sussex, and is buried in the graveyard at St Dunstan's Church in the village. King Hussein gave the eulogy at the service of thanksgiving for Glubb's life, held in Westminster Abbey on 17 April 1986. Lady Glubb died in September 2005 and is interred with her husband. Their son, Godfrey, converted to Islam as a young man and took the name of Faris, becoming a prominent journalist and researcher into the Palestinian cause. He was killed in an accident in Kuwait in April 2004. His daughter Naomi died in 2010. Another son, John, is a solicitor.
The source for the following bibliography is Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2005. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 2005, except *.
- (With Henry Field) The Yezidis, Sulubba, and Other Tribes of Iraq and Adjacent Regions, G. Banta, 1943. (ASIN: B000X92Z2O)
- The Story of the Arab Legion, Hodder & Stoughton, 1948 (ASIN: B0006D873I), Da Capo Press, 1976.
- A Soldier with the Arabs, Hodder & Stoughton, 1957. (ASIN: B0000CJT37)
- Britain and the Arabs: A Study of Fifty Years, 1908 to 1958, Hodder & Stoughton, 1959. (ASIN: B0000CK92W)
- War in the Desert: An R.A.F. Frontier Campaign, Hodder & Stoughton, 1960, Norton, 1961.
- The Great Arab Conquests, Hodder & Stoughton, 1963, Prentice-Hall, 1964.
- The Empire of the Arabs, Hodder & Stoughton, 1963, Prentice-Hall, 1964.
- The Course of Empire: The Arabs and Their Successors, Hodder & Stoughton, 1965, Prentice-Hall, 1966.
- The Lost Centuries: From the Muslim Empires to the Renaissance of Europe, 1145-1453, Hodder & Stoughton, 1966, Prentice-Hall, 1967.
- Syria, Lebanon and Jordan, Walker & Co., 1967.
- The Middle East Crisis: A Personal Interpretation, Hodder & Stoughton, 1967.
- A Short History of the Arab Peoples, Stein & Day, 1969.
- The Life and Times of Muhammad, Stein & Day, 1970.
- Peace in the Holy Land: An Historical Analysis of the Palestine Problem, Hodder & Stoughton, 1971.
- Soldiers of Fortune: The Story of the Mamlukes, Stein & Day, 1973.
- The Way of Love: Lessons from a Long Life, Hodder & Stoughton, 1974.
- Haroon Al Rasheed and the Great Abbasids, Hodder & Stoughton, 1976.
- Into Battle: A Soldier's Diary of the Great War, Cassell, 1977.
- The Fate of Empires and Search for Survival, Blackwood (Edinburgh), 1978.
- Arabian Adventures: Ten Years of Joyful Service, Cassell (London), 1978.
- The Changing Scenes of Life: An Autobiography, Quartet Books (London), 1983.
- Glubb, Sir John Bagot (1983). The changing scenes of life: an autobiography. Quartet Books. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0-7043-2329-2.
- Morris, Benny (2008). 1948: The First Arab-Israeli War. p. 207.
- Prof Dr Simon C Smith (28 June 2013). Reassessing Suez 1956: New Perspectives on the Crisis and its Aftermath. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-4094-8013-6.
- John Bagot Glubb, Memoirs
- Royle, Trevor (1992). Glubb Pasha. Little, Brown &co/Abacus. pp. 497–498. ISBN 0-349-10344-5.
- James Lunt, ‘Glubb, Sir John Bagot (1897–1986)’, rev., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-00-272638-6
- Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Blair Brysac, Kingmakers: the Invention of the Modern Middle East, W.W. Norton, 2008, ISBN 978-0-393-06199-4
- Benny Morris, The Road to Jerusalem: Glubb Pasha, Palestine and the Jews, ISBN 1-86064-812-6
- Shlaim, A. (2001). Israel and the Arab Coalition in 1948. In E. L. Rogan, A. Shlaim, C. Tripp, J. A. Clancy-Smith, I. Gershoni, R. Owen, Y. Sayigh & J. E. Tucker (Eds.), The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948 (pp. 79–103). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79476-5
- 1956 - King of Jordan sacks British general (BBC article and video)
- Review: The Road to Jerusalem by Benny Morris, The Guardian
- Archival material relating to John Bagot Glubb listed at the UK National Archives
- Portraits of Sir John Bagot Glubb at the National Portrait Gallery, London
- THE FATE OF EMPIRES and SEARCH FOR SURVIVAL, by Sir John Glubb (Archive)
- Imperial War Museum Interview