John Bellairs

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John Bellairs
John Anthony Bellairs.jpg
BornJohn Anthony Bellairs
(1938-01-17)January 17, 1938
Marshall, Michigan, U.S.
DiedMarch 8, 1991(1991-03-08) (aged 53)
Haverhill, Massachusetts, US
OccupationNovelist
EducationUniversity of Notre Dame (BA)
University of Chicago (MA)
Period1966–1991
GenreFantasy, horror, humor
Notable worksThe House with a Clock in Its Walls, The Face in the Frost

John Anthony Bellairs (January 17, 1938 – March 8, 1991)[1] was an American author best known for his fantasy novel The Face in the Frost and many Gothic mystery novels for children featuring the characters Lewis Barnavelt, Rose Rita Pottinger, Johnny Dixon, and Anthony Monday. Most of his books were illustrated by Edward Gorey.[2] Thirteen unfinished and original sequels to Bellairs' books have been written by Brad Strickland.[3] At the time of his death, Bellairs' books had sold a quarter-million copies in hard cover and more than a million and a half copies in paperback.[4]

Biography[edit]

Front view of the Cronin House in Marshall, Michigan, which inspired The House with a Clock in Its Walls

Early life and education[edit]

Bellairs was born in Marshall, Michigan, the son of Virginia (Monk) and Frank Edward Bellairs, a saloonkeeper.[5] His hometown inspired the fictional town of New Zebedee, where he set his trilogy about Lewis Barnavelt and Rose Rita Pottinger.[6] Shy, overweight, and often bullied as a child, he became a voracious reader and a self-described "bottomless pit of useless information" by the time he graduated from Marshall High School[7] and entered the University of Notre Dame in 1955. He competed in the College Bowl and wrote a regular humor column for the student magazine Scholastic.[8]

Bellairs received a Bachelor of Arts degree in English magna cum laude from the University of Notre Dame in 1959[9] and a Master of Arts degree in English from the University of Chicago in 1960. He received a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship in 1959.[10]

Career and interests[edit]

Bellairs taught English at the College of Saint Teresa (1963–65), Shimer College (1966–67), Emmanuel College (1968–69), and Merrimack College (1969–71) before turning full-time to writing in 1971. In the late 1960s, he spent six months living and writing in Bristol, UK, where he began writing The Face in the Frost. Bristol would later feature in his novel The Secret of the Underground Room. His personal interests included archaeology, architecture, history, Latin, baseball, kitschy antiques, bad poetry, visits to the UK, and trivia of all kinds.[1] His favorite authors included Charles Dickens, Henry James, M.R. James, Garrett Mattingly, and C.V. Wedgwood.[3]

Alongside Christopher Tolkien, Bellairs was a guest of honor at the 18th Annual Mythopoeic Conference at Marquette University in 1987, hosted by the Mythopoeic Society.[11]

Death and legacy[edit]

Bellairs died suddenly of cardiovascular disease at his home in Haverhill, Massachusetts, in 1991. He was 53 years old. He was survived by his wife, Priscilla (Braids) Bellairs, whom he had married on June 24, 1968, and their son Frank J. Bellairs.[1] Frank Bellairs died in 1999 at the age of 29. Priscilla Bellairs is alive and lives in Newburyport.[12]

In 1992, a historical marker was placed in front of the historic Cronin House in Bellairs's hometown of Marshall, Michigan.[13] Built in 1870 for local merchant Jeremiah Cronin, this imposing Italianate mansion with its 60-foot tower had inspired the titular house of his 1973 book.[7]

Bellairs was inducted into the Haverhill Citizens Hall of Fame in 2000.[3]

Writings[edit]

Books for adults[edit]

Bellairs' first published work, St. Fidgeta and Other Parodies (1966), is a collection of short stories satirizing the rites and rituals of Second Vatican Council-era Catholicism. The title story of St. Fidgeta grew out of humorous stories Bellairs made up and shared with friends while living in Chicago. After committing one such story to paper, he sent it to the Chicago-based Catholic magazine The Critic, which published the story in summer 1965. The following year, the hagiography of St. Fidgeta was supplemented by eleven other humorous stories, including an essay on lesser-known popes of antiquity, a cathedral constructed over the course of centuries, and a spoof letter from a modern-day Xavier Rynne about the escapades at the fictional Third Vatican Council. Library Journal hailed St. Fidgeta as "religious burlesque" that delivered "strokes of inspired foolishness." A writer for the National Catholic Reporter called it a "gem."[14]

The Pedant and the Shuffly, his second book, is a short illustrated fable featuring the evil magician Snodrog (the titular pedant), who ensnares his victims with inescapable (and nonsensical) logic until the kindly sorcerer, Sir Bertram Crabtree-Gore, enlists the help of a magical Shuffly to defeat Snodrog. The book was originally published in 1968 and rereleased in 2001[15] and 2009.[16]

Bellairs undertook his third book, The Face in the Frost (1969), while living in Britain and after reading J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Bellairs said of his third book:

"The Face in the Frost was an attempt to write in the Tolkien manner. I was much taken by The Lord of the Rings and wanted to do a modest work on those lines. In reading the latter book I was struck by the fact that Gandalf was not much of a person—just a good guy. So I gave Prospero, my wizard, most of my phobias and crotchets. It was simply meant as entertainment and any profundity will have to be read in."[17]

Writing in 1973, Lin Carter described The Face in the Frost as one of the three best fantasy novels to appear since The Lord of the Rings. Carter stated that Bellairs was planning a sequel to The Face in the Frost at the time.[18] An unfinished sequel titled The Dolphin Cross was included in the anthology Magic Mirrors (New England Science Fiction Association Press, 2009).[16]

Books for children[edit]

Bellairs's next novel, The House with a Clock in Its Walls (1973), was originally written as a contemporary adult fantasy. To improve the novel's marketability, his publisher suggested rewriting it as a young readers' book. The result was The House with a Clock in Its Walls, which was named as one of The New York Times Outstanding Books of 1973 and nominated for other awards.[19]

Following the success of The House with a Clock in Its Walls, Bellairs focused on writing Gothic fantasy adventures aimed at elementary and middle-school children.[20] "I write scary thrillers for kids because I have the imagination of a 10-year-old," remarked Bellairs. "I love haunted houses, ghosts, witches, mummies, incantations, secret rituals performed by the light of the waning moon, coffins, bones, cemeteries and enchanted objects."[4] Bellairs also wrote his hometown influenced his creative bent: “In my imagination I repeatedly walk up and down the streets of the beautiful old Michigan town where I grew up. It’s full of old Victorian mansions and history, and it would work on the creative mind of any kid.”[7]

Writing for The New York Times, Marilyn Stasio characterized Bellairs' children's books as fast-paced, spooky adventures involving "believable and likeable" characters, generally a child and an older person (usually a "lovable eccentric")[21] who are friends and must go on adventures and solve a mystery involving supernatural elements such as ghosts and wicked sorcerers. Beyond these supernatural elements, Bellairs's novels evoked "a child's concern with comfort and security in his real world," addressing childhood fears of abandonment, loneliness, and bullying, as well as coming of age.[4] His stories are described as spooky but ultimately reassuring as the characters conquer evil through friendship.[21]

The books have proved especially popular among middle-grade readers between the ages of 9 and 13 but also have significant young adult and adult readerships.[4]

Posthumous sequels[edit]

On his death in 1991, Bellairs left behind two unfinished manuscripts and two one-page synopses for future adventures. The Bellairs estate commissioned Brad Strickland to complete the two unfinished manuscripts and to write novels based on the two one-page outlines. These became The Ghost in the Mirror; The Vengeance of the Witch-finder; The Drum, the Doll, and the Zombie; and The Doom of the Haunted Opera, respectively. Starting in 1996 with The Hand of the Necromancer, Strickland began writing his own stories based on the established characters.[3]

Strickland announced in spring 2005 that new adventures of the Bellairs characters were under way, following contract negotiations with the Bellairs estate and a two-year absence since his last-published novel. The first of these new adventures was The House Where Nobody Lived, which was published on October 5, 2006.[3]

Critical analysis[edit]

Critical attention has focused on The House With the Clock in Its Walls as exemplar of Bellairs' literary merit and style. Critics argued that Bellairs wrestled with notions of masculinity, femininity, and queerness in his works.[19][22][23] One scholar contended that Bellairs' Lewis Barnavelt and Rose Rita Pottinger trilogy traced the "emerging acceptance of self" by the two main characters, who struggled with internalized gender norms.[24] One of the most substantial academic treatments of Bellairs comes from Dawn Heinecken, professor of women's and gender studies at the University of Louisville. Heinecken situates Bellairs in 1970s-era anxieties about gender and changing discourses around masculinity, which were reflected in the era's children's literature.[19]

Conservative critic William Kilpatrick observed of Bellairs that "While his books are quite frightening, they are well written and undergirded by a moral vision" and recommended them to parents who wish to expose their children to age-appropriate literature that both entertains and edifies.[25] Randi Dickson suggested that Bellairs' oeuvre evidenced greater literary merit than the works of R. L. Stine, whose horror fiction appeals to a youthful demographic similar to Bellairs'.[26] Educators have used The House With the Clock in Its Walls as a case study for using storytelling techniques to draw in reluctant readers[27] or assigning The Curse of the Blue Figurine to students in a book club.[28] One critic noted that Bellairs relied on tropes of magical realism.[29]

Bellairs' books have been translated into Czech, French, German, Japanese, Polish, and Spanish, among other languages.

Illustrators[edit]

Edward Gorey provided cover illustrations and frontispieces for all but three of Bellairs's 15 children's novels and continued to illustrate the Strickland novels until Gorey's death in 2000. The novel The Beast Under the Wizard's Bridge featured Gorey's last published artwork before his death.[30] Despite the strong association of the novels with Gorey's illustrations, Bellairs and Gorey never met and probably never even corresponded.[2] The Gorey covers are no longer in print, though some newer editions of the novels still contain interior Gorey illustrations.

S. D. Schindler and Bart Goldman have created cover art for the Strickland books published since 2001.

Marilyn Fitschen provided the covers and illustrations for Bellairs' first three books: St Fidgeta and Other Parodies, The Pedant and the Shuffly, and The Face in the Frost.

Awards[edit]

# Book Title Award Year
01 The House with a Clock in Its Walls American Library Association Children's Books of International Interest Award 1973
02 The House with a Clock in Its Walls New York Times Outstanding Books of 1973 Award 1973
03 The House with a Clock in Its Walls South Carolina Children's Book Award Nominee 1978–1979
04 The House with a Clock in Its Walls Michigan Young Readers Award Nominee 1980
05 The House with a Clock in Its Walls Maude Hart Lovelace Award Nominee (Minnesota) 1982
06 The Letter, the Witch, and the Ring South Carolina Children's Book Award Nominee 1979–1980
07 The Letter, the Witch, and the Ring Utah Children's Fiction Book Award 1981
08 The Treasure of Alpheus Winterborn Maud Hart Lovelace Award Nominee (Minnesota) 1983
09 The Curse of the Blue Figurine Utah Children's Fiction Book Award Nominee 1985
10 The Curse of the Blue Figurine Indian Paintbrush Book Award Nominee (Wyoming) 1986
11 The Curse of the Blue Figurine Virginia Young Readers Award, Middle School Division 1986–1987
12 The Curse of the Blue Figurine Read-Aloud Books Too Good to Miss List (Indiana Library Federation) 1990–1991
13 The Mummy, the Will, and the Crypt Iowa Teen Award Nominee 1985–1986
14 The Dark Secret of Weatherend Utah Children's Fiction Book Award Nominee 1987
15 The Eyes of the Killer Robot Rebecca Caudill Young Readers Book Award Nominee (Illinois) 1991
16 The Lamp from the Warlock's Tomb Edgar Allan Poe Award, Best Juvenile Division, Nominee 1989
17 The Specter from the Magician's Museum Georgia Author of the Year Award, Young Adult Division 1998
18 The Specter from the Magician's Museum New York Public Library "Best Books for the Teen Age" Awards

Published books[edit]

Novels[edit]

# Title Month Year Series Chapters Pages Writer Illustrator
01 St. Fidgeta and Other Parodies Jun 1966 12 123 John Bellairs Marilyn Fitschen
02 The Pedant and the Shuffly Feb 1968 NA 79 John Bellairs Marilyn Fitschen
03 The Face in the Frost 1969 11 174 John Bellairs Marilyn Fitschen
04 The House with a Clock in Its Walls Jan 1973 Lewis Barnavelt 11 179 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
05 The Figure in the Shadows 1975 Lewis Barnavelt 13 155 John Bellairs Mercer Mayer
06 The Letter, the Witch, and the Ring Jan 1976 Lewis Barnavelt 13 188 John Bellairs Richard Egielski
07 The Treasure of Alpheus Winterborn May 1978 Anthony Monday 17 180 John Bellairs Judith Gwyn Brown
08 The Curse of the Blue Figurine May 1983 Johnny Dixon 12 200 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
09 The Mummy, the Will, and the Crypt Nov 1983 Johnny Dixon 16 168 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
10 The Dark Secret of Weatherend Jul 1984 Anthony Monday 15 182 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
11 The Spell of the Sorcerer's Skull Nov 1984 Johnny Dixon 11 170 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
12 The Revenge of the Wizard's Ghost Nov 1985 Johnny Dixon 15 147 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
13 The Eyes of the Killer Robot Oct 1986 Johnny Dixon 17 167 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
14 The Lamp from the Warlock's Tomb May 1988 Anthony Monday 14 168 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
15 The Trolley to Yesterday Jul 1989 Johnny Dixon 18 183 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
16 The Chessmen of Doom Nov 1989 Johnny Dixon 16 155 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
17 The Secret of the Underground Room Mar 1990 Johnny Dixon 13 127 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
18 The Mansion in the Mist Aug 1992 Anthony Monday 17 170 John Bellairs Edward Gorey
19 The Ghost in the Mirror Apr 1993 Lewis Barnavelt 13 169 coauthorsdagger Edward Gorey
20 The Vengeance of the Witch-finder Sep 1993 Lewis Barnavelt 15 153 coauthorsdagger Edward Gorey
21 The Drum, the Doll, and the Zombie Sep 1994 Johnny Dixon 15 153 coauthorsdagger Edward Gorey
22 The Doom of the Haunted Opera Sep 1995 Lewis Barnavelt 16 153 coauthorsdagger Edward Gorey
23 The Hand of the Necromancer Sep 1996 Johnny Dixon 18 168 Brad Strickland Edward Gorey
24 The Bell, the Book, and the Spellbinder Oct 1997 Johnny Dixon 16 149 Brad Strickland Edward Gorey
25 The Specter from the Magician's Museum Mar 1998 Lewis Barnavelt 16 149 Brad Strickland Edward Gorey
26 The Wrath of the Grinning Ghost Sep 1999 Johnny Dixon 15 166 Brad Strickland Edward Gorey
27 The Beast Under the Wizard's Bridge Sep 2000 Lewis Barnavelt 15 151 Brad Strickland Edward Gorey
28 The Tower at the End of the World Sep 2001 Lewis Barnavelt 15 146 Brad Strickland S. D. Schindler
29 The Whistle, the Grave, and the Ghost Aug 2003 Lewis Barnavelt 14 152 Brad Strickland S. D. Schindler
30 The House Where Nobody Lived Oct 2006 Lewis Barnavelt 18 173 Brad Strickland Bart Goldman
31 The Sign of the Sinister Sorcerer Oct 2008 Lewis Barnavelt 13 168 Brad Strickland Bart Goldman
dagger Some Lewis Barnavelt and Johnny Dixon books were outlined by Bellairs and completed by Strickland, who subsequently created new stories in both series.

Publishers[edit]

# Title Amber Artist House Bantam Skylark/BDD Barnes & Noble Corgi Dell Yearling/BDD Dial/Penguin Editions du Rocher Editora Record Gallimard Jeunesse Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Heyne Macmillan Mythopoeic Press NESFA Press Puffin/Penguin Shueisha Publishing
01 St. Fidgeta and Other Parodies Green tickY
02 The Pedant and the Shuffly Green tickY Green tickY
03 The Face in the Frost Green tickY
04 The House with a Clock in Its Walls Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
05 The Figure in the Shadows Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
06 The Letter, the Witch, and the Ring Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
07 The Treasure of Alpheus Winterborn Green tickY Green tickY
08 The Curse of the Blue Figurine Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
09 The Mummy, the Will, and the Crypt Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
10 The Dark Secret of Weatherend Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
11 The Spell of the Sorcerer's Skull Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
12 The Revenge of the Wizard's Ghost Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
13 The Eyes of the Killer Robot Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
14 The Lamp from the Warlock's Tomb Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
15 The Trolley to Yesterday Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
16 The Chessmen of Doom Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
17 The Secret of the Underground Room Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
18 The Mansion in the Mist Green tickY Green tickY
19 The Ghost in the Mirror Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
20 The Vengeance of the Witch-finder Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
21 The Drum, the Doll, and the Zombie Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
22 The Doom of the Haunted Opera Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
23 The Hand of the Necromancer Green tickY Green tickY
24 The Bell, the Book, and the Spellbinder Green tickY Green tickY
25 The Specter from the Magician's Museum Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
26 The Wrath of the Grinning Ghost Green tickY Green tickY
27 The Beast Under the Wizard's Bridge Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
28 The Tower at the End of the World Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
29 The Whistle, the Grave, and the Ghost Green tickY
30 The House Where Nobody Lived Green tickY
31 The Sign of the Sinister Sorcerer Green tickY
32 Magic Mirrors Green tickY
33 The Best of John Bellairs Green tickY
34 The Best of John Bellairs 2 Green tickY

Adaptations[edit]

Films[edit]

On November 18, 2011, Mythology Entertainment, founded by Brad Fischer,[31] co-president of production at Phoenix Pictures; Laeta Kalogridis; and James Vanderbilt announced that they hired Eric Kripke, creator of Supernatural and Revolution, to write and produce a feature film based on John Bellairs' work through a partnership with John's estate. "Jamie, Laeta and I are thrilled to launch Mythology Entertainment and to be partnering with Eric Kripke and the estate of John Bellairs for our first feature project,” Fischer said.

“As a kid, Eric was inspired by Bellairs’ work and these books have stayed with him through the years…. As a company, we aspire to be a haven for artists and friends who believe in the power of myth and remember that feeling we all got as kids, when the lights went down and the images came up and anything was possible.”[32]

The film adaptation of Bellairs' novel The House with a Clock in Its Walls stars Jack Black as Uncle Jonathan, Cate Blanchett as Mrs. Zimmerman, and Owen Vaccaro as Lewis Barnavelt, and was directed by Eli Roth. It was released on September 21, 2018.[33]

Audiobooks[edit]

# Title Year Publisher Narrator
01 The Face in the Frost 1995 Recorded Books George Guidall
02 The Ghost in the Mirror 1995 Recorded Books George Guidall
03 The House with a Clock in Its Walls 1995 Recorded Books George Guidall
04 The Lamp from the Warlock's Tomb 1995 Recorded Books Betty Low
05 The Mansion in the Mist 1995 Recorded Books Betty Low

Television[edit]

# TV program title Book title Producer Year
01 Once Upon a Midnight Scary The House with a Clock in Its Walls VideoGems 1979
02 The Clue According to Sherlock Holmes The Treasure of Alpheus Winterborn VideoGems 1980
03 The House with a Clock in Its Walls The House with a Clock in Its Walls Barr Films 1991
04 The Treasure of Alpheus Winterborn The Treasure of Alpheus Winterborn Barr Films 1991

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Olendorf, Donna (1992). Something About the Author. Detroit: Gale Research. pp. 23–25. ISBN 978-0-8103-2278-3 – via Internet Archive.
  2. ^ a b Domino, Matt (May 12, 2017). "Why the Link Between Edward Gorey and John Bellairs Remains Unbreakable". The Millions. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e "John Bellairs". lookingglassreview.com. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d Stasio, Marilyn (June 9, 1991). "CHILDREN'S BOOKS; Under the Spell Of Scary Stuff". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  5. ^ Reginald, R. (September 2010). Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature Vol 2. ISBN 9780941028776.
  6. ^ MacNee, Marie J. (1995). Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Writers. 1. New York: Gale Research. pp. 49–52. ISBN 0810398664.
  7. ^ a b c Hall, Kalea (September 18, 2018). "The House that Inspired 'House with a Clock in Its Walls' Comes to Life in Time for Movie". Battle Creek Enquirer. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  8. ^ Dunne, Patrick (2011). "John Bellairs: Author of the Imaginary". Notre Dame Magazine. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  9. ^ "John A. Bellairs, 53, A Children's Author". The New York Times. March 14, 1991. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
  10. ^ "Press release" (PDF). University of Notre Dame. March 15, 1959. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  11. ^ Hyde, Paul (October 15, 1986). "Quenti Lambardillion". Mythlore: A Journal of J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature. 13 (1): 33. ISSN 0146-9339.
  12. ^ Shea, Jack (April 18, 2018). "Newburyport woman gets glimpse at film on late husband's book". The Daily News of Newburyport. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
  13. ^ Hahn, Daniel (2015). The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-19-174437-2. OCLC 921452204.
  14. ^ Washburn, Susanne (October 29, 2004). "The marvelous St. Fidgeta: Tales of a 7-year-old martyr are a gem of religious burlesque". National Catholic Reporter: 16–17.
  15. ^ "The Mythopoeic Society - Mythopoeic Press, The Pedant and the Shuffly". www.mythsoc.org. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  16. ^ a b "Magic Mirrors – NESFA". Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  17. ^ Commire, Anne (1971). Something About the Author. 2. Detroit: Gale Research. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8103-0052-1 – via Internet Archive.
  18. ^ Lin Carter, Imaginary Worlds. New York: Ballantine/Random House, 1973, pp. 1165-67 (Cites Carter's correspondence with Bellairs).
  19. ^ a b c Heinecken, Dawn (2011). "Haunting Masculinity and Frightening Femininity: The Novels of John Bellairs". Children's Literature in Education. 42 (2): 118–131. doi:10.1007/s10583-010-9127-7. ISSN 1573-1693.
  20. ^ Hedblad, Alan, ed. (1996). "John Bellairs". Children's Literature Review. New York: Gale Research. pp. 1–29. ISBN 0810389517. ISSN 0362-4145 – via Internet Archive.
  21. ^ a b Gardner, Craig Shaw (November 11, 1984). "Reading on the Edge of Your Seat". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  22. ^ Huskey, Melynda. "A Specter is Haunting New Zebedee: Reading John Bellairs as Queer-Kid Gothic" (PDF). Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  23. ^ Skowera, Maciej (July 24, 2019). "Lewis Barnavelt and the Rainbow over New Zebedee: Queering The House with a Clock in Its Walls". Dzieciństwo. Literatura i Kultura. 1 (1): 85–108. doi:10.32798/dlk.29. ISSN 2657-9510.
  24. ^ Schmidt, Gary D. (March 1, 1987). "See how they grow: Character development in children's series books". Children's Literature in Education. 18 (1): 34–44. doi:10.1007/BF01135437. ISSN 1573-1693.
  25. ^ Kilpatrick, William (1994). Books that build character: A guide to teaching your child moral values through stories. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-671-88423-9. OCLC 937954417.
  26. ^ Dickson, Randi (1998). "Horror: To Gratify, Not Edify". Language Arts. 76 (2): 115–122. ISSN 0360-9170.
  27. ^ Raymond, Kettel (1994). "Motivating the Reluctant Reader: Using the Storytelling Episode Model". Storytelling World. 3 (1): 31–33 – via ERIC.
  28. ^ Lewis, Mark A.; Zisselsberger, Margarita Gómez (2019). "Scaffolding and Inequitable Participation in Linguistically Diverse Book Clubs". Reading Research Quarterly. 54 (2): 167–186. doi:10.1002/rrq.234. ISSN 1936-2722.
  29. ^ Laily, Vany Rizkita (2020). "NARRATIVE OF MAGIC REALISM IN THE JOHN BELLAIRS' NOVEL: THE HOUSE WITH THE CLOCK IN ITS WALLS". ANAPHORA: Journal of Language, Literary and Cultural Studies. 3 (2): 88–101. doi:10.30996/anaphora.v3i2.4621. ISSN 2656-3967.
  30. ^ "Goreyography: West Wing: Seeking Gorey: Available from Amazon.com". www.goreyography.com. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  31. ^ "Brad Fischer – Co-President, Production". September 10, 2009. Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
  32. ^ Mike Fleming (November 18, 2011). "Phoenix Co-President Bradley Fischer Forms Mythology With Scribes Laeta Kalogridis And James Vanderbilt". Deadline New York. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
  33. ^ Lizzie Plaugic (March 27, 2018). "Watch the first trailer for The House with a Clock in its Walls". The Verge. Retrieved March 27, 2018.

External links[edit]