John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

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John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Johann Hulsmann - Joh Friedrich Herzog von Braunschweig-Luneberg-Kalenburg - 1675.jpg
John Frederick, c. 1675, by Johann Hulsman
Spouse(s) Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate
Noble family House of Hanover
Father George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Mother Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt
Born (1625-04-25)25 April 1625
Herzberg am Harz
Died 18 December 1679(1679-12-18) (aged 54)

John Frederick (German: Johann Friedrich; 25 April 1625, Herzberg am Harz – 18 December 1679, Augsburg) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, from 1665 until his death.

The third son of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, John converted to the Roman Catholic Church as the only member of his family in 1651. He received Calenberg when his elder brother George William inherited the Principality of Lüneburg. In 1666, he had a palace built in Herrenhausen near Hanover that was inspired by the Palace of Versailles and is famous for its gardens, the Herrenhausen Gardens.

In 1676, John Frederick employed Leibniz as Privy Councillor and librarian of the important ducal library. Thus began Leibniz's 40-year association with the House of Hanover, which resulted in three generations of Hanovers being patrons to the most brilliant man in Europe.

He employed the Venetian architect Girolamo Sartorio as his master builder in 1667, who designed many buildings in the town including the Neustädter Kirche and was instrumental in the expansion of the Herrenhausen Gardens.


His middle daughter, Charlotte Felicitas
John Frederick, ca. 1670, after Jean Michelin

John Frederick married Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate (14 March 1652 – 12 August 1730), daughter of Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern and Anna Gonzaga, on 30 November 1668. They had four daughters:



John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 25 April 1625 Died: 18 December 1679
German nobility
Preceded by
George William
Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Prince of Calenberg

Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus