John Edward Bruce
|John Edward Bruce|
February 22, 1856|
|Died||August 7, 1924
New York City
|Resting place||Oakland Cemetery in Yonkers|
|Pen name||Bruce Grit|
|Occupation||Journalist, historian, writer, orator, civil rights activist|
|Alma mater||Howard University|
|Spouse||Florence A. Bishop|
John Edward Bruce, also known as Bruce Grit or J. E. Bruce-Grit (February 22, 1856 – August 7, 1924), born a slave in Maryland, United States, became a journalist, historian, writer, orator, civil rights activist and Pan-African nationalist. He founded newspapers in Washington, DC and Norfolk, Virginia, as well as co-founding the Negro Society for Historical Research in New York.
Early life and education
Bruce was born in 1856 in Piscataway, Maryland, to enslaved parents Robert and Martha Allen (Clark) Bruce. When he was three years old, his father was sold to a slaveholder in Georgia and he and his mother fled to Washington, D.C. and later to Connecticut, where Bruce enrolled in an integrated school and received his first formal education. Traveling back to Washington later, he received a private education and attended Howard University for a time.
At the age of 18, Bruce was an assistant at the New York Times.
In Washington, DC, in 1879, Bruce established the Argus Weekly. It was a time of flourishing projects in the black community.
Next, Bruce founded the Sunday Item in 1880, and the Republican in 1882, both in Norfolk, Virginia. He served as the associate editor and business manager of the Baltimore, Maryland, Commonwealth in 1884.
Later that year, he returned to Washington, D.C. to establish the Grit. He earned income as a paid contributor to The Boston Transcript, The Albany Argus, Buffalo Express, Sunday Gazette, and Sunday Republic of Washington under his pen name of "Bruce Grit".
Bruce also became prominent on the lecture circuit, giving speeches that addressed lynching, the condition of southern blacks, and the weak American political system that failed to protect the rights of its black citizens. In 1890, he joined activist T. Thomas Fortune's Afro-American League, the first organized black civil rights group in the nation. He became the organization's new president in 1898 when it reformed as the Afro-American Council.
Bruce was a member of the literary bureau of the Republican National Committee in 1900.
By 1908, he had followed the Great Migration to New York. There, in 1908, he established the Yonkers, New York, Weekly Standard. Beginning in 1910, he served as American Correspondent for the African Times and Orient Review of London, England, edited by Dusé Mohamed Ali. In Yonkers, he also worked as a probation officer in 1910.
Position on armed self-defense
During the American Reconstruction era and after, many black leaders espoused non-violent strategies for social change. Appalled at the rise of lynchings and imposition of legal segregation, Bruce supported armed self-defense against racist attacks. He is quoted as saying: "The Man who will not fight for the protection of his wife and children...is a coward and deserves to be ill treated. The man who takes his life in his hand and stands up for what he knows to be right will always command the respect of his enemy." He supported "organized resistance to organized resistance."
In Harlem and Yonkers, Bruce became involved with the emerging community of intellectuals, including newly arrived immigrants from the Caribbean. In 1911, with Arthur Schomburg from Puerto Rico, he founded the Negro Society for Historical Research, first based in Yonkers, to create an institute to support scholarly efforts. For the first time it brought together African, West Indian and Afro-American scholars. This later became the foundation for the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library, in Harlem.
Bruce's belief in an independent national destiny for blacks in the United States led him in the period around 1919 to embrace Jamaican Marcus Garvey's Pan-African nationalism. As a member of Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), Bruce wrote for the movement's Negro World and the Daily Negro Times.
Despite his productivity, Bruce found that to sustain himself he had for most of his adult life to work for the Port of New York Authority. After he retired in 1922, he received a small pension until his death in New York City's Bellevue Hospital two years later.
Bruce was given an impressive state funeral at the UNIA Liberty Hall in New York City on August 10, 1924, and was buried in Oakland Cemetery in Yonkers. More than 5,000 people attended three services conducted that day honoring him.
Marriage and family
He married Florence A. Bishop of Cleveland, Ohio, on September 10, 1885, in Washington, DC.
- Speech "The Application of Force," Washington, D.C., 1889, republished in The Selected Writings of John Edward Bruce, pp. 32 et seq.
- Crowder, Ralph L. (2004). John Edward Bruce: Politician, Journalist, and Self-Trained Historian of the African Diaspora. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1518-4.
- Bruce Grit: The Black Nationalist Writings of John Edward Bruce, Seraile, William (2002) ISBN 1-57233-210-7
- Concentration of Energy: Bruce Uses Plain Language in Emphasizing the Power of Organization, 1899
- Eminent Negroes, 1910 (children's book)
- The Blood Red Record (a history of lynching in the South), 1905
- The Blot of the Scutcheon
- The Nation, the Law, the Citizen: Their Relation Each to the Other;
- The Awakening of Hezekiah Jones: A Story Dealing With Some Of The Problems Affecting The Political Rewards Due The Negro, 1916. ISBN 0-548-59036-2; ISBN 978-0-548-59036-2. Full Text.
- No Heaven for the Black Man
- The Black Sleuth, 2002 (first published in serial form in 1907–09)
- Prince Hall, the Pioneer of Negro Masonry. Proofs of the Legitimacy of Prince Hall Masonry. New York: Hunt Printing Company, 1921.
- The Selected Writings of John Edward Bruce: Militant Black Journalist, Gilbert, Peter (ed.), 1971.