John Campbell Greenway

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John Campbell Greenway
John Campbell Greenway.jpg
Personal details
Born(1872-07-06)6 July 1872
Huntsville, Alabama
Died19 January 1926(1926-01-19) (aged 53)
New York City
Spouse(s)Isabella Greenway
RelationsLauder Greenway Family
EducationSheffield Scientific School of Yale University
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/serviceEmblem of the United States Department of the Army.svg United States Army
Years of service1897 - 1926 (with interruptions in active duty service)
Rank
Army-USA-OF-06.svg
Brigadier General
UnitRough Riders (1898 - 1901)
101 Inf Rgt DUI.png 101st Infantry Regiment (1914 - 1918)
Final ONI seal.jpg Office of Naval Intelligence (1919 - 1926)
Commands101st Infantry Regiment
Battles/warsSpanish–American War

World War I

AwardsDistinguished Service Cross ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Cross
Silver Star Medal ribbon.svg Silver Star
World War I Victory Medal ribbon.svg World War I Victory Medal
CroixdeGuerreFR-BronzePalm.png Croix de Guerre
Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg Legion of Honor
Ordre de l'Etoile Noire Chevalier ribbon.svg Ordre de l'Étoile Noire

John Campbell Greenway (July 6, 1872 – January 19, 1926) was highly decorated Brigadier General in the U.S. Army whose exploits at Cambrai and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive during World War I were widely noted and celebrated.

He was also a Rough Rider with Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish–American War from which a lifelong friendship would be formed. In his book, "The Rough Riders", Roosevelt said about Greenway: "A strapping fellow, entirely fearless, modest and quiet, with the ability to take care of the men under him so as to bring them to the highest point of soldierly perfection, to be counted upon with absolute certainty in every emergency; not only doing his duty, but always on the watch to find some new duty which he could construe to be his, ready to respond with eagerness to the slightest suggestion of doing something, whether it was dangerous or merely difficult and laborious."[1]

Outside of military service, Greenway was a noted American mining, steel and railroad executive who vastly expanded copper mining in the American Southwest. He was also the husband of pioneering U.S. Congresswoman Isabella Greenway who was lifelong friends with Eleanor Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Early life and family[edit]

Greenway was born in Huntsville, Alabama, to Dr. Gilbert C. Greenway Sr. and Alice White Greenway. On both sides, Greenway was a direct descendant of a line of notable Americans dating to before, and during, the Revolutionary War including William Campbell, Isaac Shelby, Samuel McDowell, Ephraim McDowell, and Addison White.

Education[edit]

He attended Phillips Academy, Andover followed by the University of Virginia for his undergraduate degree before earning a PhB. in 1895 from the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University.

John Greenway Football Card.jpg

Greenway was a member of the Book and Snake[2] secret society, President of his class, and a member of noted the Yale Football teams from 1892–1895 that went a combined 52–1–2 and were national champions four years in a row.

Immediately following his graduation, Greenway joined the Carnegie Steel Company where he worked briefly before enlisting in the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry of the US Army at the outset of the Spanish–American War.

Military Career[edit]

Spanish–American War[edit]

Greenway volunteered for service in 1898 and joined Roosevelt's Rough Riders in the Spanish–American War. Originally commissioned a second lieutenant, he was then promoted to brevet then acting captain in the field by Colonel Roosevelt.[3] Greenway earned a Silver Star for his courageous service at the Battle of San Juan Hill.

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Greenway is referenced on numerous occasions by Roosevelt in his book The Rough Riders and a book of Greenway's own correspondence was turned into a book entitled It Was the Grandest Sight I Ever Saw: Experiences of a Rough Rider As Recorded in the Letters of Lieutenant John Campbell Greenway.

World War I[edit]

Greenway was returned to active service as a lieutenant colonel at the dawn of America entering World War I. Originally based at Toul Sector, Greenway partook in the Battle of Cantigny, the first large-scale counterattack on German lines by the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) with the 1st Battalion of the 26th Infantry commanded by Major Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., the son of Greenway's commander during the Spanish–American War, Theodore Roosevelt.

During the war, Greenway would fight in numerous battles including Battle of Saint-Mihiel and the Battle of Château-Thierry.

Greenway was especially praised for his heroic conduct in battle and was cited for bravery at Cambrai. France awarded him the Croix de Guerre, the Legion of Honor, and the Ordre de l'Étoile Noire for commanding the 101st Infantry Regiment during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. [4] He also received a Distinguished Service Cross and the World War I Victory Medal.

Post-war and intelligence[edit]

In 1919 Greenway was promoted to the rank of colonel of the infantry, and three years later he was promoted to brigadier general.

Greenway's post-war military career included work with the Office of Naval Intelligence, the oldest branch of America's United States Intelligence Community.

Business life[edit]

After being removed from active duty at the end of the Spanish–American War in 1899, Greenway returned to steel and mining and held executive positions in a number of mine, steel, and railroad companies. He supervised development of United States Steel's open pit Canisteo Mine and Trout Lake Washing Plant in Coleraine, Minnesota, one of the first large-scale iron ore benefication plants in the world. Following the successful commissioning of the Trout Lake plant, in 1911 Greenway was recruited by the Calumet and Arizona Mining Company (led by US Steel executives, the combined entity created by J.P. Morgan which included Carnegie Steel) to develop their newly acquired New Cornelia Mine in Ajo, Arizona. He developed the Ajo townsite and developed the New Cornelia into the first large open pit copper mine in Arizona.

Greenway also served for one year as a regent of the University of Arizona before the United States entered World War I.

Marriage and Family[edit]

He was married to Isabella Greenway, who served in the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democrat from 1933 to 1937 and was the first congresswoman from Arizona. They had one child, Jack Greenway.

Family[edit]

Greenway's brother James C. Greenway Sr. married Harriet Lauder Greenway of the Lauder Greenway Family. His nephews include renowned ornithologist and Naval Intelligence Officer James Cowan Greenway and arts patron G. Lauder Greenway, longtime chairman of the Metropolitan Opera Guild in New York City.

Greenway Statue.jpg

Honorifics[edit]

In 1930 Arizona placed Gutzon Borglum's statue of Greenway in the U.S. Capitol's National Statuary Hall Collection.[5] The statue remained there until being replaced in 2015 by one of Barry Goldwater; the Greenway statue was moved to the Polly Rosenbaum Archives and History Building near the Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix.[6]

A statue of Greenway's great great grandfather, Dr. Ephraim McDowell, was placed in the National Statuary Hall in 1929 by Kentucky making them the only direct relatives to share the honor.

Greenway Road in Phoenix, Arizona, Greenway High School in Phoenix, Greenway Public Schools in Coleraine, Minnesota, and Greenway Township, Itasca County, Minnesota are named in his honor.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas, Clara Chapline (1908). "The Young Man Strenuous". The World To-Day. United States: Hearst International. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  2. ^ "Frank Hinkey".
  3. ^ "Quindecennial Record of the Class of 1895 Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University". 1912.
  4. ^ Kinsolving, Arthur Barksdale (1922). The Story of a Southern School. The Norman, Remington Co. p. 305. ISBN 9781331302483.
  5. ^ Murdock, Myrtle Chaney, National Statuary Hall in the Nation's Capitol, Monumental Press, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1955 pp. 88-89
  6. ^ Theobald, Bill (February 11, 2015). "Goldwater statue dedicated in National Statuary Hall". The Arizona Republic. Phoenix. Retrieved March 1, 2015.