Temporal range: Oligocene to Present
John Dory, St Pierre or Peter's Fish, refers to fish of the genus Zeus, especially Zeus faber, of widespread distribution. It is an edible benthic coastal marine fish with a laterally compressed olive-yellow body which has a large dark spot, and long spines on the dorsal fin. The dark spot is used to flash an 'evil eye' if danger approaches. Its large eyes at the front of the head provide it with binocular vision and depth perception, which are important for predators. The John Dory’s eye spot on the side of its body also confuses prey, which are scooped up in its big mouth.
In New Zealand, Māori know it as kuparu, and on the East Coast of the North Island, they gave some to Captain James Cook on his first voyage to New Zealand in 1769. Several casks of them were pickled.
Various, often doubtful explanations are given of the origin of the name. It may be an arbitrary or jocular variation of dory (from French dorée, gilded), or an allusion to John Dory, the hero of an old ballad. Others suggest that "John" derives from the French jaune, yellow. The novel An Antarctic Mystery by Jules Verne gives another account, which has some popularity but is probably fanciful: "The legendary etymology of this piscatorial designation is Janitore, the 'door-keeper,' in allusion to St. Peter, who brought a fish said to be of that species, to Jesus at his command." Other known names for the John Dory are the "St. Pierre", or "Peter's Fish", perhaps explaining why dories were often referred to as "Peter Boats", Saint Peter being the patron saint of fishermen. A related legend says that the dark spot on the fish's flank is St. Peter's thumbprint.
The John Dory grows to a maximum size of 65 cm (2 ft) and 3 kg (7 lb) in weight. It has 10 long spines on its dorsal fin and 4 spines on its anal fin. It has microscopic, sharp scales that run around the body. The fish is an olive green color with a silvery white belly and has a dark spot on its side. Its eyes are near the top of its head. It has a flat, round body shape and is a poor swimmer.
Prey and predators
The John Dory catches prey by stalking it, then extending its jaw forward in a tube-like structure to suck the fish in with some water. The water then flows out through the gills; the pre-maxillary bone, the only tooth-bearing bone in this fish, is used to grind the food. The John Dory is primarily a piscivore; it eats a variety of fish, especially schooling fish such as sardines. Occasionally it eats squid and cuttlefish.
Their main predators are certain sharks, such as the dusky shark, and other large bony fish.
John Dory are coastal fish, found on the coasts of Africa, South East Asia, New Zealand, Australia, the coasts of Japan, and on the coasts of Europe. They live near the seabed, living in depths from 5 metres (15 ft) to 360 metres (1200 ft). They are normally solitary.
Reproduction and lifespan
When John Dories are 3 or 4 years of age, they are ready to reproduce. This happens around the end of winter. They are substrate scatterers, which means that they release sperm and eggs into the water to fertilize. Typical lifespan is about 12 years in the wild.
The cookery writer Eliza Acton observes in her 1845 book, Modern Cookery for Private Families, that John Dory "though of uninviting appearance, is considered by some persons as the most delicious fish that appears at table". She recommends simply baking it "very gently", avoiding drying it out in the oven.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Zeus faber|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Dory.|
- Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Retrieved 2007-12-25.
- NatureServe (2013). "Zeus faber". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- New Zealand Coastal Fish: John Dory.
- Bray, Dianne. "John Dory, Zeus faber". Fishes of Australia. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- see 1:Charlotte Mary Yonge, History of Christian names, Volume 1, pg. 359// 2: Abraham Smythe Palmer "Folk Etymology; Verbal Corruptions Or Words Perverted In Form Or Meaning pg. 196// 3.David Badham, Prose halieutics: or, Ancient and modern fish tattle/ 4: American Notes and Queries, Volume 3 pg. 129// and 5: Fraser's Magazine For Town And Country, January To June 1853
- The legend is noticed in Stéphan Reebs, Fish Behavior in the Aquarium and in the Wild (Cornell 1991:36); Reebs notes that the fish does not occur in the Sea of Galilee, where Peter fished.
- Acton, Eliza (1860) . Modern Cookery for Private Families. Longman, Green, Longman, & Roberts. p. 58.