|Born||August 20, 1970|
|Alma mater||University of Missouri, Kansas City (no degree)|
|Occupation||Computer programmer, video game developer, engineer|
|Known for||Co-founding id Software|
Commander Keen, Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, Quake, Rage
|Title||Consulting CTO, Oculus VR|
Founder, Armadillo Aerospace
(m. 2000; div. 2021)
John D. Carmack II (born August 20, 1970) is an American computer programmer and video game developer. He co-founded the video game company id Software and was the lead programmer of its 1990s games Commander Keen, Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, Quake, and their sequels. Carmack made innovations in 3D computer graphics, such as his Carmack's Reverse algorithm for shadow volumes. In 2013, he resigned from id Software to work full-time at Oculus VR as their CTO. In 2019, he reduced his role to Consulting CTO so he could allocate more time toward artificial general intelligence (AGI).
Carmack was born in Shawnee Mission, Kansas, the son of local television news reporter Stan Carmack. He grew up in the Kansas City metropolitan area, where he became interested in computers at an early age. He attended Shawnee Mission East High School in Prairie Village, Kansas and Raytown South High School in nearby Raytown, Missouri.
Carmack was introduced to video games with the 1978 shoot 'em up game Space Invaders in the arcades during a summer vacation as a child. The 1980 maze chase arcade game Pac-Man also left a strong impression on him. He cited Nintendo designer Shigeru Miyamoto as the game developer he most admired.
As reported in David Kushner's Masters of Doom, when Carmack was 14, he broke into a school to help a group of children steal Apple II computers. To gain entry to the building, Carmack concocted a sticky substance of thermite mixed with Vaseline that melted through the windows. However, an overweight accomplice struggled to get through the hole and instead opened the window, setting off a silent alarm and alerting police. Carmack was arrested and sent for psychiatric evaluation. He was sentenced to a year in a juvenile home. He attended the University of Missouri–Kansas City for two semesters before withdrawing to work as a freelance programmer.
Softdisk, a computer company in Shreveport, Louisiana, hired Carmack to work on Softdisk G-S (an Apple IIGS publication), introducing him to John Romero and other future key members of id Software such as Adrian Carmack (not related). Later, Softdisk would place this team in charge of a new, but short-lived, bi-monthly game subscription product called Gamer's Edge for the IBM PC (DOS) platform. In 1990, while still at Softdisk, Carmack, Romero, and others created the first of the Commander Keen games, a series that was published by Apogee Software, under the shareware distribution model, from 1991 onwards. Afterwards, Carmack left Softdisk to co-found id Software.
Carmack has pioneered or popularized the use of many techniques in computer graphics, including "adaptive tile refresh" for Commander Keen, ray casting for Hovertank 3D, Catacomb 3-D, and Wolfenstein 3D, binary space partitioning which Doom became the first game to use, surface caching which he invented for Quake, Carmack's Reverse (formally known as z-fail stencil shadows) which he devised for Doom 3, and MegaTexture technology, first used in Enemy Territory: Quake Wars. Quake 3 popularized the fast inverse square root algorithm.
Carmack's engines have also been licensed for use in other influential first-person shooters such as Half-Life, Call of Duty and Medal of Honor. In 2007, when Carmack was on vacation with his wife, he ended up playing some games on his cellphone, and decided he was going to make a "good" mobile game.
On August 7, 2013, Carmack joined Oculus VR as their CTO. On November 22, 2013, he resigned from id Software to work full-time at Oculus VR. Carmack's reason for leaving was that id's parent company ZeniMax Media did not want to support Oculus Rift. Carmack's role at both companies later became central to a ZeniMax lawsuit against Oculus' parent company, Facebook, claiming that Oculus stole ZeniMax's virtual reality intellectual property. The trial jury absolved Carmack of liability, though Oculus and other corporate officers were held liable for trademark, copyright, and contract violations.
In February 2017, Carmack sued ZeniMax, claiming the company had refused to pay him the remaining $22.5 million owed to him from their purchase of id Software. In October 2018, Carmack stated that he and ZeniMax had reached an agreement and that "Zenimax has fully satisfied their obligations to me", ending the suit.
On November 13, 2019, Carmack stepped down from the Oculus CTO role to become a "Consulting CTO" in order to allocate more time to his work on artificial general intelligence (AGI). On August 19, 2022, Carmack announced that he has raised $20M for Keen Technologies, his new AGI company.
Around 2000, Carmack became interested in rocketry, a hobby of his youth. Reviewing how much money he was spending on customizing Ferraris, he began by giving financial support to a few local amateur engineers. Carmack funded the company, called Armadillo Aerospace, out of his own pocket, for "something north of a million dollars a year." The company of hobbyists made steady progress toward their goals of suborbital space flight and eventual orbital vehicles. In October 2008, Armadillo Aerospace competed in a NASA contest known as the Lunar Lander Challenge, winning first place in the Level 1 competition along with $350,000. In September 2009, they completed Level 2 and were awarded $500,000. The company went into "hibernation mode" in 2013.
Carmack is an advocate of open-source software, and has repeatedly voiced his opposition to software patents, equating them to robbery. He has also contributed to open-source projects, such as starting the initial port of the X Window System to Mac OS X Server and working to improve the OpenGL drivers for Linux through the Utah GLX project.
Carmack released the source code for Wolfenstein 3D in 1995 and the Doom source code in 1997. When the source code to Quake was leaked and circulated among the Quake community underground in 1996, a programmer unaffiliated with id Software used it to port Quake to Linux, and subsequently sent the patches to Carmack. Instead of pursuing legal action, id Software, at Carmack's behest, used the patches as the foundation for a company-sanctioned Linux port. id Software has since publicly released the source code to Quake, Quake 2, Quake 3 and lastly Doom 3 (and later the BFG Edition), all under the GNU General Public License (GPL). The Doom source code was also re-released under the GPL in 1999. The id Tech 4 engine, more commonly known as the "Doom 3 engine", has also been released as open-source license under the GPL. The source code for Hovertank 3D and Catacomb 3D (as well as Carmack's earlier Catacomb) was released in June 2014 by Flat Rock Software with Carmack's blessing.
On the other hand, Carmack has several times over the years voiced a skeptical opinion about Linux as a gaming platform; for instance in 2013 he argued for emulation as the "proper technical direction for gaming on Linux" and in 2014 he voiced the opinion that Linux might be the biggest problem for the success of the Steam Machine.
Carmack contributes to charities and gaming communities. Some of the recipients of Carmack's charitable contributions include his former high school, promoters of open-source software, opponents of software patents, and game enthusiasts.
Carmack was so successful at id that by mid-1994 he had purchased two Ferraris: a 328 and a Ferrari Testarossa. In 1997, he gave away one of his Ferraris (a 328 model) as a prize to Dennis Fong, the winner of the Quake tournament "Red Annihilation".
He met his wife, Katherine Anna Kang, at the 1997 QuakeCon when she visited id's offices. As a bet, Kang challenged Carmack to sponsor the first All Female Quake Tournament if she was able to produce a significant number of participants. Carmack predicted a maximum of 25 participants, but there were 1,500. Carmack and Kang married on January 1, 2000, and planned a ceremony in Hawaii. Steve Jobs requested that they would postpone the ceremony so Carmack could attend the MacWorld Expo on January 5, 2000. Carmack declined and suggested making a video instead. Carmack and his wife had a son Ryan in 2004. Ryan made his first game Angry Face! when he was 9 years old. Their second child was born in November 2009. Carmack has a blog last updated in 2006 (previously a .plan), an active Twitter account, and also occasionally posts comments to Slashdot.
Carmack is divorced as of 2022.
As a game developer, Carmack differed from many of his contemporaries by avoiding commitment to a final release date for any game he was developing. Instead, when asked for a release date on a new game, Carmack would usually reply that the game would be released "when it's done". In 2019, as a guest on The Joe Rogan Experience, Carmack stated that his beliefs have changed over time: "I largely recant from that now." On Rage's 6-year development time he says: "I think we should have done whatever it would have taken to ship it 2 years earlier". Carmack also reflected on the internal development of Quake in this regard and described it as "traumatic" and says id Software could have split the game into two parts and shipped it earlier.
During his time at id Software, a medium pepperoni pizza would arrive for Carmack from Domino's Pizza almost every day, carried by the same delivery person for more than 15 years. Carmack had been such a regular customer that they continued to charge him 1995 prices.
On occasion he has commended the efforts of similarly focused programmers – first Ken Silverman, who wrote the Build engine for 3D Realms, and later with Tim Sweeney of Epic Games, who wrote the Unreal Engine.
|1996||Named among the most influential people in computer gaming of the year and of all time||#1 and #2 in GameSpot's lists.|
|1997||Named among the most influential people of all time||#7 in Computer Gaming World list, for game design.|
|1999||Named among the 50 most influential people in technology||#10 in Time's list.|
|March 2001||Award for community contribution for the Quake 3 engine||Used in 12 games. Bestowed at 2001 Game Developer's Conference Award Ceremony.|
|March 22, 2001||Inducted into Academy of Interactive Arts and Sciences' Hall of Fame||The fourth person to be inducted, an honor bestowed upon those who have made revolutionary and innovative achievements in the video and computer game industry.|
|2002||Named to the MIT Technology Review TR100||Included as one of the top 100 innovators in the world under the age of 35.|
|2003||One subject of book Masters of Doom||Masters of Doom is a chronicle of id Software and its founders.|
|2005||Name in film||The film Doom featured a character named Dr. Carmack, in recognition of Carmack who co-created the original game.|
|March 2006||Added to the Walk of Game||Walk of Game is an event that recognizes the developers and games with the most impact on the industry.|
|January 2007||Awarded 2 Emmy Awards||Carmack and id Software were awarded with two Emmy Awards. The first was Science, Engineering & Technology for Broadcast Television, which includes broadcast, cable and satellite distribution. The second was for Science, Engineering and Technology for Broadband and Personal Television, encompassing interactive television, gaming technology, and for the first time, the Internet, cell phones, private networks, and personal media players. id Software is the first independent game developer to be awarded an Emmy since the Academy began honoring technology innovation in 1948.|
|September 2007||Television appearance||Appeared on Discovery Channel Canada Daily Planet featuring his rocket designs along with the Armadillo Aerospace team.|
|2008||Honored||Carmack was honored at the 59th Annual Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards for Quake's pioneering role of user modifiability. He is the only game programmer ever honored twice by the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, having been given an Emmy Award in 2007 for his creation of the 3D technology that underlies modern shooter video games. Along with Don Daglow of Stormfront Studios and Mike Morhaime of Blizzard Entertainment, Carmack is one of only three game developers to accept awards at both the Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards and at the Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences Interactive Achievement Awards.|
|October 2008||Won X-Prize||Carmack's Armadillo Aerospace won the $350,000 Level One X-Prize Lunar Lander Challenge.|
|March 11, 2010||Lifetime Achievement Award||Was awarded the Game Developers Conference Lifetime Achievement award for his work.|
|March 7, 2016||BAFTA Fellowship Award||Honoured with the Academy's highest honour, the Fellowship for "work that has consistently been at the cutting edge of games and his technical expertise helping the future arrive that little bit faster".|
|May 3, 2017||Honorary Doctorate||Received a Doctor of Engineering Honoris Causa from the University of Missouri, Kansas City for "his work in cutting edge tech & comp sci".|
|Release date||Game||Developer||Publisher||Credited for|
|October 16, 2012||Doom 3 BFG Edition||id Software||Bethesda Softworks||Technical director, engine programmer, developer|
|October 4, 2011||Rage||id Software||Bethesda Softworks||Technical director, engine programmer, developer|
|September 28, 2007||Enemy Territory: Quake Wars||Splash Damage||Activision||Programming|
|May 1, 2006||Orcs & Elves||Fountainhead Entertainment||Electronic Arts||Producer/programmer/writer|
|October 18, 2005||Quake 4||Raven Software||Activision, Bethesda Softworks (republished 2012)||Technical director|
|September 13, 2005||Doom RPG||Fountainhead Entertainment||id Software||Producer/programmer|
|April 3, 2005||Doom 3: Resurrection of Evil||Nerve Software||Activision||Technical director|
|August 3, 2004||Doom 3||id Software||Activision||Technical director|
|November 19, 2001||Return to Castle Wolfenstein||id Software||Activision||Technical director|
|December 18, 2000||Quake III: Team Arena||id Software||Activision||Programming|
|December 2, 1999||Quake III Arena||id Software||Activision||Programming|
|November 30, 1997||Quake II||id Software||Activision||Programming|
|March 31, 1997||Doom 64||Midway Games||Midway Games||Programming|
|June 22, 1996||Quake||id Software||GT Interactive||Programming|
|May 31, 1996||Final Doom||id Software||GT Interactive||Programming|
|October 30, 1995||Hexen: Beyond Heretic||Raven Software||id Software||3D engine|
|December 23, 1994||Heretic||Raven Software||id Software||Engine programmer|
|September 30, 1994||Doom II: Hell on Earth||id Software||GT Interactive||Programming|
|December 10, 1993||Doom||id Software||id Software||Programming|
|1993||Shadowcaster||Raven Software||Origin Systems||3D engine|
|September 18, 1992||Spear of Destiny||id Software||FormGen||Software engineer|
|May 5, 1992||Wolfenstein 3D||id Software||Apogee Software||Programming|
|1991||Catacomb 3-D||id Software||Softdisk||Programming|
|1991||Commander Keen in Aliens Ate My Babysitter!||id Software||FormGen||Programming|
|December 15, 1991||Commander Keen in Goodbye, Galaxy!||id Software||Apogee Software||Programming|
|1991||Commander Keen in Keen Dreams||id Software||Softdisk||Programming|
|1991||Shadow Knights||id Software||Softdisk||Design/programming|
|1991||Rescue Rover 2||id Software||Softdisk||Programmer|
|1991||Rescue Rover||id Software||Softdisk||Programmer|
|1991||Hovertank 3D||id Software||Softdisk||Programming|
|1991||Dangerous Dave in the Haunted Mansion||id Software||Softdisk||Programming|
|1991||Dark Designs III: Retribution||Softdisk||Softdisk||Programmer/designer|
|December 14, 1990||Commander Keen in Invasion of the Vorticons||id Software||Apogee Software||Programming|
|1990||Slordax: The Unknown Enemy||Softdisk||Softdisk||Programming|
|1990||Dark Designs II: Closing the Gate||Softdisk||Softdisk||Programmer/designer|
|1990||Dark Designs: Grelminar's Staff||John Carmack||Softdisk||Developer|
|1990||Wraith: The Devil's Demise||John Carmack||Nite Owl Productions||Developer|
|1989||Shadowforge||John Carmack||Nite Owl Productions||Developer|
- Orndorff, Patrick (August 20, 2008). "Happy Birthday John Carmack!". Wired – via wired.com.
- McWhertor, Michael (November 22, 2013). "id Software founder John Carmack resigns". Polygon. Archived from the original on November 22, 2013.
- Lawler, Richard. "John Carmack takes a step back at Oculus to work on human-like AI". Engadget.com. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- Kushner 2003, pp. 20–22.
- "All the RAGE: John Carmack". Bethesda Softworks. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017.
- "John Carmack Answers". Slashdot. October 15, 1999. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Kushner 2003, p. 21.
- Jones, Steve (December 10, 2002). Encyclopedia of New Media: An Essential Reference to Communication and Technology Encyclopedia Of New Media. SAGE Publications. p. 53. ISBN 0-7619-2382-9.
University of Missouri–Kansas City john carmack.
- Kushner 2003, pp. 63–66.
- Kushner 2003, p. 74.
- Kushner 2003, p. 50.
- Kushner 2003, p. 142.
- Accardo, Sal 'Sluggo' (January 13, 2006). "GameSpy: Enemy Territory: Quake Wars - Page 1". GameSpy. Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- "Beyond3D - Origin of Quake3's Fast InvSqrt() - Part Two". www.beyond3d.com. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
- Kang, Anna (October 18, 2007). "Q&A: Fountainhead's Kang Talks Orcs & Elves DS, Wii Possibilities". Archived from the original on January 17, 2013.
- Snider, Mike (July 18, 2007). "Q&A with id Software's Kevin Cloud and Steve Nix". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008.
- Stuart, Keith (August 8, 2013). "Press Start: John Carmack joins Oculus Rift, Xbox One video recorder is for Gold members only, and more". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 30, 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Wilhelm, Alex. "Doom's John Carmack Leaves id Software To Focus On The Oculus Virtual Reality Headset".
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (February 5, 2014). "Why John Carmack quit id Software". Eurogamer. Gamer Network. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- Orland, Kyle (January 16, 2017). "Oculus accused of destroying evidence, Zuckerberg to testify in VR theft trial". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- Hern, Alex (May 2, 2014). "Facebook in row with games firm over Oculus Rift purchase". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 30, 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Thielman, Sam (January 17, 2017). "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg testifies in Oculus Rift lawsuit". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 30, 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Orland, Kyle (February 1, 2017). "Oculus, execs liable for $500 million in ZeniMax VR trial". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on February 1, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Manion, Wayne (March 10, 2017). "John Carmack sues ZeniMax for $22.5 million". Tech Report. Archived from the original on March 14, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Cooper, Daniel (October 12, 2018). "'Doom' co-creator John Carmack ends legal fight with ZeniMax". Engadget. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
- Carmack, John (August 19, 2022). "John Carmack on Twitter". Twitter.com. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
- Foust, Jeff (August 1, 2013). "Carmack: Armadillo Aerospace in "hibernation mode"". NewSpace Journal. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
- "NASA To Recognize Winner of Lunar Lander Challenge". NASA. December 1, 2008. Archived from the original on November 19, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Michaels, Patrick (September 14, 2009). "Rocket Men From Mesquite's Armadillo Aerospace Are in Line For $1 Million X Prize". Dallas Observer. Archived from the original on September 18, 2009. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- "International Space Fellowship". Spacefellowship.com. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "Lunar lander qualifies for prize - Cosmic Log". Cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com. Archived from the original on September 15, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "Are Video Game Patents Next?". Slashdot. June 1, 2005. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Larabel, Michael (March 5, 2018). "John Carmack Goes On Coding Retreat With OpenBSD". Phoronix. Archived from the original on July 7, 2018. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- "TTimo/doom3.gpl · GitHub". Github.com. Archived from the original on July 21, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Carmack, John. "Twitter / @ID_AA_Carmack: Thanks to Flat Rock..." Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
- Halfacree, Gareth (June 9, 2014). "Early id Software game engines open-sourced". Archived from the original on January 6, 2018. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
- "id on Linux: "disappointing" and "support nightmare" Archived April 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine from Slashdot (John Carmack, December 08, 2000)
- Chalk, Andy (February 6, 2013). "John Carmack Argues Against Native Linux Games". The Escapist. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
He reiterated his support for improving emulation as the "proper technical direction for gaming on Linux," noting that native ports don't do much that a good emulator wouldn't be able to handle.
- Plafke, James (October 21, 2013). "John Carmack thinks the Steam Machine's biggest problem is Linux". extremetech.com. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
Carmack specifically noted, Linux might be the Steam Machine's downfall
- Kerr, Chris (March 24, 2016). "id Software co-founder John Carmack to receive BAFTA Fellowship". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- Lombardi, Chris (July 1994). "To Hell and Back Again". Computer Gaming World. pp. 20–24.
- Davison, John (June 22, 2016). "How 'Quake' Changed Video Games Forever". Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- Kushner 2003, p. 281.
- John, Carmack. "Facebook". Facebook. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
- Saed, Sherif (August 18, 2014). "John Carmack's nine-year-old son made a game, go play it". VG247. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- "Relationship related post". Twitter. May 27, 2022. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
- "GameSpy: John Carmack: QuakeCon 2008 Keynote Highlights - Page 6". Pc.gamespy.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Joe Rogan (August 28, 2019). "John Carmack: What Went Wrong With "Rage"". The Joe Rogan Experience (Podcast). YouTube. Event occurs at 0:43. Archived from the original on November 17, 2021. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
- "DNF Dallas Business Journal Article, 2008, and stuff - Page 4 - 3D Realms Forums". Forums.3drealms.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "Page by Page Report Display (Page 5052 of 7433)". Federal Election Commission. Archived from the original on April 28, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- @ID_AA_Carmack (December 23, 2010). "@eastwood333 I don't believe in god, but I don't see any correlation between religiosity and human virtues. Merry Xmas everyone!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Having a reasonable grounding in statistics and probability and no belief in luck, fate, karma, or god(s), the only casino game that interests me is blackjack," he wrote in a .plan file." — John Carmack, David Kushner, as quoted in Masters of Doom: How two guys created an Empire and transformed pop culture (2003).
- BjjTribes (August 1, 2021). "John Carmack details his BJJ and Judo experience". BjjTribes. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
- Thomsen, Michael (June 2011). "The Deathmatch Daydreams of Tim Willits". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 248. pp. 23–24.
- "GameSpot - /features/15most/html/mi96_01.html". Archived from the original on May 14, 2010. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- "John Carmack". GameSpot. February 6, 2005. Archived from the original on February 6, 2005. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- CGW 159: The Most Influential People of All Time
- Time Digital 50 from Time
- "2002 Young Innovators Under 35". Technology Review. 2002. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
- "Walk Of Game". Walk Of Game. February 26, 2009. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "National Television Academy Announces Emmy Winning Achievements: Honors Bestowed at 58th Annual Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards" (PDF). Emmyonline.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- Contact Brian Ashcraft: Comment (January 8, 2008). "2008 Tech Emmy Winners". Kotaku.com. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "John Carmack & id Software take Two Emmy Awards! - VirtualChaos – Nadeem's blog". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
- "Armadillo Wins Lunar Lander Challenge Level 1, Crashes On 2". Gizmodo.com. October 27, 2008. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "2010 Game Developers Choice Awards to Honor John Carmack of id Software With... - SAN FRANCISCO, Feb. 22 /PRNewswire/". Prnewswire.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "John Carmack | BAFTA Fellowship in 2016". www.bafta.org. March 24, 2016. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- "They Have Touched Our Lives | UMKC Today". info.umkc.edu. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
- Kushner, David (2003). Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50524-5.