John Batchelor (missionary)

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The Reverend
John Batchelor
John Batchelor b.jpg
John Batchelor (1928)
Personal details
Born (1855-03-20)March 20, 1855
Uckfield, Sussex, England
Died 2 April 1944(1944-04-02) (aged 89)
Hertford, England

Archdeacon John Batchelor D.D., OBE (20 March 1855 – 2 April 1944) was an Anglican English missionary to the Ainu people of Japan.

First sent under the auspices of the Church Mission Society of the Church of England, Batchelor lived from 1877 to 1941 among the indigenous Ainu communities in the Northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. He was a charismatic and iconoclastic missionary for the Anglican Church in Japan and published highly regarded work on the language and culture of the Ainu people. Batchelor only reluctantly left Japan at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1941.[1][2]

Early Life and Missionary Career[edit]

John Batchelor was born in Uckfield, East Sussex son of William Batchelor, a local tailor and parish clerk. Batchelor attended Uckfield Grammar School and with the support of the Rev. E.T Cardale was accepted as a candidate for study at the Church Missionary Society College, Islington.

On the 22 September 1875, Batchelor set out with a group of CMS missionaries for Hong Kong. Arriving in Hong Kong on 11 November 1875 he immediately set about studying the Chinese language.

Views on the Treatment of the Ainu Communities[edit]

Batchelor harshly criticised the Japanese for their cruel treatment of the Ainu, saying "I'm past eighty, and probably that accounts for it. But I've been told I'm the only foreigner in Japan who can tell the Japanese exactly what I think of them and get away with it."[3]

The Japanese forced the Ainu from their land and forbade them to practice their traditions and culture, Ainu were not allowed to hunt for food, speak Ainu, or obtain an education, being forcefully segregated in small villages.[4] After Japan realised they could exploit the Ainu they reversed their policy, Batchelor said "The Japanese treat them better now, simply because they came to realize that the Ainu were a valuable curiosity worth preserving. There was no kindness or sentiment in it—none whatever. They quit trying to exterminate this shattered relic of a dying Caucasian race when visitors with money to spend began coming from all over the world just to see and study them. If today the Ainu are protected wards of the Government, and if the Government has paid me any honor, it is not because of a change of heart on the part of the Japanese; it is only because the Ainu became worth something to Japan."[5] During the era of Samurai in Japan, Ainus had to grovel and smear their face on soil when they met a Japanese soldier, or face immediate decapitation.[6] Japan also forbade the ownership of weapons among the Ainu.[7]

Batchelor wrote extensively, both works about the Ainu language and works in Ainu itself.[8]

Works by Batchelor[edit]

  • John Batchelor (1905). An Ainu-English-Japanese dictionary: (including A grammar of the Ainu language.) (2, reprint ed.). Tokyo: Methodist publishing house; London, K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, co. p. 525. Retrieved 1 March 2012. (Published by the Methodist Publishing House, Ginza, Tokyo London Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, Co.) (the University of Michigan)(Digitized 8 December 2006)
  • Basil Hall Chamberlain, John Batchelor (1887). Ainu grammar. "Japan Mail" Office, Yokohama: Imperial University. p. 174. Retrieved 1 March 2012. (PUBLISHED BY THE IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY, TOKYO)(Harvard University)(Digitized 30 November 2007)
  • John Batchelor (1897). 聖書・新約: アイヌ. Printed for the Bible society's committee for Japan by the Yokohama bunsha. p. 706. Retrieved 1 March 2012. (Harvard University)(Digitized 8 October 2008)
  • John Batchelor (1896). 聖書・新約: アイヌ. Printed for the Bible society's committee for Japan by the Yokohama bunsha. p. 313. Retrieved 1 March 2012. (Harvard University)(Digitized 8 October 2008 )
  • John Batchelor (1896). Ainu Karisia Eiwange Gusu an Inonno-itak Oma Kambi (The Book of Common Prayer in Ainu). S. P. C. K., London. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  • John Batchelor, Church Missionary Society (1902). Sea-girt Yezo: glimpses of missionary work in North Japan. PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LTD., ST. JOHN'S HOUSE, CLERKENWELL, E.C.: Church Missionary Society. p. 120. Retrieved 23 April 2012. [Original from Harvard University Digitized 11 Sep 2007][LONDON : CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY, SALISBURY SQUARE, E.C.]
  • John Batchelor, Kingo Miyabe (1898). Ainu economic plants. Volume 21 of Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. p. 43. Retrieved 23 April 2012. [Original from Harvard University Digitized 30 Jan 2008][YOKOHAMA : R. MEIKLEJOHN & CO., NO 49.]
  • John Batchelor, Japanese Central Association (1893). An itinerary of Hokkaido, Japan, Volume 1. PRINTED AT THE TOKYO TSUKIJI TYPE FOUNDRY, JAPAN: Hakodate Chamber of Commerce. p. 28. Retrieved 23 April 2012. [Contributors Hakodate Chamber of Commerce, Tokyo Tsukiji Type Foundry Original from Harvard University Digitized 20 Jan 2006][TOKYO : PRINTED AT THE TOKYO TSUKIJI TYPE FOUNDRY, 1893.]
  • John Batchelor (1904). The Koropok-Guru or pit-dwellers of north Japan, and, A critical examination of the nomenclature of Yezo, Volume 19. YOKOHAMA: Japan Mail. p. 18. Retrieved 1 March 2012. (Harvard University)(Digitized 20 January 2006)
  • John Batchelor (1892). The Ainu of Japan: The Religion, Superstitions, and General History of the Hairy Aborigines of Japan. PRINTED BY SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE LONDON: Religious Tract Society. p. 336. Retrieved 1 March 2012. (the University of California)(Digitized 21 November 2007)(LONDON THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY 56 PATERNOSTER ROW, 65 ST PAUL's CHURCHYARD and 164 PICCADILLY)
  • John Batchelor (1901). The Ainu and their folk-lore. LONDON THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY 56 PATERNOSTER ROW, 65 ST PAUL's CHURCHYARD: Religious Tract Society. p. 603. Retrieved 1 March 2012. (Harvard University)(Digitized 24 January 2006)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frédéric, Louis; Translated by Käthe Roth (2005). ""Ainu"". Japan encyclopedia (illustrated, reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-674-01753-6.  horizontal tab character in |author2= at position 14 (help)
  2. ^ Ivar Lissner (1957). The living past (4 ed.). Putnam's. p. 204. Retrieved 23 April 2012. In 1877 a young and industrious theologian went to visit the Ainu. His name was John Batchelor, and he was a scientist and missionary. He got to know the Ainu well, studied their language and customs, won their affection, and remained their staunch friend until the end of his days. It is to Batchelor that we owe our deepest insight into the [Original from the University of California Digitized 27 January 2009 Length 444 pages]
  3. ^ John Patric (2005). Why Japan Was Strong: A Journey of Adventure (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 1-4191-6878-9. Retrieved 23 April 2012. The old man was bitter as he recalled Japanese cruelties to his beloved people during his early years among them. "I'm past eighty," he said, "and probably that accounts for it. But I've been told I'm the only foreigner in Japan who can tell the Japanese exactly what I think of them and get away with it." [ISBN 1419168789, ISBN 978-1-4191-6878-9 Length 320 pages]
  4. ^ John Patric (2005). Why Japan Was Strong: A Journey of Adventure (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 1-4191-6878-9. Retrieved 23 April 2012. miserable remnants of this once proud and powerful race from whom the Japanese took Japan were herded into little inland villages, forbidden to hunt or fish—though hunting and fishing had been their livelihood just as with our own Indians. They were forbidden to speak the Japanese language; there were no schools for them, and their own language was unwritten. It seemed that the Japanese were determined to starve them out to the last pitiful survivor. [ISBN 1419168789, ISBN 978-1-4191-6878-9 Length 320 pages]
  5. ^ John Patric (2005). Why Japan Was Strong: A Journey of Adventure (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 1-4191-6878-9. Retrieved 23 April 2012. The Japanese treat them better now," Batchelor said, as we ate the hearty five-o'clock breakfast of beefsteak to which this hale octogenarian had invited me, "simply because they came to realize that the Ainu were a valuable curiosity worth preserving. There was no kindness or sentiment in it—none whatever. They quit trying to exterminate this shattered relic of a dying Caucasian race when visitors with money to spend began coming from all over the world just to see and study them. If today the Ainu are protected wards of the Government, and if the Government has paid me any honor, it is not because of a change of heart on the part of the Japanese; it is only because the Ainu became worth something to Japan. [ISBN 1419168789, ISBN 978-1-4191-6878-9 Length 320 pages]
  6. ^ John Patric (1943). Why Japan was strong (4 ed.). Doubleday, Doran & company, inc. p. 170. Retrieved 23 April 2012. when one considers how they, in turn, were treated by their Japanese conquerors. Batchelor said that in olden times—in the golden days of the knightly samurai—an Ainu, seeing a Japanese soldier approach, was oblidged to get down on all fours and literally grovel. He had to wipe his face in the dirty as a sign he was part dog. The luckless aborigine who failed to show respect to his conquerors might have his head lopped off at once and without ceremony. [Length 313 pages]
  7. ^ John Patric (2005). Why Japan Was Strong: A Journey of Adventure (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 170. ISBN 1-4191-6878-9. Retrieved 23 April 2012. conquerors might have his head lopped off at once and without ceremony. For of course the Ainu had no recourse to civil law-nor did his widow. In those days the Ainu were denied weapons of any kind, just as the Koreans are today. [ISBN 1419168789, ISBN 978-1-4191-6878-9 Length 320 pages]
  8. ^ John Patric (1943). ...Why Japan was strong (4 ed.). Doubleday, Doran & company, inc. p. 72. Retrieved 23 April 2012. John Batchelor set about to learn the Ainu language, which the Japanese had not troubled ever to learn. He laboriously compiled an Ainu dictionary. He singlehandedly turned this hitherto but spoken tongue into a written language, and himself wrote books in it which [Original from the University of California Digitized 16 October 2007 Length 313 pages]

External links[edit]